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漯河市镭射去痘印价格飞度技术知道健康焦作市妇幼保健院 做祛眼袋手术多少钱

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河南附属医院激光祛太田痣多少钱郑州/金水区开韩式双眼皮多少钱郑州/背部脱毛 Americas hospital industry美国医疗行业Taking a scalpel to costs对医疗费用动动刀Hospital operators brace themselves for health-care reform医院负责人正为医保制度改革做准备EARLIER this month Americas hospital bosses gathered in Washington, DC, with vice-president Joseph Biden.本月早些时候,美国医院的领导者们和副总统Joseph Biden齐聚华盛顿。To the amazement of many, they vowed to accept a cut of 5 billion in their expected revenues over the next decade as part of a grand bargain on health-care reform.令人感到惊奇的是,他们郑重同意在接下来的十年将预期收益削减1550亿美元,作为医疗保健改革已取得的巨大成效中的一部分。How can they justify giving away such a vast sum?他们为什么会同意放弃这么大一笔收益?There are several explanations, not all of them altruistic.对此有很多种解释,他们的动机也不全出于利他。Taken together, they show that the industrys leaders are bracing themselves for a period of upheaval.总之,他们已经显示出整个行业的领导人正积极应对未来行业的大变动。For hospitals, the positive thing about health-care reform is that it is going to be good for business.对医院来说,医保改革带来的好处是它对商业有利。It will be welcome news to an industry that is hardly in rude health.改革对于一个不太健康的行业来说总是好事。Despite two decades of consolidation, hospitals finances remain anaemic; over a quarter of them regularly post negative operating margins.诚然,医保行业走过了二十年的稳固期,但是医院的财经状况仍旧不景气,超过四分之一的医院存在周期性亏损。The recession is making things worse.而且现在的经济危机更是加剧了形势恶化。Moodys, a credit-rating agency, notes that many patients are putting off non-essential treatments.信贷评级机构Moodys注意到很多患者正在推迟一些非必须的治疗。So any reforms that promise a flood of new demand for health services should be welcome.因此任何可以使得医疗务的需求大幅增长的改革承诺都应该是大受欢迎的。Rich Umbdenstock, the head of the American Hospital Association and one of the bosses who shared the stage with Mr Biden,作为美国医院协会会长的Rich Umbdenstock和与副总统Biden先生见面会谈的领导人之一,acknowledges that extending health insurance to most of Americas nearly 50m uninsured will benefit his industry in the long term.承认从长远看来,为没有享受医保的五千万美国人提供保险将会使整个行业受益。Those unfortunates still turn up at emergency rooms and often do not pay their bills.这些没有医保的人们经常出现在急诊室里而且无力付医药单。The government gives hospitals some money to compensate them for this, but the AHA says it does not cover the full cost,对此,政府会给医院发放一定数额的资金以作弥补,但是美国医院协会表示,这些金额不足以付资金缺口。which it put at billion in 2007, up from .9 billion in 1980.这些缺口已经从1980年的39亿上升到2007年的340亿,Paul Mango of McKinsey, a consultancy, estimates that the hospitals recover only 10-12% of this cost.大约占医院每年财政收入的5%。来自咨询公司麦肯锡公司的Paul Mango估计,医院大概只能收回这些资金的10-12%,But he says the problem would be greatly reduced under a system of universal health-insurance which included subsidies for the indigent, as the proposed health reforms envisage.但他也说,如果可以建立一个大部分人都享受医保并且贫困人口得到补助的体制,这些资金缺口就可以被大大减少,而这种体制正是当前的医疗改革尝试建立的。Herbert Pardes, chief executive of New York-Presbyterian, a research hospital, says the large numbers of underinsured patients, who frequently fail to pay their bills in full, cost hospitals still more.Herbert Parades是纽约一家研究型医院Presbyterian的总裁,他说,很多保额不足的病人不能全额付他们的医疗花费,这仍旧给医院带来越来越大的负担。The huge sums the hospitals stand to gain from reducing such losses make even 5 billion over ten years look like a reasonable amount of money to sacrifice to secure such a bonanza.如果医院在未来十年可以通过削减这种损失而获得1550亿的利润,那么这样的暂时性损失也是合理的。But there are less virtuous reasons why the hospitals offered such a generous-sounding deal.但是人们不知道医院愿意放弃这样一笔利润的背后仍有很多不太高尚的原因。As Mr Umbdenstock notes, it was less painful than the 5 billion or more in cuts that Barack Obama had been pressing for earlier in the year.正如Umbdenstock先生所说,相比奥巴马总统今年早些时候敦促的2250亿甚至更多的财政削减计划,现行的削方案就没有那么痛苦了。This is a tacit acknowledgment that hospital chiefs were seeking to avert the one thing that strikes fear into their hearts: the sp of price controls.医院负责人们早已心照不宣地承认,他们通过这样的变通,正在努力避免物价被控制,这正是会令他们惊恐不安的事情。Because of the creeping expansion of Medicare and Medicaid, the publicly funded health-care schemes for the elderly and the poor,在美国,为老年病人和残疾病人的国家医疗照顾体制正在慢慢向更多的公民扩展,the government aly pays over half the bills at the average American hospital.正因为如此,平均下来政府已经为每家医院付了超过半数的医疗费。But the political left is clamouring for a government-run insurance plan, to compete with private ones, as part of any reform effort.但是政治左派却在改革之中叫嚣一个政府操作的保险计划,以此来和私人运营计划相抗衡。The problem, argues Toby Cosgrove, chief executive of the Cleveland Clinic, a hospital group, is that the existing public schemes routinely underpay hospitals for care.Toby Gosgrove是,一个名为Cleveland Clinic的理疗团体总裁,他说,这样做的问题在于,现行的医保体制总是使得医院获得不足额的补助。Some economists question that claim.一些经济学家对此持怀疑态度。Even so, it is probably right to suggest,尽管如此,正如Cosgrove医生所建议的,as Dr Cosgrove does, that any public insurance plan based on Medicares pricing would squeeze hospitals hard and, as a result, require private insurers to cross-subsidise the bill.依照目前国家医疗照顾体制的集款方式所运营的任何公共保险计划都会使医院出现资金困难,结果仍旧需要投保个人来买单。In addition to a determination to head off any moves towards greater government control over prices,采取此项改革的一个重要原因是医院领导人们下定决心阻止政府对医药价格的进一步控制,another even less noble reason for offering the price cut was a desire to thwart a proposed change to the tax status of non-profit hospitals, which make up most of the national total of 5,700 or so.相比而言另一个不怎么高尚的原因则是领导者们试图通过减少削减开来抵制改变非营利性医院税收政策的提案,非营利性医院在全美有5700家之多。On the ground that they provide charitable care, many religious and community hospitals have been granted an exemption allowing them to issue tax-free bonds,由于很多宗教和社区医院提供慈善性的救助,他们都享有税收优惠的政策,可以发放免税券,免收财产和收入税收等等。avoid taxes on property and income, and so on. But investigations by the Internal Revenue Service and others have revealed that many in fact provide very little charitable care, while paying enormous salaries or going on acquisition sprees.但是美国国内收入署和其他一些机关的调查表明,有些医院提供很少的慈善性救助,他们所做的无非是领取高额工资,无节制地享受收益。On this proposal, the industry may carry the day.在这样的提案下,整个行业的反对可能会占上风。Although the tax break is hard to defend, closing the loophole would lead to many small, weak hospitals shutting down—something voters would be unlikely to tolerate.尽管人们很难为税务减免而辩护,结束这样的漏洞可能会导致很多小型医院的倒闭,这正是选民们不能容忍的事情。Even those hospitals that survived might spark a backlash.甚至那些得以幸存的医院也会引发人们强烈的反对。Dr Pardes argues that abolishing the tax advantages would mean higher running costs that would inevitably be passed through to those patients who have private insurance.Parades医生说废除税收优惠政策即意味着更高的运作成本,这无疑将给那些拥有个人医疗保险的病人施加经济负担。The other great fear of hospital bosses is being forced to accept greater competition.医院负责人们的另一个隐忧是被迫进入激烈的行业竞争。Although the industry is fragmented, Jon Scholl of the Boston Consulting Group points out that because pricing is done at city or regional level, there are local pockets of power.波士顿咨询集团的Jon Scholl指出,现在的医疗行业处于离破碎的状态,由于定价的过程是在某一城市或地区范围之内完成的,本地权利口袋影响定价的行为是存在的。Alain Enthoven, an economist at Stanford Universitys business school who helped inspire the managed health care movement of the 1990s, promoted an approach that succeeded in squeezing costs at the time,Alain Enthoven是来自斯坦福大学商学院的经济学家,他曾经在二十世纪90年代推动管理医保运动的开展。but ultimately failed as patients rebelled against the restrictions it placed on their choice of doctors and treatments.当时他推行的改革方案在削减成本方面颇有成效,但因为病患不满他们失去了选择医生和疗法的自由而抗议,这项改革以失败告终。Mr Enthoven argues that the consolidation that followed managed care has resulted in too little competition.Enthoven先生认为,改革失败后的相对稳固导致了今日几无竞争存在的行业格局。Antitrust action in the hospital field has been woefully weak, he says.他说:反垄断在医疗行业只是一句可悲的空话。There are some innovative competitors emerging to challenge hospitals.当然还是有一些富有创新精神愿意挑战垄断的竞争者出现。Paul Keckley of Deloitte, a consultancy, estimates that there are over 1,000 retail health clinics operating today at Wal-Mart stores,Deloitte咨询公司的Paul Keckley估计,在沃尔玛店铺,Walgreen药店还有其他的一些便利商店,总共有超过1000家药品零售诊所存在。Walgreens pharmacies and other convenient locations, and their numbers are expected to multiply in the next few years.在今后几年,这些零售诊所的数量有可能翻倍。Some of these cheap and cheerful outfits are staffed by nurse practitioners, which incenses doctors and hospital bosses.一些有医师资格的护士在这里工作,他们的工资水平比医师低很多,这让医生和医院负责人们很是恼怒。The nascent boom in medical tourism could also disrupt the hospital business,但医疗旅游近期的初步兴起还是困扰医疗行业的一个原因。even if every hip-replacement patient does not actually go to India to get it done.尽管不是每一个需要做髋关节置换手术的病人都选择去印度治疗,Mr Keckley points out that in several parts of the country the mere introduction of insurance plans offering cheap surgery abroad has forced local hospitals to respond by slashing their prices—something unheard of in this industry.Keckley先生指出,在美国的一些地方,出现了一些提供便宜海外手术的医疗保险计划,这就使得当地医院不得不采取减价策略,但事实上,减价在医疗行业是前所未闻的事情。Mr Enthoven argues that if reforms are done properly, they would force hospitals to get organised to compete and get more efficient.Enthoven先生说,如果改革可以成功实施,那么这将促使医院组织性更强的去参与行业竞争,而且将使整个行业提高效率。Alas, the omens are not good.但是,目前的预兆不太好。One of the explicit concessions wrung by the hospital bosses from the White House was a promise to crack down on clinics owned by doctors.医院负责人们与政府方面协商出的一个明确让步就是打击私人医生开设的诊所。These outfits are guilty of anti-competitive self-dealing, since the doctor has a financial motive to refer cases to his own firm,因为医生们出于经济动机可能会向自己的私人诊所推荐病例,这些小诊所违反了反竞争的自利交易原则,but what hospital bosses were really concerned about was that such clinics are competing hard with them, and siphoning off the most profitable patients.但事实上医院负责人们真正担心的问题是这些小诊所正与大医院激烈的竞争,大医院可能因此失掉那些可以让他们赚大钱的病例。As this back-room deal illustrates, the strongest motives behind the hospitals ostensibly generous price cut were self-serving ones: to reduce competition, not boost it,正如这个密室协议所明的,在医院表面慷慨削减开的背后,最真实的动机却是自我获利:and to head off any increase in government influence over their prices.非但不促进,反而减少竞争,并竭力避免任何可能出现的政府对价格的管制。As health-care reform forges ahead, reformers are desperate to find cost savings and the hospital industry is a juicy target.医保改革就在眼前,改革者们将会失望的发现医疗行业减少开的目标很难实现。So its bosses felt they had to cut a deal.所以行业负责人们觉得他们必须做笔交易。As Julius Hobson of Bryan Cave, a veteran health lobbyist, puts it: If youre not at the table, then youre on the .Julius Hobson,是Bryan Cave公司的一个老兵健康游说者,现在的情形正如他所说:如果你不愿意主动出击,那你就等着被人利用吧。 /201304/237221Like a science fiction time traveler, an arctic plant of the late Pleistocene age, over thirty one thousand years old, is growing again after a long frozen sleep.犹如科幻小说里的时间旅行者,一种曾存活在更新世晚期的极地植物经过31000多年的冰封沉睡之后,再次得以生长。Narrow leafed campion (Silene stenophylla) is a small plant whose modern relatives are found in eastern Russia and northern Japan.窄叶剪秋萝(柳叶蝇子草)是一种小型植物,它们的现代近亲生活在俄罗斯东部与日本北部。Its a perennial species that grows on stony cliffs or sandy shores. Once a year, it produces five-petalled flowers that range in color from white to pink to lilac.它是一种多年生植被,生长在石崖或砂质海滨。它每年开花一次,花朵有五片花瓣,花色有白色,粉色,还有丁香紫色。Russian scientists examining an ancient arctic squirrel burrow recovered ancient campion fruits from the sediments.俄罗斯科学家在北极科考一处古代松鼠的洞穴时,在其沉淀物中获得了剪秋萝的果实。Curious to see if the fruits seeds might germinate, they planted them. The seeds didnt grow, but the scientists werent discouraged.出于好奇,科学家们想知道果实中的种子是否可以发芽,因此他们种下了种子。They knew an ancient sacred lotus dating back twelve hundred years had been restored. Why not the campion? They decided to try growing a new plant from fruit tissue.科学家们获悉有一株1200年前的古代圣莲获得新生,那剪秋萝为什么不可以呢?他们决定通过果实组织成分培育一株新植物。It had been frozen all those years, so some cells might be viable.果实已被冷冻多年,因此有部分细胞应该得以存活。By bathing the fruit tissue in a culture solution with growth hormones, similar to a technique commonly used to start plants from cuttings,将果实组织浸泡在含生长激素的营养液中(这种培育方式类似于植物的扦插),the scientists were able to restart cell division and get several plants to grow.科学家们能够重建细胞分裂,从而让许多植物得以生长。The plants not only flourished, they produced flowers. The flowers went on to produce fruit and seeds that were viable and germinated into a second generation of plants.这些剪秋萝不仅枝叶茂盛,而且开花结果,种籽继续发芽繁殖出下一代。The ancient campion was given a second chance at life.古老的剪秋萝重获生命。As the earth warms and more and more arctic permafrost melts, larger numbers of ancient plants will be exposed, giving us a chance to bring plants of the ancient past back to life.随着全球变暖,更多的极地冰川融化,会有更多的古代植物重见天日,这也给予了我们重新培植这些植物的机会。And who knows, one day we might resurrect a mammoth to eat them.也许有一天,我们能够让猛犸象复生成为我们的美餐,谁知道呢? /201306/243010郑州省妇幼保健院开双眼皮多少钱

荥阳市去粉刺多少钱At first sight, manatees might look like seals or dolphins. But in fact, some of their closest relatives live on land. These toenails are the giveaway, remarkably similar to those of elephants. 乍一看,海牛可能看起来像是海报或是海豚。可事实上,他们的一些“近亲”却生活在陆地上。这些脚部化石给了我们线索,他们和大象很可能有“血缘关系”。13,000 years ago, two other members of the elephant family roamed this land. The manatees that swim in Floridas springs today are living relatives of ice age mammoths and mastodons. 13000年前,大象家族的两个分来到这片陆地。今天在佛罗利达温泉里游荡的海牛就是冰河时代猛犸象和乳齿象一个分的后裔。Some of the bones found in these springs are easy to identify, but scattering among them are some more obscure remains. What kind of animal could this belong to? These rosettes are bony scales or scutes, similar to those that cover some reptiles today. But this is only one piece of the jigsaw. Imagine what the creature would have looked like when all these pieces were fitted together. 一些在温泉中发现的动物骨骼很容易进行辨认,但是他们之中零散的一些话是却很难辨认。这些化石属于什么动物?这些莲座丛是骨鳞,和今天的一些爬行动物很相似。但是这是这些化石残留中唯一的一片。想象一下,当把这些残片拼凑到一起,将会是个什么样的生物?The scutes, around 2,000 of them, once formed the shell of a huge animal called the glyptodont. With its heavy weight exterior, the glyptodont looks like a reptile, like the alligator, which has been around for millions of years, long before the last ice age.雕齿兽这种大型动物的外壳上就曾经有着2000片左右的骨鳞。它的外表十分沉重,雕齿兽看起来像是一种爬行动物,就像存活了数百万年的短吻鳄一样,但是雕齿兽存于距冰河时代末期前很长的时间。英文文本来自普特英语,译文属未经许可不得转载.201307/249247郑州/第一人民医院激光祛斑手术多少钱 Books and Arts; Book Review;Political philosophy; Mightier than the sword;文艺;书评;政治哲学;雄文胜武;The collected thoughts on this, that and the other of two clever men;两位智者对于世间百态的思想汇聚;When writers are grand enough, they can produce books by recycling their journalism, lectures, academic papers and other jottings. Sometimes that can seem dated and lazy. Sometimes it is a treat: the assorted pieces come together to create a great mosaic. Neither “Facts are Subversive” by Timothy Garton Ash, an Oxford-based writer and academic, nor “Grays Anatomy” by John Gray, a political philosopher, fall into the first trap (or at least very rarely). They are both good s. But neither quite reaches the goal of the whole being more interesting than the parts.当作者之声名足够显赫时,他们只需将其新闻稿件、讲演录、学术论文以及其他只言片语回炉再加工一番,新书便告完成。有时,这种做法似乎是在偷工减料地翻炒冷饭;有时,它却为读者奉上一场新的盛宴:混杂的碎片化零为整,一幅伟大的镶嵌作品从中诞生。无论是由身处牛津的作家与学者——提西·加顿·阿什所著之《事实方具颠覆性》,还是政治哲学家约翰·格雷的作品——《格雷剖析录》,都未陷入前一种窘境(至少基本上如此),两者皆为优秀的读物;不过,它们也未完全实现令整体胜于部分的目标。Mr Garton Ash is incapable of writing a dull article. Unlike some famous-name writers, he is proud to be a reporter: whatever the subject, he digs diligently. He observes sharply and with a dry donnish wit that deserves greater play. A remarkable wordsmith, at his best he has an echo of one of his great heroes, George Orwell. The pieces range from his first stamping-grounds of Germany and central Europe to the bigger themes he took on later (such as Britains neurotic “dont know, dont trust, dont care” relationship with Europe) and to more exotic places, including Brazil, Iran and Myanmar.加顿·阿什不会撰写那些干涩无趣的文章,与某些知名作家不同,他为身为记者而自豪:无论面对何种主题,他都会勤奋挖掘素材。其一针见血,字里行间所透出之学究式的冷冷嘲讽,让人读来不禁有大材小用之叹。这位非凡的语言大师在其巅峰时期,甚至能在笔下中重现乔治·奥威尔当年的风采,而后者正是加顿·阿什心目中的伟大英雄人物之一。本书收录的零散作品,其范围从他最初频繁涉足的德国与中欧,延伸到他于日后挑战的更大主题(英国与欧洲之间神经质一般的“不知、不信、不顾”关系便为一例),并一直远达更富异域情调的地区,其中包括巴西、伊朗和缅甸。His aim is to chronicle the history of the “nameless decade”, the period that began with the terrorist attacks on America in September 2001 and ended with the election of Barack Obama last year. The subjects encompassed in that time include authoritarian governments, the challenge to liberalism raised by Islam and the corrosive combination of the Bush administrations bungled foreign policy and Europes unthinking anti-Americanism.加顿·阿什旨在为“无名年代”修史,这一时期始于2001年九月美国所受之恐怖袭击,止于去年巴拉克·奥巴马当选。其间所含的主题包括威权主义政府、伊斯兰教向自由主义发起的挑战,以及由布什政府的外交失策与欧洲轻率的反美思潮所构成之恶性结合。But Mr Garton Ashs silver nib wiggles past those constraints. The best essays in the book are timeless. One is a nuanced and convincing piece, both sympathetic and devastating, about Günter Grass, the German novelist, who revealed in his memoirs that he had briefly been in the Waffen SS. Did that taint Mr Grasss books, or his role in public life, or both or neither? Was it the wartime service that was shameful, or its concealment over decades? Mr Garton Ash brings the er sure-footedly through the thickets of Germanys post-war history and through the marshy ground of moral relativism. He points to the real scandal: that Mr Grass was himself so casually splenetic over so many years about other peoples shortcomings, while concealing his own.不过加顿·阿什的妙笔却如行云流水一般无拘无束,书中最佳的作品并不为时代背景所累。其中,关于德国小说家君特·格拉斯的一篇文章细致入微、令人信,字词间既存有恻隐,又不留情面;这位德国作家在其回忆录中透露,当年曾短暂效力于纳粹党卫军。这段历史是令其著作黯然失色?还是使他在公共生活中所扮演的角色沾上污点?或者说两者都未能幸免,抑或皆不受其影响?究竟是战时役一事令其蒙羞,还是日后数十年之隐瞒为人不齿?在加顿·阿什的带领下,读者们步履稳健地穿过了德国战后历史的迷宫,走出了道德相对主义的泥潭,真正的丑行被他指出:这么多年以来,格拉斯在给自己遮羞的同时,却对他人的短处如此随意地表现出义愤填膺之状。Another excellent piece touches on a comparable issue: the list of suspected communist sympathisers that Orwell supplied to the British authorities in 1949. Again, Mr Garton Ash is scrupulously fair, highlighting Orwells sincere (and justifiable) fear of communist infiltration, as well as his fumbling feelings for Celia Kirwan, the British official involved.另一篇杰作则涉及到一个与前例有可比性的话题:奥威尔于1949年向英国当局提交的那份共产主义疑似同情者的名单。加顿·阿什再一次地表现出了一丝不苟的公正态度,在文中强调了奥威尔对共产主义渗透行为的真切恐惧(这种恐惧也非杞人忧天),以及他对希莲·柯雯(涉及此事的英国官员)所抱有的为爱所醉之情。Some of the reworked articles are commendable journalism, but do not quite stand the test of time. Mr Garton Ashs observations from his trip to Iran in 2005 seem a bit whiskery now. It is nostalgic to about the fall of crony capitalism in Ukraine five years ago. But the er is left hankering to know what Mr Garton Ash thinks about the mess that has succeeded it. A fiercer editor might have left out such pieces, and pruned the authors occasional lapses into self-indulgence (using “proleptic” once is fine, twice is tiresome). That may not matter in individual newspaper columns. It jars when collected in a book.在经过重新修订的文章中,有一些是可圈可点的新闻稿件,不过它们并不能完全经受住时间的考验。加顿·阿什从其2005年伊朗之行中得出的观察结论在今天看来已有几分过时;他关于五年前权贵资本主义在乌克兰垮台的文章,如今读来确实令人怀念往昔;但读者们想了解加顿·阿什对于政权更迭之后的乱局有何见解的渴望却未得到满足。换做一位下手更狠的编辑,此类文章大概会被略去,而作者偶然的败笔也会被修剪成随性之举的模样(比如,“预期中”一词若只用一次颇为出,但再用一次便会令人审美疲劳)。对于个别的报纸专栏而言,出现这一问题可能无伤大雅;但汇集成书后,它便显得甚为刺眼。Mr Grays book is darker, grittier and more ambitious. Mr Garton Ash is happy to lambast the Wests specific shortcomings but Mr Gray sets out to unpick the shallow philosophical foundations of the whole edifice, in particular the modern myths about progress and perfectibility. He demolishes the theory that we have reached the “end of history”, the dogmas of secular liberalism, the weaknesses of financial casino capitalism and the limits of energy-intensive economic growth. Such targets deserve his scrutiny and Mr Grays criticisms are cogent. But he tends to overdo it. Again and again (and again) he attacks the people he calls “neoliberals” without pinning down whom (apart from Tony Blair) he is attacking. The er is left feeling a straw man has been dissected.格雷的著作则更富阴郁而强硬的气息,其创作野心也更为远大。加顿·阿什乐于抨击西方存在的具体缺陷,但格雷却着手拆解整个体系的浅薄哲学根基,尤其是关于进步和完美性的现代神话。在他的笔下,人类已达到“历史的终结”之理论,世俗自由主义的教义、金融资本主义(的种种缺陷)以及能源密集型经济增长(的极限)被一一推翻。由格雷对此类问题加以缜密研究,实非牛刀杀鸡之举,而其批判也颇为中肯;不过他却往往走得太远,一次一次(又一次)地,格雷对他所称的“新自由主义者”加以口诛笔伐,然而却几乎从不指明其具体的抨击对象(托尼·布莱尔是一个例外)。这让读者们不禁感到,格雷所剖开的只是一个稻草人而已。The finest pieces in Mr Grays book are satire. One is a Swiftian essay in favour of torture (which some serious-minded lefties took at face value). Even better is a devastating parody of the Marxist approach to linguistics, involving a (fictional) visit by Ludwig Wittgenstein to the Soviet Union, and his relationship with an (invented) Hungarian academic, L. Revai, who idealises the grunts of slave labourers as a proletarian Ursprache.此书中最好的作品当属讽刺文学。一篇持酷刑(某些一本正经的左翼人士便未能辨出其弦外之音)的斯威夫特式随笔可算在其中;而另一篇极佳的戏仿之作更令人叫绝,此文模仿了语言学的马克思主义研究模式,其情节包括路德维希·维特根斯坦对苏联的一次(虚构的)访问,以及他与(作者创造出的)匈牙利学者L·列瓦伊的交往,这位匈牙利学者将奴工的咕哝声理想化,将之提升至无产阶级原始语的高度。In Mr Grays most substantial essay, “An agenda for Green conservatism”, he attempts to rescue conservatism from the ideological excesses of the 1980s. This is a thought-provoking enterprise, deserving a book on its own. But if it became a book, the authors views on such things as the failings of professional monopolies in education and health would benefit from more statistics and fewer assertions—calling, perhaps, for investment in a researcher.而在其最有分量的文章“绿色保守主义之议程”中,格雷试图将保守主义从二十世纪八十年代的意识形态泛滥中拯救出来。这一尝试之举引人深思,话题本身甚至值得以专著加以探讨。但若果真成书,那么作者对诸如教育与健康领域职业垄断的失败等议题所持有的见解,便需从更多的统计数据中获益,而凭空断言在其中所起的作用则应减少——这可能需要在研究者方面的投入。As Mr Garton Ash rightly points out, it is facts, ultimately, that are subversive.正如加顿·阿什恰如其分之言:最终,具有颠覆性的其实还是事实。 /201304/235288巩义市隆下巴多少钱

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