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明星资讯腾讯娱乐2018年07月18日 22:13:49
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Chocolate could provide the key to tackling a persistent cough, researchers claim.They are carryingout the final stages of clinical trials on a drug that contains theobromine, an ingredient naturallypresent in cocoa and chocolate.If the trials are successful, the drug could be on the market withintwo years. 国际在线教育消息:研究者们通过实验发现,巧克力或成为医治久咳不止的一剂药方。他们研制了一种含有可可碱的成分的药物,而可可和巧克力中便富含可可碱,这项药物已经入了最后的临床实验阶段,若实验成功,药物有望于两年之内投放市场。   More than seven million Britons suffer from a persistent cough, defined as one that lasts for morethan two weeks.Some have asthma-like symptoms while others suffer from heartburn. But most widely available cough products soothe the symptoms rather than deal with the cause, and havebeen criticised for side effects such as drowsiness.There are safety concerns about side effects from other products that are codeine-based, which use a chemical called an opioid. 全英大概有超过七百万的人口正经受久咳的折磨,咳嗽可能会持续一到两个礼拜,有的会伴随着哮喘的症状,另外一些则会出现胃灼热的情况。而大多数治疗咳嗽的药物仅仅是缓解了表面的症状,而不是根除致病源头,而同时还会带来的诸如嗜睡的副作用也备受批评。而其他镇痛止咳剂中含有可待因(鸦片的主要成分),由此引发副作用也使人们对于它的安全性产生了怀疑。   Previous research by London’s National Heart and Lung Institute found that theobromine is 33 per centmore effective than codeine at stopping coughing. It works directly on the vagus nerve, which isresponsible for persistent coughing.Research in South Korea has shown that theobromine has none of the side effects associated withstandard drug treatments for persistent cough.   英国的科学家发现,可可碱的止咳功效要比可待因高出近三成,它直接作用于迷走神经,而这便是导致久咳不止的根源所在。韩国医学学者在试验中也发现,可可碱完全不会造成普通止咳药所引发的副作用。 /201012/121538A new guest arrived just in time for Thanksgiving dinner, but apparently didn#39;t survive the festivities. 一个新客人及时赶赴感恩节晚餐,但显然没在节日活动中活下来。 The visitor, a pristine comet called ISON that left its home at least a million years ago, made its closest approach to the sun Thursday afternoon. 这位访客是一颗名叫伊森(ISON)的原始彗星,自走出家门已至少有100万年,它于美东时间周四下午飞抵近日点。 But based on images arriving from various spacecraft, the consensus among scientists appeared to be that ISON, like the mythical Icarus, didn#39;t survive its close encounter with the sun. 然而根据多个航天器发回的照片,科学家似乎一致认为,伊森同神话人物伊卡洛斯(Icarus)一般,已在与太阳的近距离接触中“死去”。 The comet#39;s sweep near the sun was a moment that thousands of astronomers around the world had anxiously awaited, and before hopes dimmed about its survival, ISON was predicted to possibly loop around the star and emerge as a bright object visible to the naked eye in the skies of the Northern Hemisphere. 此前,全世界上千位天文学家翘首期盼着彗星扫过太阳的那一刻,并且在其“生还”希望变得渺茫前,科学家曾预测伊森或将环绕太阳并在北半球上空散发出肉眼可见的明亮光芒。 However, scientists now suspect it fragmented into countless pieces-never to be seen again. 而现在科学家怀疑它已破碎成无数个碎片,再也无法见到。 Before the close approach, observations #39;showed that the comet had brightened and then lost brightness. So there#39;s a lot of conjecture that it might be fading,#39; said Padma Yanamandra-Fisher, a planetary scientist at the Space Science Institute in Boulder, Colo., before the comet made its close pass with the sun. 科罗拉多州尔德太空科学研究所(Space Science Institute)的行星科学家费希尔(Padma Yanamandra-Fisher)在彗星接近太阳之前说,观察显示,这颗彗星在靠近太阳前曾一度变亮又失去了亮度。因而许多人猜测它或许正在消亡。 Since it was spotted more than a year ago, ISON#39;s behavior has constantly surprised astronomers, and they had held out hope that the comet could still put on a pretty display. On Monday, for example, it looked like it wouldn#39;t survive. Yet it was still there on Tuesday. 自一年多前被发现以来,伊森的运行状态就不断地令天文学家感到惊讶,而他们一直期望这颗彗星仍能展现出美丽的奇观。比如周一这颗彗星看起来似乎将解体,然而周二它依然存在着。 In addition to being a cosmic tease, ISON was one of the most tracked comets in history. 除了是个天体淘气鬼,伊森还成为了有史以来追踪者最多的彗星之一。 Thousands of telescopes-amateur, professional and space-borne-were being trained on this relatively tiny clump of ancient rock and ice no more than three or four miles in diameter. 上千台业余、专业和太空望远镜都被瞄准这颗原始彗星。该彗星体型较小,由石块和冰组成,直径不超过五、六公里。 The comet was discovered in September 2012 by Russian astronomers Vitali Nevski and Artyom Novichonok using data from the International Scientific Optical Network, whose initials provided the name. 2012年9月,俄罗斯天文学家涅夫斯基(Vitali Nevski)和诺维切诺克(Artyom Novichonok)利用国际科学光学观测网(International Scientific Optical Network, ISON)的数据发现了这颗彗星,并以观测网的英文缩写命名了这颗彗星。 Nothing like ISON has been seen in living memory. It is a relatively rare #39;sungrazer,#39; a comet that flies especially close to our sun. 现世从未见过像伊森这样的彗星。它是一颗罕见的掠日彗星,其飞行轨道与太阳极其贴近。 Unlike periodic comets that come and go like the famous Halley#39;s, ISON is pristine and was making its first journey toward the sun. Its composition-mainly rock and ice-has barely changed since it formed some 4.5 billion years ago, making it one of the oldest objects in the solar system. 不同于像著名的哈雷彗星(Halley)这样的频繁来往的周期彗星,伊森是一颗原始彗星,而这是它第一次飞向太阳,其组成(主要为岩石和冰)自约450万年前彗星形成以来几乎没有变化,这使得它成为太阳系里最古老的天体之一。 That had scientists intrigued, because ISON#39;s proximity to the sun, and the chance to study what it is made of, could provide valuable clues about origins of the solar system. 令科学家感兴趣的原因不仅是伊森离太阳之近,还因其成份研究能够为太阳系起源提供有价值的线索。 When a new comet flies close to the sun, the tremendous heat can help reveal rarer materials, such as metals, of which it is made. 当一颗新的彗星飞近太阳时,极大的热量会将构成这颗彗星的稀有材质暴露出来,例如金属。 #39;It#39;s the first time in 200 years that we#39;ve seen a comet that#39;s both a sungrazer and brand new,#39; said Matthew Knight from the Lowell Observatory in Arizona. 亚利桑那州洛厄尔天文台(Lowell Observatory)的奈特(Matthew Knight)说,这是200年来我们所看到的第一颗崭新的掠日彗星。 If ISON had survived, scientists predicted it would have been poised to put on a display in the first week of December, at least for Northern Hemisphere viewers. 如果伊森没有解体,科学家预测它将会在12月的第一周展现光芒,至少北半球的人们将能看到它。 #39;It would have a very long and bright tail as it comes up from the horizon shortly before sunrise,#39; said Dr. Knight, before Thursday#39;s fatal close encounter. 奈特在周四彗星“致命”的近日之旅前说,它将在接近日出时从地平线升起,并拖着一条很长很明亮的彗尾。 #39;If you go out 30 minutes before [sunrise], you should be able to see it with the naked eye.#39; 他说,如果你在(日出)30分钟前来到户外,你应该就能用肉眼看到它。 But that was only if ISON had survived Thursday#39;s flyby. 不过前提是伊森能在周四飞过太阳时“存活”下来。 /201312/266994

Leave it to Larry Ellison to appoint two successors.The founder of software giant Oracle is known for a lifestyle that seems to abide by the more-is-more mantra. With an estimated personal wealth of billion, Ellison has built a sprawling Japanese-style home in Silicon Valley, purchased enviable property in Malibu, sponsored last year’s America’s Cup champion, and two years ago bought an entire Hawaiian island.His succession announcement on Thursday appears to be yet another case of excess.Ellison appointed not one but two people to fill his shoes. Co-presidents Mark Hurd, the former Hewlett-Packard CEO who joined Oracle in 2010, and the company’s longtime chief financial officer Safra Catz got the nod to split the role held by the 70-year-old tech mastermind.Oracle will become the fourth Fortune 500 to have two CEOs, joining a group that currently includes American Financial Group, KKR, and Whole Foods. In the last 25 years, only 21 companies in the Fortune 500 have used the co-CEO structure. (There are, of course, companies with smaller revenue that have adopted the dual-CEO approach.) Oracle—No. 82 on this year’s list—will be the 22nd.The dual-leader setup is rare for a reason.It “causes conflict,” results in “negative performance by teams,” and gives the two leaders “hostile mindsets,” according to Lindred Greer, an assistant professor of organizational behavior at Stanford Graduate School of Business.Oh, is that all?“When you have power, it becomes how you see yourself. And once you have that position, you’re sensitive to threats that might jeopardize it,” says Greer, whose research focuses on team power struggles. One such potential threat? A co-CEO, with the same title and responsibilities.Not all of these arrangements have been total nightmares, but it’s safe to say that many of them have, at the very least, flirted with complete disaster.When Martha Stewart Living Omnimedia introduced a co-CEO structure in July 2008 with Wenda Millard and Robin Marino, its chairman Charles Koppelman explained the strategy by saying, “One plus one equals three.” Less than a year later, the “one-plus-one” strategy turned out to be a loser. Millard left after the company lost .7 million in 2008. “There was tension,” Koppelman said after Millard’s departure.Sandy Weill and John Reed, co-CEOs at Citigroup from 1998 to 2000, clashed, says Lawrence Hrebiniak, professor emeritus of management at Wharton, since they were both “strong people with strong views” when it came to determining the company’s direction. “In that case, the duality didn’t really do them very good.”At SAP, Jim Snabe and Bill McDermott ran the company jointly for three-and-a-half years when it spent more than billion on acquisitions and saw the company’s stock price increase by 70%. The company also lost ground to cloud specialist Salesforce.com during that same timeframe. Snabe ceded power to his counterpart in 2013, citing the need to “begin the next phase of my career, closer to my family.”Chipotle is run by two executives, Steve Ells and Monty Moran, and it’s been one of the few stars of the restaurant world of late. But its leadership—specifically the cost of operating under two CEOs—drew scrutiny in May when 77% of shareholders voted against its executive pay plan.Publicis and Omnicom pulled the plug on a merger that would have created the world’s largest advertising company in large part because of a clash of CEO egos.And then there are other times, when co-CEOs operate relatively seamlessly.Cousins Henry Kravis and George Roberts—two of the three founders of KKR—have overseen the best-known corporate buy-out company side-by-side for decades.For the last four years, CEOs John Mackey and Walter Robb have run Whole Foods. Mackey co-founded Whole Foods in 1980 and Robb joined in 1991, a year before the company went public. Robb was named co-CEO alongside Mackey in 2010. Since then, Whole Foods has continued its rapid-fire expansion and seen its stock price increase from .73 per share to now, (though that’s down from a high of .13 last year.)Under co-CEOs, start-up Birchbox, which sells monthly subscriptions to beauty samples, and eyewear company Warby Parker have raised .9 million and 5.5 million, respectively.The common th in these successful examples is that one—if not both—CEOs founded the company. “Generally, when multiple people are involved, they must have complementary skills or assets, they must be willing to work together, recognize the other’s expertise in areas, and give in to the other based on that expertise,” Hrebiniak says. People who built a business from the bottom up can tick more of those boxes than two individuals who are thrown into a shared leadership role without an existing side-by-side relationship.Based on her research, Greer says that power struggles can be defused when co-leaders are as equal as they can be in terms of status and privilege, down to their salary and office size.Catz and Hurd are certainly well compensated—both earned a base salary of 0,000 and racked in total compensation of about million in 2013. And, to Hrebiniak’s point, though the two new CEOs don’t have a founders’ connection, they’ve managed to balance each other out for the past four years, carving out opposite but correlative niches. Catz focuses on internal finance, legal, and manufacturing matters, while Hurd handle outside affairs, like sales and service.The wild card in this arrangement is Ellison, who has opted to take on a role as chief technology officer at Oracle. Fortune’s Adam Lashinksyargues that Thursday’s management shuffle was largely for show. “The most shocking thing about Thursday’s bombshell announcement that Larry Ellison is stepping down as CEO of Oracle is how little will change,” he wrote.Hrebiniak agrees. “Three people are running the show. What do we call that? A trilogy?” he says.Oracle better figure this all out soon. Having two CEOs is tough. The only thing that might be worse is having three.拉里·埃里森任命了两名接班人。从软件巨头甲骨文公司(Oracle)创始人拉里?埃里森平素的生活方式看,就知道他应该非常信奉“多多益善”这个准则。坐拥预计460亿美元个人资产的埃里森在硅谷建造了一座奢华的日式豪宅,在马里布也购买了令人艳羡的海景别墅,去年还赞助了美洲杯帆船赛,两年前还在夏威夷购买了一整座岛屿。上周四,埃里森的接班声明也表现出了另一种“多多益善”的意思。70岁的埃里森选择了两个人共同执掌甲骨文的CEO权杖,其中一个是2010年加盟甲骨文的前惠普公司(Hewlett-Packard)CEO马克?赫德,另一个是在甲骨文任首席财务官多年的萨弗拉?卡茨。甲骨文将成为目前第四家同时拥有两名CEO的财富500强企业,另外三家分别是美国金融集团(American Financial Group)、KKR和全食公司(Whole Foods)。另外,在过去25年里,只有21家公司曾经使用过联席CEO的组织架构。(当然,也有很多规模稍小的公司使用这种模式。)作为今年财富500强榜单上的第82位,甲骨文也将成为史上第22家由两人共同掌权的财富500强企业。联席CEO的例子之所以罕见,是有其原因的。斯坦福商学院(Stanford Graduate School of Business)组织行为学助理教授林德莱德?格里尔指出,联席CEO结构会“引起冲突,导致团队的负面表现”,并且导致两名CEO互相产生“敌对心态”。那么,这就是全部原因吗?格里尔的研究主要集中在团队权力冲突领域。他表示:“当你拥有了权力,你看待自己的角度就发生了变化。一旦你坐上这个位子,你对可能危及自身权力的威胁就会非常敏感。”其中一个潜在威胁,就是和你享有同样头衔和职权的另一名CEO。并不是说所有的联席CEO架构都以噩梦告终,但我们可以大胆地说,至少许多采用这种管理架构的公司都招致彻头彻尾的灾难。比如,MSO公司在2008年7月调整了管理架构,由温达?米勒德和罗宾?马利诺两人共同担任CEO,当时该公司董事长查尔斯?考普曼曾这样解释这一战略:“一加一等于三。”结果还不到一年,“一加一”战略就宣告失败了。2008年,MSO公司宣告亏损1570万美元,米勒德随后出走。在米勒德离职后,考普曼也坦承“两名CEO关系紧张”。1998年到2000年,桑迪?威尔和约翰?里德曾在花旗集团(Citigroup)担任联席CEO,后来二人也是反目成仇。沃顿商学院(Wharton)管理学荣誉教授劳伦斯?贺比尼亚克表示,在决定公司发展方向的问题上,两位CEO都是“有着强硬观点的强势领导人,因此‘两驾马车’的领导架构对他们的效果并不好。”在SAP公司,吉姆?斯内布和比尔?麦克德莫特也曾共同治理这家公司三年半的时间。在此期间,SAP斥140亿美元巨资大举进行收购,同期SAP的股价也增长了70%之外。但也正是在同一时期,SAP开始在云计算专家Salesforce.com的面前丢城失地。2013年斯内布辞去CEO职务,完全将权力交给麦克德莫特,他本人称,自己需要“开始职业生涯的下一个阶段,多陪家人。”Chipotle目前由两位CEO史蒂夫?埃尔斯和蒙蒂?莫兰共同执掌。Chipotle也是餐饮界近年来冉冉升起的少数明星企业之一。但它的领导层也引起了一些批评,尤其是两位CEO的成本问题。今年五月,该公司77%的股东投票反对高管薪酬方案。广告巨头阳狮集团(Publicis)和宏盟集团(Omnicom)合并失败,使双方共建全球最大广告公司的雄心化作泡影,其中一个重要的原因就是两位CEO个性不合。不过,联席CEO合作愉快的例子还是有一些的。KKR公司三位创始人中的两人,亨利?克拉维斯和乔治?罗伯茨,是表兄弟,他们并肩执掌这家知名的企业收购公司已经几十年了。在过去4年,约翰?麦基和沃特?罗伯两人一直共同执掌全食公司。麦基于1980年参与创办了全食公司,而罗伯于1991年加入,次年全食公司正式上市。罗伯于2010年被任命为全食的联合CEO。从那时起,全食公司继续保持了火箭般的扩张速度,股价也从每股13.73美元升至现在的39美元(去年最高时曾一度达到63.13美元)。在联席CEO架构下,创业公司Birchbox(主要卖美容产品样品)和眼镜零售商Warby Parker公司分别成功融资7190万美元和1.155亿美元。在联席CEO架构实行得比较成功的公司中,有一点是不约而同的——那就是两名CEO中至少有一人是公司创始人。贺比尼亚克表示:“一般来说,如果涉及几个人,那么他们必须有互相补充的技能或资本,必须愿意互相共事,认识到对方在某些领域的特长,并且在这些领域要向对方让步。”与那些之前没有一起共事过就“空降”到联合CEO岗位上的人相比,企业创始人一般更能满足这几个条件。格里尔表示,根据她的研究显示,两位联席CEO之间在各方面越平等,越有助于消弥他们的权力斗争。这种平等大到地位和特权,小到薪水和办公室的大小。卡茨和赫德的薪水待遇显然是很不错的——两人的底薪都是95万美元,2013年,两人从公司领走的总薪酬都是4400万美元左右。在贺比尼亚克看来,虽然两位CEO都不是甲骨文的创始人,但他们在过去四年里一直维系着彼此的平衡,各自在相反但又相关的领域开拓。卡茨主要负责公司的内部财务、法务和生产事宜,而赫德主要负责销售和务等外部事宜。甲骨文此次安排的幕后推手正是埃里森本人,他决定“退而不休”,继续担任甲骨文首席技术官的角色。《财富》(Fortune)杂志的亚当?拉辛斯基认为,甲骨文的此次管理层洗牌很大程度上是作了一场秀。“上周四甲骨文传来拉里?埃里森卸任CEO的重磅消息,然而最令人震惊的事实却是,此次管理层的调整对甲骨文的影响其实非常小。”贺比尼亚克也认同这种观点:“这是一出三个人演的戏。我们应该怎样叫它?三部曲吗?”甲骨文最好早点找出解决方案来。有两个CEO就够麻烦了,更惶论有三个。

  Facebook#39;s billion purchase of WhatsApp is a reminder about the uncertain fate of another messaging application: BlackBerry#39;s BBM.Facebook Inc.以190亿美元收购WhatsApp,让人想起了另一款通讯应用悬而未决的命运:黑莓(BlackBerry Ltd.)的BBM。For years, BBM was one of the most popular instant-messaging tools in several countries, particularly in the developing world. In fast-growing countries like Indonesia and Nigeria, BBM dominated the messaging landscape. Pop stars wrote songs about it.多年来BBM在一些国家(尤其是发展中国家)一直是最受欢迎的即时通讯工具之一,在印度尼西亚、尼日利亚等快速增长的国家中称雄于通讯软件版图,甚至有流行歌手为其写歌谱曲。But other messaging apps have since overtaken BBM. WhatsApp, for instance, has 450 million monthly active users and is adding a million new users a day, according to the company. BBM has around 80 million monthly actives users, about half of whom don#39;t use the app on BlackBerry#39;s smartphones. (In 2012, there were 55 million monthly active BBM users on BlackBerry devices).但随后其他一些通讯应用取代了BBM的地位。据WhatsApp称,公司每月活跃用户达4.5亿,并且用户数还在以每天100万的速度增长。而BBM每月活跃用户约8,000万,其中约一半用户不在黑莓的智能手机上使用这款应用(2012年每月全球约有5,500万活跃用户在黑莓设备上使用BBM)。Still, even as BlackBerry#39;s core smartphone business was crumbling, BBM was considered a bright spot. This past summer, BlackBerry executives considered spinning off BBM into into its own company. Internally, executives referred to the unit as BBM Inc. The messaging app#39;s prospects routinely came up in news about possible BlackBerry buyers.尽管黑莓的智能手机核心业务处于困境,BBM却仍被视为该公司业务的一个亮点。黑莓高层曾在去年夏天考虑将BBM剥离为独立子公司,他们在公司内部将其称作BBM Inc.。每当有黑莓潜在买家的消息出现,这一通讯应用的前景也都会照例被提及。Now that WhatsApp has Facebook#39;s marketing might behind it, does BBM stand a chance?如今WhatsApp背后有着Facebook强大的营销实力,BBM还有翻身的希望吗?It#39;s unclear how BlackBerry plans to catch up to other messaging apps like WhatsApp, or whether it will take BBM in a different direction entirely.黑莓BBM打算如何追赶上WhatsApp这样的通讯应用?亦或它是否将朝着一个全然不同的方向发展?这些都不得而知。This fall, after years of internal deliberation and as it became clear that sales of its devices had collapsed, BlackBerry made BBM available to iPhone and Android users. That led to an early surge of downloads, but numbers have tapered off since. Adding to this uncertainty, BlackBerry#39;s executive in charge of BBM, Andrew Bocking, left earlier this month.经过数年的深思熟虑,伴随着设备销量大幅下滑成为明确问题,黑莓终于在去年秋天推出了iPhone版和安卓(Android)版的BBM应用。然而其下载量在经历了最初的大幅增长后便逐渐减少。本月早些时候,负责BBM业务的黑莓高管金(Andrew Bocking)离开了公司,给BBM的未来又添了一层不确定性。The man now in charge of BBM, John Sims, runs the company#39;s enterprise business. That might provide one possible road for BBM. John Chen, BlackBerry#39;s chief executive, has said he plans to make BBM a more enterprise-focused messaging tool, though he hasn#39;t provided any details about how he plans to do this.如今负责BBM业务的西姆斯(John Sims)管理着公司的企业业务,这或许为BBM铺开了另一条潜在发展道路。黑莓首席执行长程守宗(John Chen)曾表示他计划将BBM打造成为一个更侧重企业务的通讯工具,不过他并未给出其计划的具体内容。Whatever BBM#39;s future, investors think there#39;s an upside for BlackBerry. After the Facebook-WhatsApp deal was announced, shares of BlackBerry jumped as much as 8% in after hours trading.先不管BBM的未来如何,反正投资者是在看好黑莓。在Facebook宣布收购WhatsApp后,黑莓股价在盘后交易时段一度跃升8%。 /201402/276720

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  现在,我们身边的好多地方都有WiFi信号覆盖了。不过总能听到有人抱怨说信号不稳,或者网速太慢。好消息来啦!据说,研究人员已经研究出了更加便捷和快速的数据传输方式,你家的台灯就能帮你下电影呢!听起来是不是很酷?Imagine only needing to hover under a street lamp to get public internet access, or downloading a movie from the lamp on your desk. There#39;s a new technology on the block which could, quite literally as well as metaphorically, #39;throw light on#39; how to meet the ever-increasing demand for high-speed wireless connectivity. Radio waves are replaced by light waves in a new method of data transmission which is being called Li-Fi(Light Fidelity).想象一下这样的场景,在街灯下走两步就能连入公共区域因特网,通过桌上的台灯就能下载电影。现在,有这样一种新技术就可以解决上述这些高速无线网络连接的需求问题。这种新技术叫做Li-Fi(光保真)技术,是用光波取代无线电波传输数据的技术。As well as being a potential solution to our ever-increasing hunger for bandwidth, Li-Fi has other advantages over WiFi, such as being safe to use on an aircraft, in hospitals and medical devices, and even underwater, where WiFi doesn#39;t work at all. Research suggests that Li-Fi has the potential to be faster, safer and cheaper than conventional WiFi technology.除了能够解决带宽需求以外,Li-Fi相对于WiFi的优势还有:能够在飞机和医院等场合无障碍使用,甚至在WiFi不能到达的水下区域,Li-Fi也能大展拳脚。而且研究显示,Li-Fi会比传统的WiFi更快、更安全、更省钱。 /201205/182456

  ;IF Thomas Crapper were around today, he would find our toilets quite familiar,; says Bill Gates, referring to the Victorian manufacturer of sanitary ware whose name has become attached to one of the body#39;s most fundamental functions. ;They haven#39;t seen many advances apart from handles and paper toilet rolls.; In fact, with the exception of S-traps to contain odours, flush toilets have changed little since Sir John Harington installed one in Richmond Palace for Queen Elizabeth I.比尔盖茨提起卫生洁具制造商维多利亚时说道:;如果今天汤马斯·克拉普在这里,他一定会发现我们的马桶很熟悉。;一谈起维多利亚时代汤马斯·克拉普这个名字,就很容易联想到身体的最基本功能之一。比尔盖茨还谈到:;与汤马斯·克拉普时代相比,这些马桶除了在把手和厕纸卷筒上有所改进,其他并没有太多改进。;事实上,除了应用s形下水管存水弯存储臭气,抽水马桶自约翰·哈灵顿爵士为女王伊丽莎白一世在里士满宫安装了抽水马桶起几乎未发生改变。Mr Gates considers it time for a change. On August 14th his charitable institution, the Bill amp; Melinda Gates Foundation, announced the gold-, silver- and bronze-medal winners in its Reinvent The Toilet Challenge, which aims to bring safe, affordable and ;sustainable; loos to the 40% of the world#39;s population who lack access to basic sanitation, thus preventing many of the 1.5m childhood deaths from diarrhoea that now occur each year.盖茨先生认为现在是时候做一些改变了。8月14日,他的慈善机构--比尔与梅琳达.盖茨基金会宣布举行彻底改造马桶挑战的活动,并设立金牌、银牌、铜牌的奖项。该活动意在为世界40%缺乏基本卫生设备的人口提供安全、实惠、耐用的厕所。现今,每年因腹泻死亡的儿童人数为150万。而这样的举措能防止很多这样的孩子死亡。The Challenge is nothing if not ambitious. It seeks a toilet that costs less than five cents per user per day to operate, that requires neither a supply of clean water nor sewerage infrastructure to take the waste away, and that will generate energy and recover salts, water and other nutrients. Remarkably, despite the challenge being little more than a year old, the award winners claim to be on track to achieve all of these goals.这样的挑战是极其雄心勃勃的。它致力于建造一个每天每次不超过5分的厕所。这样的厕所不依靠清洁的水也不依靠排水设备来排污,在产生能量的同时还能提取盐分、水分和其他营养物质。更引人注目的是,这项挑战在一年内就完成了,而且奖项的获得者都如之前所定的那样达到了所有的目标。In third place is a toilet designed by researchers at the University of Toronto. This treats urine and faeces separately, using a material freely available in many of the world#39;s poorest regions: sand. Urine is filtered through sand, and the resulting liquor is exposed to ultraviolet light to sterilise it. Faeces are dried slowly within the toilet before being fed into a smouldering sand-filled reactor. The system can sanitise the waste of ten people in two hours, leaving only sand and fresh(ish) water behind.位列第三名的厕所设计者为多伦多大学的研究员们。该厕所将尿液和排泄物分开处理。所使用的材料即使很多最贫穷的地区也能大量的获得,这种材料就是沙子。尿液经过沙子过滤,所产生的液体再经过紫外线杀菌。排泄物则在厕所里慢慢的变干,填充进一个装满沙子的低温干馏反应器。这个系统能在两个小时内给十个人的排泄物进行卫生处理,最后只留下沙子和干净的水。The runner-up, from Loughborough University in Britain, brings chemical-engineering principles to bear. A tank feeds mixed urine and faeces through a rig that heats it to 200°C under high pressure, killing pathogens. Returning the superheated mixture suddenly to atmospheric pressure causes it to separate into its liquid and gaseous components. The gas is used to heat the feed tank. The liquid is fed into a digester that produces enough methane to power the entire system—and some to spare.亚军来自英国的拉夫堡大学,他们应用的是化学工程原理。尿液和排泄物都存储在一个容器中,在高压下利用一个仪器将它加热到200°C,这样就能杀死致病菌。将高温处理的混合物迅速置于大气压下,使之分离成液体和气态颗粒。气体用来加热最初的供给容器,而液体则加入蒸炼器中产生的沼气除了足够为整个系统供能外,还有剩余。The winning toilet, however, is smarter still. It has been developed by Michael Hoffman of the California Institute of Technology, and has earned him the 0,000 first prize. Dr Hoffman#39;s toilet uses solar panels to power an electrochemical system that produces two things. One is hydrogen. The other is a compound which oxidises the salts in urine to generate chlorine. This creates a mildly disinfecting solution that can be used to flush the toilet. The hydrogen is suitable for cooking or for powering a fuel cell to produce electricity. The solid residue from the process can be employed as fertiliser.冠军厕所也更为智能。它是由加州理工学院的迈克尔·霍夫曼开发的,并未它的开发者赚入了10万美元的一等奖奖金。霍夫曼士的厕所是由太阳能电池板为一个电化学系统供能的。这样一来会产生两种物质:一种是氢气,另一种是化合物能氧化尿液中的盐分,产生氯。它能产生一种温和的消毒液来冲洗厕所。而氢气则能够被用来烹饪或给燃料电池充电产生电能。而整个过程产生的固体残渣则可以用做化肥。The Gates Foundation will now pay for prototypes to be tested in the field, probably of all three winners and possibly of some other ideas, and Mr Gates hopes that the foundation#39;s reinvented toilets will start being deployed for real in as little as two years. They will thus be able to contribute to achieving what is the most off-track of the ed Nations#39; Millennium Development Goals, to halve by 2015 the proportion of people without sustainable access to basic sanitation. As the chairman of the UN Secretary-General#39;s Advisory Board on Water and Sanitation, the Prince of Orange, observes, ;politicians and leaders worldwide don#39;t like to be associated with toilets, even state-of-the-art toilets. This sanitation stigma distorts international and national development agendas.;现在,盖茨的基金会就会为这些技术雏形付以报酬来进行该领域的试验,这些技术雏形有可能是前三甲,也有可能是其他的设计。盖茨先生希望由基金会彻底改造的厕所会在两年内正式投产。他们也能因此为联合国千年发展目标做出最不寻常(最离经叛道?)的贡献,在2015年使不能持续享受基本卫生设备的人口减少一半。联合国秘书长顾问委员会水与卫生部主席奥伦治公评价道:;全世界的政治家和领导人并不愿意让自己和厕所联系在一起,即使是最先进的厕所。正是这样一种关于卫生的特性让国际和国家的发展计划都产生了扭曲。;Dr Hoffman agrees that sanitation is insufficiently sexy. He says the technology behind his winning solar-powered toilet had been sitting on the shelf since he demonstrated it to NASA, America#39;s space agency, in the early 1990s, for use on the International Space Station. ;It is,; as he puts it, ;hard to get a scientific grant for treating faeces.;霍夫曼士也认为卫生事业不是那么吸引人。他表示,他曾于1990年初将他的太阳能供能厕所向美国宇航局,美国国家航空和宇宙航行局进行展示以供他们在国际空间站中使用,但是这样的技术之后就被搁置了。他表示:;要在处理排泄物上得到科学基金是很难的。;Even the Gates Foundation itself, which hands out around billion each year, has so far devoted just .5m to its Reinventing The Toilet Challenge. But that will change as the project goes from conception to delivery. The foundation now intends to spend up to m a year on sanitation, an investment that the World Health Organisation estimates will produce a return of 900% in the form of social and economic benefits coming from increased productivity and reduced health care costs.即使是盖茨基金会本身至今也尽投入了650万美元用于彻底改造厕所的挑战,而基金会每年的慈善基金花费在30亿元左右。但是这个项目从一个观念到实际交付,这样的的情况就会改观。当前,该基金会意欲每年在卫生上的投资加大至八千万美元。投资后,预计国际卫生组织会在社会和经济效益方面获得9倍的收益,不仅它的生产能力会提高,它的卫生保健成本也会下降。 /201209/197635

  We have entered a new age of embedded, intuitive computing in which our homes, cars, stores, farms, and factories have the ability to think, sense, understand, and respond to our needs. It#39;s not science fiction, but the dawn of a new era.我们正在迈入可穿戴、直觉式计算的新时代。房屋、汽车、商店、农场、工厂,这些东西都将具备思考、感知和行动的能力。这不是科幻小说中的场景,而是我们即将进入的新时代。Most people might not realize it yet, but we are aly feeling the impact of what#39;s known as the third wave of computing. In small but significant ways it is helping us live safer, healthier, and more secure lives. If you drive a 2014 Mercedes Benz, for example, an ;intelligent; system endeavors to keep you from hitting a pedestrian. A farmer in Nigeria relies on weather sensors that communicate with his mobile device. Forgot your medication? A new pill bottle from AdhereTech reminds you via text or automated phone messages that it#39;s time to take a pill.大多数人可能还没有意识到,我们已经感受到第三次计算机革命的影响。它正在细微、然而却显著地帮助我们过上更安全、更健康、更稳定的生活。比如说,假如你驾驶一辆2014款梅赛德斯-奔驰车,它的“智能”系统将防止你撞到行人。尼日利亚的农民用上了可以与个人的移动设备进行信息传递的气象传感器。而AdhereTech推出的新款药瓶则能通过短信或自动电话留言的方式,提醒用户按时药。Technology is being integrated into our natural behaviors, with real-time data connecting our physical and digital worlds. With this dramatic shift in our relationship to technology, companies can adapt their products and services.科技正融入我们的一言一行,实时数据正将我们的现实世界和数字世界联系在一起。我们与技术的关系发生了巨大的改变,企业可以据此调整自己的产品和务。We aly see cities growing ;smarter; by installing sensors to automate the management of parking spaces. To enhance urban security, acoustic sensors coupled with audio and GPS analytics ;listen; to pinpoint the location of gunfire. Within 30 seconds, dispatchers can determine the number of shooters, the shots fired, and even the type of weapon used.我们看到:通过安装传感器,智能城市的管理者们可以更好地规划停车位。而声音传感器是市政安全领域的好手,它们可以通过声音和GPS精确定位声的位置。只需不到半分钟,安全调度员们就能获知开者的人数和击次数,甚至是的型号。Consider health care. Wearable devices allow us to monitor our steps, our sleep patterns, and our calorie intake to ensure we are following doctors#39; orders and meeting our personal goals. Parents of newborns can try a diaper that has a humidity sensor that tweets when it#39;s time for a change.再来看看健康领域。我们能从可穿戴设备上监控自己的运动、睡眠和卡路里消耗等信息,从而确保自己没有违背医生的指示,或是正在努力实现个人健康目标。父母们则可以给新生儿穿上带有湿度传感器的尿布,它能在需要更换时发出声响提醒我们。To understand how revolutionary the third wave is, we ought to consider how far we have come. The first wave began when companies started to manage their operations via mainframe computer systems over 50 years ago. Then computing got ;personal; in the 1980s and #39;90s with the introduction of the PC. For the most part, computing remained immobile and lacked contextual awareness.第三次计算机革命的意义究竟如何?我们不妨回过头来看看历史。第一次是50年前,大型机系统进入公司管理运营领域。上世纪80年代和90年代,随着PC机诞生,计算机进入“个人”时代。但总体而言,“计算”缺乏移动性,而且不那么智能。In computing#39;s second wave, mobile computing and the smartphone took center stage. Billions of people, some who might not have had access to clean water, electricity, or even housing, were connected. Developers created apps and provided consumers with access to just about everything through their phone at the cost of a monthly data plan.第二次计算机革命后期,移动计算和智能手机开始占据主导。全球几十亿人口都通过网络彼此相连,其中很多人甚至还没解决饮用水、电力和住房的问题。软件工程师们开发了无数应用程序,人们几乎可以用手机完成任何事情,需要做的仅仅是付一下手机上网套餐而已。As the third wave gains momentum, designers must meet the demands of clients who want to experiment with new tech.随着第三次计算机革命的突飞猛进,设计师们必须满足消费者不断尝试新技术的需求。Historically, designers have focused their attention on a product#39;s form and function. While that still matters, of course, the definition of a meaningful user experience has expanded significantly and will continue to do so. Instead of creating a single product, designers will need to imagine a suite of connected products and services that have awareness of each other and their surroundings.在此之前,设计师们的重心是产品的外形和功能。当然,这些现在仍是不可或缺的要素,但用户体验的重要性日益凸现,并将在未来起到决定性的作用。打造单一产品的时代已经过去,设计师们需要构造出一整套互相关联的产品和务,还要让它们能够相互感知、相互配合。Stake a claim now, we tell companies, in the space where digital and physical disappear, and products and services mimic and react to our natural behaviors.我们告诉企业,现在就要跑马圈地,占领这个消弥了数字世界与现实世界界限的空间。在这个空间里,产品和务模拟我们的自然行为并对其做出反应。 /201310/261558Last week, rumors concerning the value of Elon Musk’s SpaceX rippled across the Web after tech startup-watcher TechCrunch reported that private investment in the company valued it at “somewhere south of billion.” SpaceX quickly quashed the rumor. “SpaceX is not currently raising any funding nor has any external valuation of that magnitude or higher been done,” a company spokesman said in a statement. And so SpaceX ended the week just as it began it, despite having briefly enjoyed the status of a billion industry behemoth.私营航天业非常不透明,SpaceX又口风甚严,再加上风投领域的小道消息看起来很不可靠,这让人们很难对它进行解读。同样的,该公司的自我描述也不一定能成为对它进行评价的依据(埃隆o穆斯克说SpaceX将在未来10年里登陆火星。该公司总裁格温o肖特韦尔则放言,到2100年SpaceX将成为太阳系运输领域的主导者。在这两个时点之间,SpaceX还打算把火箭有效载荷提高到58.5吨)。评估该公司当前价值和升值潜力的最佳途径也许不是金钱或者豪言壮语,而是观察这一业界新贵对商业航天领域的竞争对手产生了怎样的影响。The private spaceflight industry is so opaque and SpaceX’s cards are so closely held that it is difficult to get a on the company, especially using the venture capital rumor mill. Nor can one necessarily judge SpaceX based on what the company says about itself. (Elon Musk says that the company is headed to Mars in the next decade. SpaceX president Gwynne Shotwell boasts that by 2100 the company will dominate transportation across the solar system. Between them is a 58.5-ton payload of ambition.) Perhaps the best way to evaluate SpaceX and its potential value isn’t in dollar figures or in audacious claims, but by observing what the upstart space firm is aly doing to its competition in the commercial space industry.20世纪80年代初,美国退出了商业航天市场。从那时起,商业航天器发射领域基本上就处于被欧洲公司垄断的状态,比如法国的Arianespace[法国航空业巨头空中客车(Airbus)持有部分股份]和International Launch Services[美俄合资,采用俄罗斯质子号(Proton)运载火箭的技术发射卫星]。尽管SpaceX通过为国际空间站(International Space Station)运送补给从美国国家航空航天局(NASA)获得了很大一部分收入,但在该公司截至2018年的40多次发射任务中,价值2000亿美元的卫星发射市场也占了很大的比重,而且这个比例还在不断上升。That competition—mostly European space launch providers like France’s Arianespace (partially owned by French aerospace giant Airbus) and International Launch Services (a U.S.-Russia joint venture that launches satellites aboard Russian Proton launch technology)—has largely held a monopoly on commercial space launches since the U.S. retreated from the industry in the early 1980s. Though SpaceX derives a chunk of its income from NASA in exchange for resupplying the International Space Station, the 0 billion satellite industry makes up a huge and growing chunk of SpaceX’s nearly 40-strong launch manifest through 2018.SpaceX的航天器发射价格有时仅仅为传统竞争对手的一半,这让它在较短时间里成功实现了很高的市场占有率。该公司安全记录良好,业界对其核心业务的信心也不断增强。今年夏天,SpaceX为在德克萨斯州南部建立自己的专用发射场铺平了道路,并且开始实验火箭循环使用技术,这有可能大幅降低发射成本。By offering space launch services at prices that in some cases undercut the traditional launch industry by half, SpaceX has managed significant market penetration in a relatively short period of time. It has a strong safety record and industry confidence in its core services is growing. Over the summer the company cleared the path toward construction of its own dedicated launch facility in southern Texas while also experimenting with reusable rocket stage technology that could reduce launch costs by an order of magnitude.如果SpaceX在欧洲等地的竞争对手相信所有这些都只是炒作,那它们表达这种态度的方式也太奇怪了。就算不仔细观察也能发现,这些公司看来正在慌忙展开行动。In January, the president of the French national space agency (and former Arianespace CEO) wrote an op-ed in France’s Le Monde detailing all the things SpaceX has done right, calling on the European space industry to adapt as quickly as possible. In February, Arianespace’s current chairman and CEO Stephane Israel told the European Space Agency that it may need additional subsidies from European governments in order to remain a viable competitor, citing the arrival of SpaceX’s Falcon 9 medium-lift rocket as the cause of its competitive headaches. At the Berlin Airshow in July, Airbus Group CEO Tom Enders urged Europe to completely overhaul its space launcher industry, mentioning SpaceX and CEO Elon Musk by name. “Musk gives us the opportunity to shake up what has been quite a successful European space industry,” Enders told Reuters. “We either much improve and integrate our industrial structures or we’ll become irrelevant.”今年1月份,法国国家宇航局总裁(曾任Arianespace首席执行官)在法国《世界报》(Le Monde)发表社论文章,详细列举了SpaceX采取过的正确措施,并敦促欧洲航天业尽快效仿。2月份,Arianespace现任董事长兼首席执行官斯塔费恩o伊斯雷尔向欧洲航天局(European Space Agency)表示,自己的公司可能需要欧洲政府提供更多补贴,以便保持足够的竞争力。他说,SpaceX推出猎鹰9号(Falcon 9)中型运载火箭对Arianespace构成了相当大的竞争压力。在7月份的柏林国际航空航天展上,空客集团(Airbus Group)CEO汤姆o恩德斯敦促欧洲航天器发射企业进行彻底革新,并且提到了SpaceX及其首席执行官埃隆o穆斯克。恩德斯在接受路透社(Reuters)采访时表示:“虽然欧洲航天业一直都相当成功,而穆斯克给我们带来了对它进行重整的机会。我们得大幅改进并整合这个行业的结构,不然就会变得无足轻重。”It’s not just talk coming out of the global space industry. In July Arianespace cut its launch prices in an effort to minimize SpaceX’s market advantage, though its prices are reportedly still nowhere near as low as SpaceX’s. Airbus and Safran, a French propulsion systems maker, have entered into a 50-50 joint venture aimed at designing a new, less costly rocket for Europe. Several European space officials and potential future customers have called for a rethinking and possible redesign of Arianespace’s new Ariane 6 rocket.这些航天公司不光是嘴上说说而已。7月份,Arianespace下调了航天器发射价格,目的是尽量削弱SpaceX在市场上的优势。但据报道,和SpaceX的低廉价格相比,Arianespace还差得很远。空客和法国推进系统制造商赛峰集团(Safran)已经建立了一家合资公司,双方各出资一半。这家合资公司旨在为欧洲设计一款成本较低的新型火箭。欧洲航天部门的几名官员和一些潜在未来客户都已要求Arianespace重新考虑乃至重新设计它新推出的阿丽亚娜6型(Ariane 6)火箭。Back in the U.S., competitors that have traditionally enjoyed non-competitive launch markets have found themselves forced to respond to SpaceX. Earlier this year SpaceX sued the ed States Air Force over an billion contract awarded to Boeing-Lockheed Martin joint venture ed Launch Alliance (ULA) for a block of military satellite launches. SpaceX claims the contract was awarded through a bidding process that was not competitive, and a federal judge has ordered a review of the dealings. Even as it was suing the Air Force, SpaceX still managed to receive USAF certification to launch military hardware aboard it Falcon 9 rocket.美国方面,以往在航天器发射领域从未遇到过竞争的那些公司发现,自己必须针对SpaceX采取相应措施。今年早些时候,SpaceX把美国空军告上了法庭,原因是后者将一系列军事卫星发射任务交给了波音(Boeing)和洛克希德-马丁(Lockheed Martin)设立的合资公司ed Launch Alliance(ULA)。SpaceX提出,这份合同在招标时并没有采用竞争的方式。一名联邦法院法官已经下令就此进行审查。就算双方正在打官司,SpaceX还是通过了美国空军的认,从而有资格用自己的猎鹰9号火箭发射军用航天器。“While the European Space Agency, Arianespace, Safran may not have taken SpaceX seriously before, those entities certainly are taking SpaceX seriously now,” says Richard David, co-founder and CEO of commercial space industry analysis firm NewSpace Global, whose global ranking of private space companies places SpaceX at the very top. “NSG analysts track around 700 companies worldwide, and it’s not just about SpaceX and its European launch competitors. But SpaceX is ranked number one for a reason.”在商业航天业分析机构NewSpace Global(简称:NSG)的私营航天公司排行榜上,SpaceX高居榜首。NSG联合创始人兼首席执行官理查德o戴维说:“虽然欧洲航天局、Arianespace和赛峰以前可能没把它当回事,但现在它们一定严阵以待。我们的分析师追踪全球约700家公司,不光是SpaceX和它的欧洲竞争对手。但SpaceX独占鳌头有它的道理。”The fact that absolutely no one in the business of launching payloads into space has been able to ignore SpaceX as it piles success upon success says more about the company and its future prospects than any rumored dollar valuation. And just as important to SpaceX’s future prospects is the global aerospace industry’s inability to respond. The high costs and myriad challenges inherent in the commercial spaceflight industry—this is, quite literally, rocket science—means that most of SpaceX’scompetitors are either joint ventures like ULA and Airbus-Safran or large, bureaucratic, multinationals like Arianespace, which counts two dozen major shareholders from nearly a dozen European states all asserting influence and competing interests into the company calculus.在航天器发射领域,绝对没有谁能对接二连三获得成功的SpaceX视而不见,这比任何估值传闻都能更好地体现SpaceX的现状和未来。同时,世界上其他航天公司无力对SpaceX进行反击,这对该公司的未来前景同样重要。商业航天代价昂贵而且挑战纷繁,这是名副其实的“高科技”,这也意味着SpaceX的大多数竞争对手要么是合资企业,就像ULA以及空客和赛峰的合资公司,要么就是像Arianespace那样的官僚型跨国公司,它们有二十几个大股东,来自十几个欧洲国家,这些股东都想对公司产生影响,又都在其中争夺利益。“They’re aly responding, or trying to figure out the best way to respond,” says Kate Maliga, an industry analyst at aerospace and defense analysts Tauri Group, of SpaceX’s competitors. “But it’s hard, especially with the complicated structure of European governments and industry. There’s very little they can do in the next year or two, but they feel like they need to respond and they will try.”航天和军工分析机构Tauri Group的行业分析师凯特o马利加说:“它们已经开始采取对策,或者正在寻找最佳的应对方法。但这很难,特别是考虑到欧洲政府和行业的复杂结构。今后一、两年它们基本上将束手无策,但它们觉得自己需要这样做,而且也会进行尝试。”SpaceX may seem to be riding as its competitors struggle to adapt, but the company has by no means conquered the industry, Maliga says. Satellite companies are by nature risk-averse, and no company wants to have only one launch provider handling all of its multimillion-dollar hardware. Though SpaceX continues to build industry confidence, Arianespace aly has a decades-long established record of launching successfully and on time—the latter something SpaceX has struggled with. For satellite television providers broadcasting the World Cup, for instance, a delay in launching a satellite can cost many more millions than the price disparity between Arianespace and SpaceX, Maliga says. Which means SpaceX’s successes do not spell doom for its more expensive competitors, at least not yet.马利加指出,在竞争对手难以招架之际,SpaceX看起来也许一帆风顺,但无论如何也不能说它已经征了这个行业。卫星公司本质上都厌恶风险,而且没有哪家公司愿意把自己价值数百亿美元的设备都交给同一家发射务供应商。尽管SpaceX让业界对它越来越有信心,但几十年来,Arianespace一直都能做到成功而准时地发射,而SpaceX在准时方面做得并不如意。马利加举例说,对于转播世界杯赛事的卫视来说,卫星发射受到延误所产生的成本可能比Arianespace和SpaceX之间价差要多得多。也就是说,SpaceX的成功并不会让要价较高的竞争对手遭受灭顶之灾,至少现在还没有。“I don’t see anyone being an absolute existential threat to anyone at this point,” Jon Beland, a senior analyst at defense and aerospace industry consultancy Avascent, says. “The launch industry has historically undergone cycles where new entrants enter the field and shuffle the cards around. It’s still too early to tell.”军工和航天业咨询机构Avascent高级分析师乔恩o贝兰德指出:“目前还没有谁能给别人带来生死攸关的威胁。航天器发射领域会在行业新军到来后重新洗牌,历史上这种情况反复出现。现在下结论还为时过早。” /201409/326515

  New research from child advocacy group Common Sense Media has found that children#39;s use of tablets, smartphones and other portable gadgets with screens has exploded over the last two years, just as doctors warn too much screen time could be bad for kids. 儿童倡导组织Common Sense Media的最新调查发现,尽管医生警告太久盯着屏幕可能对儿童不利,儿童对平板电脑、智能手机等带屏便携设备的使用率在过去两年仍呈现爆炸式增长。 The group#39;s biannual survey of American parents found an 89% increase in the number of zero to eight year olds who have used mobile devices - growing from 38% in 2011 to 72% in 2013. Even among kids under the age of two, some 38% have used a mobile device for media, compared to 10% two years ago. 该组织对美国父母进行的一年两次的调查显示,0-8岁儿童中使用移动设备的人数比例从2011年的38%升至2013年的72%,增长89%。即便在两岁以下幼儿中,也有38%左右的儿童使用过移动媒体设备,而两年前这一比例只有10%。 Moreover, the amount of time all kids spend with the devices each day has tripled, from 5 minutes to 15 minutes. 除此之外,所有儿童每天使用移动设备的时间也增加了两倍,从5分钟增至15分钟。 At the same time, the American Academy of Pediatrics on Monday reiterated cautions about children#39;s exposure to screens, including mobile devices and TVs. The group said that parents should limit #39;total entertainment screen time to less than one to two hours per day, and #39;discourage screen media exposure#39; generally to kids under the age of two. 与此同时,美国儿科学会(American Academy of Pediatrics)周一再次对儿童使用移动设备和电视机等带屏设备发出警告。该学会称,父母应该将每天孩子的屏幕时间限制在1-2个小时以下,并建议不要让两岁以下儿童接触带屏媒体。 (The Journal reported on the AAP#39;s Monday proposals for families, including a no-device rule during meals and after bedtime.) (据《华尔街日报》(The Wall Street Journal)报道,美国儿科学会周一向父母们提出建议,包括不许孩子在吃饭和上床睡觉后使用移动设备。) The introduction of tablet computers has particularly changed the equation for many families, and the survey found five-fold increase in the number who have access to them. Jim Steyer, Common Sense Media#39;s founder, said the devices are increasingly replacing TVs, storybooks, and even babysitters. 平板电脑的出现已经改变了许多家庭的育儿方式,调查显示,能够接触到平板电脑的儿童数量已经增长了四倍。Common Sense Media创始人吉姆#12539;施泰尔(Jim Steyer)说,此类设备的出现已开始愈加取代电视、故事书甚至保姆的工作。 #39;One-year-olds are now walking up to TV screens and swiping them because they think they are tablets,#39; he said. #39;They are becoming a part of childhood in ways that were almost inconceivable before.#39; 他说,有些1岁的孩子已经开始走到电视前用手滑动屏幕,以为那是平板电脑。如今,平板电脑已经以昔日难以想像的方式成?孩子们童年的一部分。 What do kids do on mobile devices? Mostly play games (63% of them), use apps (50%) and watch s (47%), the survey found. 那么孩子们都用移动设备做些什么呢?据调查,主要是玩游戏(63%),用应用软件(50%)和看视频(47%)。 Steyer says his organization recommends that parents set limits, though he appreciates that no screen time before age two isn#39;t practical for all families. #39;No question about it, the best brain development happens when you speak with kids and play blocks with them and cuddle - all the experiences where there is no intermediation by technology#39; he said. 施泰尔称,他所在的组织建议父母们限制设备的使用,但他同时也承认,让所有家庭中的两岁以下幼儿远离屏幕是不现实的。他说,毫无疑问,促进大脑发育的最佳方法是与孩子交谈、玩积木,给他们拥抱,这些都是无法靠科学技术来帮忙的。 And when there are devices involved, he said parents should also try to turn screen time into learning time. #39;You have to make wise choices about the content,#39; he said. 他讲道,当孩子使用移动设备时,父母们也应试着让他们从屏幕上多学些知识,内容的选择一定要睿智。 /201311/263740

  Stung badly by soaring sales of foreign-made smartphones and tablets, Japan#39;s electronics makers are fighting back with a bevy of hi-tech tablets they hopes will turn the tables on the dominant Apple iPad.受到国外制造的智能手机和平板电脑销量一路飙升的严重刺激,日本的电子产品制造商们推出了一批高科技平板电脑,试图收复失地。他们希望借此扭转苹果(Apple)iPad一统天下的局面。Sony (SNE) is setting its hopes on the svelte, bantam-weight, waterproof Xperia Tablet Z. It aims to duplicate the success of the popular smartphone of the same name, says the firm.索尼公司(Sony)将复兴大业的希望寄托在了极致轻薄防水的Xperia Z平板电脑上。与这款平板电脑同名的Xperia Z手机在市场上反响不错,索尼希望Xperia Z平板电脑也能复制成功。Panasonic (PC), meanwhile, is hitching its star to a tablet with so-called 4K technology that it claims displays images at four times greater resolution than existing high-definition resolutions. Both are aimed at the premium end of the tablet spectrum, where Japan tablet makers expect to find their niche. At around 0, the Z#39;s price is steep compared to other tablets on the market but could set new standards for competitors, say analysts. Sony claims its Xperia Tablet Z is the world#39;s slimmest tablet, and Japan#39;s lightest.而与此同时,松下公司(Panasonic)则将其采用4K技术的平板电脑捧为明日之星。这种技术号称能用比现有高分辨率还高四倍的分辨率显示图像。这两款产品都旨在夺取平板电脑高端市场,这也是日本平板厂商希望占据的细分市场。Z的售价约为500美元。分析师称, 跟市面上其他平板相比,这个价格实在高昂,但它或许能为对手树立一种全新标准。而索尼则称,自己的Xperia Z平板是全球最纤薄、日本最轻盈的产品。Some think the Z and its ilk could help pull Sony out of a vast financial hole. Recently the firm reported losses for the last quarter of 2012 of 10.8 billion yen. It has been the demand for tablets, particularly those from Apple (AAPL), that has helped to end Sony#39;s and Japan#39;s hardware hegemony over the world#39;s gadgets and piled up its red ink. Sony is still struggling to catch up, says technology consultant Nobuyuki Hayashi, especially with the iPad. ;Japanese manufacturers are making so many tablets … but I haven#39;t seen anyone using them,; he says.有些人认为,Z及其家族产品或能帮索尼摆脱严重的财务困境。近期索尼财报称,它在2012年最后一个财季损失高达108亿日元。对平板电脑的需求,尤其是对苹果平板的需求已使索尼和日本硬件厂商统治全球电子产品的局面宣告终结,同时也让这些厂商出现巨额赤字。技术咨询员林信行称,索尼还在努力赶超竞争对手,尤其是iPad。他说:“日本厂商生产了太多平板,但我没看到有多少人在用。”It must be particularly galling for Japan#39;s tech industry to miss out on the tablet bonanza. It is estimated Japan supplies 20% to 30% of the parts for the iPad. (They are mostly assembled in China.) Sony, meanwhile, produced tablet computers long before Apple. Trouble was, nobody wanted them. Domestic demand for such gadgets was always poor until, that is, the iPad debuted here nearly 3 years ago. ;Tablet adoption is very late in Japan. Of course, this is expected to change,; says Tokyo-based publisher Xavier Marchand.错过了平板电脑这个富矿一定让日本的科技产业其特别难堪。据估计,iPad(多数都在中国组装)有20%到30%的零部件是由日本提供的。而索尼其实早在苹果之前就开始生产平板电脑了。麻烦在于,没人真正想买索尼的这些产品。而日本国内对这类电子产品的需求一贯低迷,直到iPad三年前横空出世,局面才为之一变。位于东京的出版商夏维尔?马查德称:“日本人很晚才用上平板电脑。当然,这种情况是有望改变的。”According to analysts at IDC Japan, 3.6 million tablets were sold in Japan in 2012, although another estimate from Yano Research suggests figures are closer to 4.2 million -- nearly twice the number sold in 2011. Yano expects sales to reach 5.6 million for 2013. Apple still accounts for the majority of sales here it says. ;The iPad mini has been doing fairly well I don#39;t know if the cumulative has exceeded that of iPad,; says Hayashi. (According to IDC it has.) ;Then after a big gap come Kindle Fire, Nexus 7, and Kobo. And then, perhaps, on distant sixth place are Sony, followed by Toshiba, NEC, etc.,; he says.据市场研究公司IDC日本称,2012年日本共卖出了360万台平板电脑,而矢野经济研究所则称,这个数字接近420万台——几乎是2011年全年销量的两倍。矢野还预计,2013年这一数字将达560万台。该研究所还表示,苹果公司仍然占据着销售额的大头。林信行称:“iPad mini非常畅销,我不清楚它的累计销量是否已超过了iPad。”而IDC则称iPad mini确实已超过了iPad。他说:“在第一名身后很远的位置是Kindle Fire、Nexus 7和Kobo。可能索尼只能远远地排在第六位,然后才是东芝(Toshiba)、NEC和其他品牌。”Where Japan#39;s beleaguered tech firms see their chances is in the development of products for business users, particularly in Japan where the salaryman so far remains generally nonplussed by tablets. Panasonic#39;s new 4K offering, for example, hopes to edge out Apple in the market for creative professionals like photographers, designers, architects, and engineers. To compete, Japan Inc. is also eyeing more tie-ups with outside companies. Panasonic#39;s new baby was created by partnering with Microsoft (MSFT) and IBM (IBM).日本普通的工薪族中间,多数人至今还没对平板电脑入门,因此日本这些身陷困境的科技企业认为,为商业用户开发产品才是生路所在。比如,松下推出的4K就想在特定市场中挤掉苹果,即从事创意的职场人士,如摄影师、设计师、建筑师和工程师的市场。为了和众多对手贴身肉搏,日本公司还盯准了和国外公司合作开发这条捷径。松下的这款新品就是与微软公司(Microsoft)和IBM公司合作的产物。Others like Sharp and Toshiba, however, seem to have lost the plot altogether when it comes to tablets says Hayashi. Ideas for kickstarting their tablet sales seem few and far between. ;Toshiba had no clue. So they produced as many sized tablets as they could and see which one size would catch fire. But no one wanted to buy a Toshiba tablet, so I think they are still clueless,; he says. ;They#39;ve stop producing random sizes and are following the popular formats in the market. NEC and Fujitsu are just following the market trends without a clue, too.;林信行还表示,在平板电脑市场上,其他老牌巨头如夏普(Sharp)和东芝似乎已经完全找不着北了。用来推动其平板电脑销售的创意似乎少之又少。他说:“东芝毫无头绪可言。于是他们开足马力,推出各种尺寸的平板,看看其中哪款能够卖得火爆。但实际上没人想买东芝平板,所以我认为他们还是处于茫然的状态。他们已经不再随便生产各种尺寸的产品了,开始推出市场上主流的尺寸。而NEC和富士公司(Fujitsu)只是在随波逐流,自己也没有想明白。” /201303/230702。

  The drones are coming, according to the world#39;s largest unmanned systems industry organization. And they are likely to bring high-tech jobs, millions in tax revenues, and tens of billions in economic impact with them. A report released today by the Association for Unmanned Vehicle Systems International (AUVSI) forecasts that if the Federal Aviation Administration meets its 2015 deadline for integrating unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) into the national civilian airspace, the total domestic economic impact will reach more than .1 billion between 2015 and 2025 -- creating more than 100,000 high-paying jobs in the process.全球最大的无人操纵系统行业组织称,无人机的时代正在向我们走来。无人机将会创造许多高技术岗位,带来上千万美元税收,还将产生数十亿美元的经济效益。无人机国际联盟(AUVSI)今天发布的一份报告预测,如果联邦航空局(FAA)能实现2015年将无人驾驶机系统(UAS)整合到国家民航系统中的目标,则2015年到2025年间为美国国内带来的经济效益将超过821亿美元——在此过程中将创造超过10万个高薪岗位。In the near term, says AUVSI, the outlook appears even rosier. More than 70,000 of the total 103,776 new jobs forecast nationally by 2025 will be created in just the first three years after airspace integration is completed, along with .6 billion in overall economic impact in the same span. Meanwhile states where the UAS industry is strongest will begin collecting what will eventually amount to 2 million in tax revenue in the decade following full airspace integration.AUVSI称,从近期看,前景似乎更为美妙。全美到2025年将产生的103,776个新工作机会中,超过7万个将在航空整合完成后的三年内出现,同期产生的总经济效益将达到136亿美元。同时,在航空整合彻底完成后的十年内,无人驾驶机系统产业最发达的那些州,税收将高达4.82亿美元。That#39;s assuming integration happens at all. Under the 2012 FAA Reauthorization Act, Congress ordered aviation authorities to develop a regulatory framework for the testing and licensing of commercial drones by 2015, a deadline that the FAA may not meet. The process of naming six federally approved UAS testing sites necessary for developing the kinds of technologies that will enable safe airspace integration was delayed indefinitely last year while the agency dealt with various public privacy concerns (the process resumed last month), and a variety of critical technical problems -- not least of which involve ;sense and avoid; technologies, which allow unmanned systems to maintain safe distances between each other as well as manned aircraft -- have yet to be resolved.而这个前景的前提是航空整合必须真正实现。根据《2012年联邦航空局修订法案》,国会要求航空当局必须到2015年前为商用无人机的试飞和牌照发放开发一套监管框架。去年,国会曾经要求指定6个联邦批准设立的UAS测试点,但这项工作遭遇无限期搁置。然而,要开发确保航空融合能顺利实现的各种技术,这些测试点不可或缺。同时,当局还要应付公众有关隐私权的各种问题(上个月,这项工作已经重新启动)。而各种关键技术问题也亟待解决,尤其是其中涉及到“感知、避开”的技术。这种技术能让无人机彼此之间、无人机与有人驾驶的飞机之间保持安全距离。For every year the FAA delays the integration of UAS into the national airspace, the economy loses billion in potential economic gain, the report claims, a number that#39;s not lost on states vying not only to play host to the FAA#39;s UAS test sites but also to woo UAS-related companies. The drone economy won#39;t be sp evenly; the AUVSI report names California, Washington, Texas, Florida, and Arizona as the states most likely to reap the economic rewards of a domestic drone boom. Other states are scrambling to capture a piece of the industry as well. Oklahoma has been noticeably visible at various industry trade shows of late, while Indiana and Ohio have partnered in an effort to make their shared economic region a more attractive place for the FAA to place a test site, which both states expect could generate thousands of jobs and billions in economic activity between them.这份报告还称,在UAS融入美国航空系统的进程上,联邦航空局每耽误一年,美国经济的潜在损失就高达100亿美元,而对那些既积极争取联邦航空局UAS测试点落户、又主动招揽UAS相关公司进驻的州来说,就不会出现这样的损失。无人机经济不会平均施惠于各州;报告指出,加州、华盛顿州、德克萨斯州、佛罗里达州和亚利桑那州是最有可能从这场无人机发展热潮中获得实惠的州。而其他州也在努力从这个行业的发展中分一杯羹。我们在近期举办的各类行业展会上看到,俄克拉荷马州频频亮相。同时,印第安纳州和俄亥俄州也开始携手努力,让它们共享的经济区成为对联邦航空局安置测试点更有吸引力的区域。这两个州都希望由此可带来上万个工作机会,产生巨额的经济效益。Who exactly will be buying all these domestic drones? It#39;s probably not who you think. While legitimate privacy concerns surround the proliferation of small UAS in the civilian airspace, sales of small surveillance drones to state and local authorities are only expected to make up a small portion of that spending. Agricultural applications dwarf all other categories, the AUVSI report claims, accounting for .6 billion of total national economic impacts by 2025, whereas government authorities like police, firefighters, and other first responders will generate just .2 billion. All other applications -- which range from weather and environmental monitoring, to oil and gas exploration, to aerial imaging and mapping -- will also result in a .2 billion impact over the same period.谁会是这些国产无人机的买主呢?可能并不是大家通常所认为的对象。由于公众担心小型无人机广泛进入国内空域会引发侵犯隐私权问题,各州和当地政府购买的小型无人侦察机未来只会成为总销售中的一小部分。这份报告称,无人机在农业领域的应用将远超其他领域,到2025年为全美带来的经济效益将达756亿美元。而给其他政府机构如警察系统、消防系统和其他应急机构等带来的经济效益将只有32亿美元。而同期,其他所有领域的应用——如气候和环境监测,油气勘探,航空测绘——也会产生32亿美元的经济效益。 /201303/230335

  Apple’s iPhone 6 has passed a key regulatory hurdle in China but still has not received permission to be sold in the country, according to Xinhua, the official Chinese news agency.中国官方的新华社报道称,苹果公司(Apple)的iPhone 6在中国通过了一项关键的监管障碍,但仍未获准在中国销售。The announcement was the first official indication of what had been behind the delayed launch of the company’s latest mobile phone in one of its most important markets. Earlier this week Apple had said only that it would not be launching in China alongside its debut elsewhere today, but had given no explanation for the delay.这是中国官方首次暗示苹果最新款手机在其最重要市场之一延迟发售的原因。本周早些时候,苹果公司仅表示,iPhone 6首日发售地区不包括中国,但没有解释延迟的原因。Xinhua said the phone had received regulatory approval for use on domestic frequencies but still requires one more licence – a network access license – before it will be allowed to be sold in the country.新华社表示,iPhone 6已获得监管机构批准使用国内频率,但它仍需获得一项入网许可牌照,然后才能在中国销售。Apple declined to comment.苹果公司拒绝置评。China is vital to Apple’s growth story, as Western smartphone markets approach saturation.随着西方智能手机市场接近饱和,中国市场对苹果公司的增长故事极为关键。Apple has said that it received more than 4m pre-orders for its latest iPhones in the first 24 hours last week. But analysts are split over whether Apple can beat last year’s first-weekend sales of 9m without China, which was part of the launch of the iPhone 5s and 5C.苹果公司表示,最新款iPhone手机上周发布后,最初24小时内预购量超过400万部。但对于苹果能否在没有中国市场的情况下超过去年首个周末的900万部销量,分析师们意见不一。去年发售的是iPhone 5s和iPhone 5C,首日发售地区包括中国。“This year investors are somewhat cautious about how the exclusion of China could impact first weekend sales,” said Walter Piecyk, analyst at BTIG Research. He expects more than 10m units to be shipped in the first weekend.BTIG Research的分析师沃尔特#8226;佩西克(Walter Piecyk)表示:“今年投资者对中国市场缺席将如何影响首个周末销量有些谨慎。”他预计首个周末的销量将会超过1000万部。Toni Sacconaghi, analyst at Bernstein, estimated that 7m-8m units would be sold. This would be the first time an iPhone had declined over the prior year on its first three days on sale. Nonetheless, he said this could help to boost sales in China after December, smoothing out the usual spike in a new iPhone’s first three months. Without the second critical license, Apple has not yet said when it will begin to sell the iPhone 6 in China.伯恩斯坦(Bernstein)的分析师托尼#8226;萨科纳吉(Toni Sacconaghi)估计销量将为700万至800万部。若果真如此,将是新iPhone手机头3天销量首次低于往年。然而,萨科纳吉表示,这可能有助于在12月份之后提升中国销量,让新iPhone手机开售头3个月通常出现的销量激增比较平缓。在尚未获得入网许可的情况下,苹果没有说明何时开始在中国销售iPhone 6。The news came as Apple released a new website detailing its approach to privacy. While Apple has sought to distance itself from Silicon Valley peers such as Google over its handling of personal information, especially as it moves into new areas such as health tracking and payments, the iPhone maker has faced criticism in China for allegedly revealing “state secrets” to US intelligence agencies. Apple denied the claim.新华社发表上述报道之际,苹果公司开通了一个新网站详述其隐私政策。尽管苹果寻求在个人信息处理方面与谷歌(Google)等硅谷同行拉开距离,尤其是在它进入健康追踪和付等新领域之际,但iPhone制造商仍在中国面临向美国情报机构泄露“国家秘密”的指控。苹果否认这项指责。One person familiar with Apple’s position in China said it was hard to separate these political attacks from more technical regulatory delays.一位了解苹果在中国市场地位的人士表示,很难将这些政治攻击与更为技术性的监管拖延分开。It has also emerged that Apple has been seeking to appoint a head of law enforcement in Beijing, which would involve facilitating requests by the Chinese government for data on Apple users in China.还有消息称,苹果寻求在北京任命一个执法主管,这个职务将涉及配合中国政府获取境内苹果用户数据的请求。As part of a push for faster internet service for its users, Apple has begun storing users’ personal data on servers in China, which makes them vulnerable to access by Chinese authorities.作为提升用户互联网务速度的努力的一部分,苹果开始在中国境内的务器存储用户的个人数据,但此举也让这些数据易于被中国当局获取。Many companies such as Google have moved their servers abroad rather than risk the political and moral dilemmas of having to submit to information requests by the Chinese government.谷歌等许多公司将它们的务器转移到中国境外,而不是冒险面对政治和道德上的两难境地——不得不应中国政府要求提交数据。 /201409/329619

  After three years of trying to repair businesses that proved to be unfixable, Nokia Corp. NOK1V.HE +33.94% Chief Executive Stephen Elop is back at Microsoft Corp. MSFT -4.55% to help shape the legacy of the software giant#39;s longtime boss, and potentially take his job. 三年来试图修复最终明是无药可救的业务之后,诺基亚(Nokia Corp.)首席执行长(CEO)埃洛普(Stephen Elop)又回到了微软(Microsoft Corp.),帮助塑造这家软件巨头长期掌门人的留下的“遗产”,并有可能取而代之。 Nokia on Tuesday announced the billion sale of an ailing handset business to Microsoft, ending several months of discussions between Mr. Elop and Microsoft Chief Executive Steve Ballmer. The negotiations were the subject of dozens of boardroom deliberations on both sides of the Atlantic. 诺基亚周二宣布以70亿美元的价格将境况不佳的手机业务出售给微软,结束了埃洛普和微软CEO鲍尔默(Steve Ballmer)之间历时数月的谈判。地处大西洋两岸的这两家公司的董事会都为这些谈判召开了数十次的会议。 Nokia shareholders and many in Finland applauded the move. Nokia shares jumped 34% to 3.97 euros (.24) in Helsinki trading Tuesday amid sentiment that the deal is the best solution for a mobile-device operation that aly relied heavily on Microsoft Windows technology. 诺基亚股东和许多芬兰人鼓掌欢迎这一收购行动。诺基亚股票周二在赫尔辛基跃升34%,至3.97欧元(合5.24美元),人们认为对于已经严重依赖微软Windows技术的移动设备业务来说,该交易是最好的解决方案。 It is a stark reversal to the chilly reception Mr. Elop has recently weathered in Helsinki, where some had taken to calling him #39;Stephen Eflop.#39; 这与埃洛普近来在赫尔辛基遭到的冷遇形成了鲜明对比,赫尔辛基的一些人已经开始叫他“埃笨伯”(Stephen Eflop)。 Having left Microsoft after running the company#39;s profitable business division, Mr. Elop returns a bit of a hero. He was the only executive in the global handset business to exclusively use the Microsoft mobile platform and Nokia now sells nearly every Windows phone that is sold world-wide. 埃洛普离开微软之前负责该公司利润丰厚的企业部门,此次又几乎以英雄姿态回归微软。他是全球手机企业中唯一一位专门使用微软手机平台的CEO,如今在全球销售的所有Windows手机几乎都是由诺基亚销售。 The table is set for the 49-year-old executive to help Mr. Ballmer pull off an ambitious plan and, in the process, win respect in Microsoft#39;s board room as its directors search for a new CEO. 现在已经万事俱备,49岁的埃洛普将帮助鲍尔默实施宏大的计划,并且在这个过程中赢得微软董事会的尊重。目前微软董事会正在搜寻新CEO人选。 In an interview Tuesday, Mr. Ballmer said the public shouldn#39;t too much into what the deal means for Mr. Elop#39;s future, but acknowledged his longtime associate has gone from being an external candidate to an internal candidate. 鲍尔默周二接受采访时说,公众不应过度解读这桩交易对于埃洛普未来的意义,但承认曾长期担任他助手的埃洛普已经从外部候选人变成内部候选人。 The immediate goal is to work hand-in-hand with engineers and marketing staff at Microsoft to put the pieces in place to truly compete with rivals. The executives are eager to develop a legitimate third ecosystem capable of taking on players like Samsung Electronics Co., 005930.SE -1.04% Apple Inc., and Google Inc., GOOG +1.59% which are miles ahead thanks to iOS and Android. 两家达成交易后的近期目标是与微软的工程师和营销人员通力合作,利用现有资源真正与对手展开竞争。管理层渴望开发合理的第三种生态系统,能够挑战三星电子(Samsung Electronics Co.)、苹果(Apple Inc.)和谷歌(Google Inc.)等厂商,这些厂商凭借苹果iOS和谷歌安卓(Android)操作系统遥遥领先。 If he fails, Mr. Ballmer#39;s legacy will be dented. The Microsoft chief has been criticized for not keeping up in a fast-moving industry. People involved in the Nokia deal say the play for a struggling handset business is one last effort to prove his mettle. 如果失败,鲍尔默的“遗产”将受损。这位微软CEO已经因未能跟上快速变化的行业动向而受到批评。参与诺基亚交易的人士说,收购一家陷入困境的手机企业是明他勇气的最后行动。 In choosing Mr. Elop to lead the integration of the new business, Mr. Ballmer taps a respected ally. During the interview, Mr. Ballmer said he values Mr. Elop as a partner. The Canadian-born executive was one of the few people he called before announcing his coming retirement. 通过选择埃洛普领导新企业的整合,鲍尔默争取到了一位受人尊敬的盟友。鲍尔默接受采访时说,他将埃洛普视为合作伙伴。出生于加拿大的埃洛普是鲍尔默宣布即将退休之前致电的少数人之一。 Mr. Ballmer also picked an executive who hasn#39;t strayed far from home. 此外,鲍尔默还选择了一个离家不远的高管。 Since joining Nokia in 2010, Mr. Elop has taken commercial flights between Helsinki and Seattle. He essentially lived out of a suitcase to balance the demands of turning around a crumbling business and raising teenage daughters whom he didn#39;t want to uproot. 2010年加入诺基亚以来,埃洛普便乘坐商业航班往返于赫尔辛基和西雅图之间。工作上,他要让一个濒临崩溃的公司实现华丽转身;家庭生活中,他要抚养十几岁的女儿,又不愿让她们迁居别处。为了平衡这两方面的需求,埃洛普基本上是拎着手提箱来回奔波。 Mr. Elop isn#39;t a stranger to tough decisions. He made waves almost immediately after starting at Nokia. He set to work on a plan that would lead to tens of thousands of job cuts and a downsizing of Nokia#39;s treasured research and development department. He sold key assets, including the seaside headquarters near Helsinki and closed the last remaining handset factory in Finland. 对于做艰难的决定,埃洛普可谓驾轻就熟。在诺基亚上任后,他立即开始“大动干戈”。先是着手制定计划,准备裁员数万人,精简备受诺基亚重视的研发部门,而后卖掉了赫尔辛基附近临海总部大楼等关键资产,并且关闭了该公司位于芬兰的最后一个手机工厂。 He also changed the focus. Earlier this year, after an extensive rebuild of the Nokia Siemens Networks wireless division, Mr. Elop paid about .2 billion to buy out Siemens . Nokia now looks a lot like Sweden#39;s Ericsson, which exited handset manufacturing a couple of years ago and is now making big profits selling infrastructure. 此外,埃洛普还改变了诺基亚的关注焦点。今年早些时候,在诺基亚西门子通信公司(Nokia Siemens Networks)无线业务经历了一番重建后,埃洛普付了约22亿美元收购西门子公司(Siemens )在该合资公司中的股份。诺基亚现在看上去与瑞典的爱立信(Ericsson)十分相似,后者在几年前退出了手机生产业务,目前正通过出售基础设施赚取巨额利润。 The results of the handset strategy have been less than stellar. 诺基亚手机战略的效果称不上完美。 Nokia#39;s cash burn and losses have narrowed, but it only controls about 3% of the global smartphone market and 14% of a total handset market. While many analysts have blamed Nokia#39;s demise on a weak Microsoft operating system, criticism can be aimed at Nokia executives who underestimated rivals. 诺基亚的现金消耗与亏损有所收窄,但该公司目前只控制着全球3%的智能手机市场和14%的整体手机市场。虽然很多分析人士将诺基亚的衰落归咎于微软不给力的操作系统,但其实也可将批评的矛头对准诺基亚高管,是他们低估了竞争对手。 In recent months, it became increasingly clear the Windows phone strategy was running into a roadblock. No matter how good Nokia#39;s new Lumia smartphones were, other players in the industry-particularly Samsung Electronics-had deeper pockets that allowed them to pour far more money into marketing and discounting smartphones than Mr. Elop has initially calculated. 近几个月愈发明确的一点是,Windows手机战略受阻。不管诺基亚的新智能手机Lumia有多棒,业内其它厂家(特别是三星电子)都十分财大气粗,可在智能手机的营销和打折方面投入远多于埃洛普最初以为的大量资金。 Samsung#39;s market share, fueled by the popularity of both the Galaxy handset and the Google Inc. Android operating system it runs, has skyrocketed as Nokia#39;s share plummeted, with the Korean company overtaking Nokia at No. 1 in 2012. 随着诺基亚手机市场份额暴跌,三星电子的市场份额则出现飙升,这得益于Galaxy手机与其搭载的谷歌安卓操作系统的高人气。这家韩国公司已于2012年取代诺基亚,成为全球第一大手机生产商。 Mr. Elop has done his best to paint a positive picture of Nokia#39;s phone business, pointing out that Lumia volume, while small, has been growing, with sales increasing 32% to 7.4 million in the second quarter. Samsung, however, sold nearly 10 times as many smartphones in the first three months of 2013. 埃洛普竭尽所能地为诺基亚手机业务描绘出一幅积极图景。他指出,Lumia虽然销量不大,却在逐步增长。今年第二季度,Lumia销量达到740万部,增幅为32%。今年前三个月,三星电子的智能手机销量是Lumia的近10倍。 The clock is now ticking on Mr. Elop#39;s attempt to catch up. 时间紧迫,埃洛普应加快追赶步伐。 /201309/255239

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