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西安市一医院妇科是公立医院吗飞度指定医院陕西红十字会医院怎么预约

2019年01月23日 01:08:12    日报  参与评论()人

陕西省雁塔友好概况陕西医院人流Being a teenager is hard. And so is living with one, I#39;m told.我被告知作为一个青少年不容易,和青春期的人在一起生活也不容易No human gets to escape this moody, angsty, confusing phase.没有人能逃避开这段情绪化的、焦虑的、迷茫的时期。And interestingly, such an extended adolescence is unique to humans.有趣的是,这样一段延长的青春期是人类独有的。Other animals grow up a lot faster than we do.其他的动物成长速度比我们快得多。And you may think our teen years are just about streamlining bodies for baby making,你也许认为我们的青少年期只是在长身体以繁衍后代,but as it turns out, the storm of sex hormones that we associate with the teenage years,但事实明,青春期时性荷尔蒙的大爆发are only a small part of what#39;s really going on in the teenage body.只占那时身体变化的一小部分。Most of the action, it turns out, is happening in the brain.大部分的变化发生在大脑。Until fairly recently, we thought that the brain finished the nuts and bolts of its development,直到最近,我们还认为大脑已基本发育完全by the time we started kindergarten. But really,在我们开始上幼儿园的时候,但事实上,when puberty starts, it undergoes massive remodeling.当进入青春期大脑会开始大规模地重塑。This amounts to several years of neural growing pains,这意味着长达数年的神经成长的烦恼as well as the other more visible growth that#39;s going on all over your body.So take heart!以及其它你身体上下更易见的成长变化。所以振作起来!Whether you#39;re going through it now, or about to go through it,不管你是正在经历青春期还是正要经历or count yourself among the veterans of that turbulent decade,或是认为自己在那混乱的十年里已是个老手know that the result of the teen years is a stronger, faster, more sophisticated brain.你要知道最后你将有一个更强壮、更快速、更精密的大脑。If there were someone that told me twenty years ago...如果二十年前有人这样告诉我就好了……Let#39;s start with that obvious scapegoat of adolescent anguish, hormones.让我们从看上去是导致青春期烦恼的罪魁祸首,但其实是“替罪羊”的荷尔蒙说起。That word itself, is kind of a lazy shorthand这个单词本身即是一种偷懒的简易表达that people use to describe the chemicals that some glands secrete, that can affect our behavior.是人们用来描述从一些腺体分泌的、可以影响我们行为的化学物质。But the fact is, hormones have all kinds of jobs that have nothing to do with where you grow hair,但事实是,荷尔蒙有诸多作用,但不能决定你在哪里长毛发,or what turns you on, or whether you feel glum for no apparent reason不能使你“性奋”,也不会让你不明原因地觉得沮丧Hormones keep your heart beating, and your body hydrated, and they make your organs grow,荷尔蒙使你的心脏保持跳动,保持身体水分,使器官生长,and make you grow bone, and muscle, and skin!使你生出骨头、肌肉与皮肤。What people actually mean when they talk about #39;teenage hormones#39;, are sex hormones.当人们谈论“青春期荷尔蒙”时,他们实际上指的是性荷尔蒙。And yes, puberty involves a whole series of sex hormones storms,是的,青春期包含一整个系列的性荷尔蒙爆发,the first of which actually kicks in before you#39;re outta Primary School.最早的性荷尔蒙分泌实际上在你小学毕业前就已开始。That#39;s when the Adrenal glands start secreting androgens, which triggers the growth那时肾上腺开始分泌雄激素,从而引起in activity of the skin#39;s sebaceous glands, making skin more oily.皮脂腺的生长加速,使皮肤变得油腻。Soon enough, more apocrine or sweat glands get activated increasing body odor.很快,更多的分泌腺或汗腺活跃使得身体气味增加。Then comes the waves of hormonal agents that start activating the gonads.然后大量的荷尔蒙开始促进生殖器官的发育。For boys, this influx of luteinizing hormones from the pituitary gland, get testosterone from the testes,对于男孩,从脑垂体大量涌入的促黄体生成素,促进睾丸大量分泌睾丸素,and suddenly, that guy has up to fifty times more testosterone than he did before puberty.一下子,那家伙获得了比青春期前最多50倍的睾丸素。This also changes the shape of the male body, promoting hair growth,and building up lean muscle mass,这也改变了雄性的身体,促进毛发生长,塑造肌肉线条,just as the increased presence of estrogen in girls rearranges the deposition of their fats, stimulating the growth of breasts.就像女孩们体内增加的雌激素会重新安排脂肪的位置,促进胸部的增长。Humans are actually lucky to experience the craziness of puberty only once,人类很幸运,只用经历一次青春期的疯狂,many other animals undergo multiple similarly intense hormonal rodeos as they enter sexually active periods,很多动物在进入发情期时要经历数次类似的紧张的荷尔蒙起伏变化,sometimes called the rot or heat, every new breeding season.有时可称为“堕落或疯狂”。Some male species completely stop eating during their breeding period, because they#39;re just that sex crazed.在繁殖期一些雄性品种会完全停止进食,它们只是为性疯狂。And yet all that said, teen are far less ruled in their hormones than you might think. There are other factors that play here.然而说了那么多,青春期对荷尔蒙的控制并没有你想的那么大。还有其它的因素在影响。For example, your favorite moody teen may be by turns punchy, angry, depressed, or in a zombie like fog,比如,你那处于青春期的情绪化的宝贝,也许变得寡言、愤怒、沮丧或像僵尸一样无神,because of their chronic lack of sleep.只是因为长期的缺少睡眠Sleep is vital to everyone, but it#39;s specially important for kids and teens,睡眠对每个人都很重要,对小孩和青少年尤其重要,because it#39;s during sleep that your pituitary gland releases an essential growth hormone, necessary for development.因为在睡眠中,脑垂体会释放一种重要的生长激素,这对于成长很重要。A normal sleep cycle driven by circadian rhythm, is regulated by the daytime release of cortisol,一个遵循24小时节律的正常的睡眠循环,由人体白天释放的皮质醇which helps you wake up, and melatonin, which helps you wind down when it gets dark.和晚上释放的褪黑激素调节皮质醇使人保持清醒,褪黑激素使人保持平静。But this biology of sleep timing changes as we age and as puberty begins, teens#39; sleep clocks get pushed back.但是这个生物钟会随年龄变化,当进入青春期,睡点会推后。Most adults start producing melatonin 10 p.m. ish,大多数的成年人晚上10点开始分泌褪黑激素,but one study showed that teenagers don#39;t start producing melatonin until closer to 1am!但一项研究显示青少年直到凌晨1点才开始分泌褪黑激素!This may be because puberty#39;s hormonal frenzy is stalling the release of melatonin,这也许是因为青少年疯狂的荷尔蒙推迟了褪黑激素的释放。and could partly explain why so many teens stay up late, energized by the night,这也可以一定程度上解释为什么那么多的青少年熬夜,晚上精力旺盛,but had a really hard time rolling outta bed with the alarm.闹钟响了却起不来床。Of course it#39;s a bit of a chicken and egg deal, since watching reruns of The Simpsons,当然这有点像先有鸡还是先有蛋的问题了,因为看《辛普森一家》的重播and playing Call o#39; Duty late at night continues to stimulate the brain, which may further delay the release of melatonin.或者玩《使命召唤》到很晚,这些都在刺激大脑,也许会更一步推迟褪黑激素的释放,Still, some researchers are starting to advocate for pushing back high school start times in the morning,所以,有些研究者开始提倡将高校的早晨开始上课时间往后调,in the hopes of having more focused students.希望这样有更多集中精力的学生。So we#39;ve got sex hormones changing the bodies, and a lack o#39; sleep to contend with,那么我们知道了性荷尔蒙会改变身体,以及缺少睡眠对人的影响,but increasing evidences suggest that, there is something much bigger at work that#39;s making teenagers so #39;teenager-ry#39;. Their brains!但是越来越多的据表明,有些事有更大的影响使得青少年如此的与众不同。即他们的大脑!It turns out that brains actually take longer than we thought, to fully mature.事实表明,大脑确实需要比我们想象的更长的时间来发育成熟。I don#39;t mean physical size - our brains are aly about 95% full-sized by the time we#39;re just six我不是指物理大小--在我们只有6岁时,我们的大脑就已经有成年人95%大小了but more in the sense of the connections inside the brain.我指的是大脑内部的神经连接。Adults - for the most part - know how to make decisions by evaluating choices, and weighting consequences.大部分成年人知道如何做决定--通过对比选择,权衡结果They do this with their prefrontal cortex, which is responsible for controlling impulses and emotions, and forming judgments.通过他们的前叶额皮质层,这负责控制冲动和情绪来做出决定。Its neurons chat with the neurons in other regions of the brain, responsible for - say it - memory or movement, through synapses.它的神经元与大脑其它的区域的神经元进行交流,比如说,负责记忆和行动的神经元,这种交流通过突触进行。The thing is, teenage brains don#39;t quite work like this yet.真实情况是,青少年的大脑还没有像这样运作。The prefrontal cortex may not be fully developed until you#39;re mid-twenties,他们的前叶额皮质层也许无法发育完全,直到25岁左右,and teen synapses - those ;lines; of communication - are still growing, and specializing. They#39;re also - slow.青少年的突触(即脑内神经的交流线路)还在成长中、细化中。它们同时也非常缓慢。As an adolescent brain keeps developing, its axons - the long ;tail-like; parts of the neurons that transmits signals to other neurons在一个青少年的大脑成长过程中become more and more insulated by a fatty layer called the #39;Myelin Sheath#39;.轴突变得越来越不易受影响,因为被一层厚的称为髓鞘保护膜所包裹。This padding greatly increases the cell#39;s transmission speed,这层包裹大大提升了细胞的传输速度and while it helps adults make faster decisions, it isn#39;t fully formed in teens.这使得成年人做决定时更迅速,却在青少年时期无法完全发育完成。These changes occur slowly, beginning at the back o#39; the brain, where the oldest and most fundamental brain parts reside,这些变化发生得十分缓慢,开始于大脑的后部,即大脑最古老和最基础的部分and slowly working its way forward to the more advanced and complicated brain bits.然后逐渐地往更先进和复杂的部分发展。The prefrontal cortex is the last to be hooked up and shaped.前叶额皮质层是最后被连接和塑造的,So it#39;s important to keep in mind, that just because your favorite teenager stayed up until sunrise因此这很重要你要记住,你的宝贝在考试的前一天晚上binge-watching #39;The Walking Dead#39; the night before an exam, it doesn#39;t mean they#39;re dumb or lazy,无节制地看《行尸走肉》直到天亮并不意味着他们又蠢又懒their brain are just literally finishing being built.只是因为他们的大脑还在塑造中。But at the same time, because all o#39; this brain building#39;s just starting to peak,同时,因为他们的大脑塑造开始达到顶点,this is also, when the brain starts getting thinned out.这也是大脑开始清理多余连接的时候。You actually start losing connections that you don#39;t use enough, in a process called synaptic pruning -那些你用得不频繁的连接会消失,这一进程称为突触修剪which has led to a theory that this is kind of a #39;use it or lose it#39; phase.由此引出一种“用进废退”的理论。Meaning, adolescence could be an specially important time to use your brain这意味着青少年时期对大脑的使用特别重要play an instrument; engage in sports; write poetry; learn language!演奏一种乐器、参加一项体育活动、写诗、学习新语言!Because by doing these things, you#39;re helping hardwire those synapses, and giving your brain topiary a lovely lasting shape.通过做这些事,这些突触连接会巩固,你的大脑会被修剪成一个可爱又持久的形状。Whereas if you#39;re sitting around all day playing Candy Crush,而如果你整天都坐着玩《糖果粉碎传奇》those will be the connections that survive, which you don#39;t need...这些有关的连接就会留存下来,尽管你并不需要……This shaping of the teen brain manifests itself in other ways too, like in teenage attitudes.这种对青少年大脑形状的塑造也通过其它方式表达出来,比如他们对外界的看法。A group of scientist at the McLean Hospital of Massachusetts, once hooked up a group of adults and a group of teens,美国马萨诸塞州麦克莱恩医院的一队科学家,通过核磁共振设备进行观察,曾组织一组成年人和一组青少年to MRI devices and then asked them to identify a series of expressions on photographs of adults faces.让他们鉴别照片上的成年人脸上的系列表情。Interestingly, while adults correctly identified one expression as fear,有趣的是,当成年人正确地指出一个表情是害怕时,the teenagers thought the faces showed anger, surprise, or shock. They weren#39;t registering subtleties well.青少年认为那是表示害怕、惊讶或震惊。他们无法识别这些微妙的差异。Not only that, but the MRI images showed that adults and teens responded with different parts of their brains.不仅如此,核磁共振图像显示成年人和青少年是用大脑的不同的部分回应的。Adults, use the reasonable prefrontal cortex, while the teens mostly use the gut reaction, emotional amigdala,成年人理所当然地使用前叶额皮质层而青少年主要使用直觉反应,即主管情绪的杏仁体,located farther back in the brain.杏仁体位于大脑的更后面。Results like these might help explain why teenagers seem to experience frequent mood swings.这样的试验结果也许可以帮助解释为什么青少年们看起来更易情绪波动。For one, they tend to react quickly from the emotional part of their brain,首先,他们倾向于从大脑的情绪部分快速反应without running those reactions by the more rational frontal cortex,而不是用更理智的前叶额皮质层,and two, it could be that they#39;re just mising expressions, and therefore the intentions behind them.其次,有可能他们只是误解了试验的表情及其后的意图。The frontal cortex also helps people relate to, and understand each other,前叶额皮质层也可以帮助人们建立联系,理解彼此and you can imagine what happens when concern is misjudged as anger; or worry, as disappointment.所以你可以想象当关心被误解为生气或担心被误解为失望时会发生什么。The Fresh Prince has an entire song about it.Fresh Prince就有一整首歌是关于这个的。But the truth is, as much as parents just don#39;t understand, teens don#39;t always understand either.但事实是,父母常常无法理解他们的小孩,少年自己也常常无法理解。When the emotional amigdala, and the more rational cortex aren#39;t fully hooked up yet,当负责情绪的杏仁体与更理智的前叶额皮质层还没有完全连结好,that can make it hard for teenagers to productively work through emotions.青少年们就很难控制好情绪。This kind of reactionary, impulsive behavior may also lead to more risk taking.这种叛逆和冲动行为也许会导致更危险的行为。Adolescence is the time when we#39;re most likely to experiment with whatever booze, or drugs is available,青少年时期我们最容易体验酒精或毒品,and unfortunately, it#39;s also the time our developing brains are most vulnerable to lasting effects不幸的是,那也是我们塑造中的大脑最脆弱、会受到永久影响的时期。Studies have shown that teens are more likely to become addicted to drugs and alcohol, than adults研究已经表明,青少年比成年人更容易沉迷于毒品或酒精,partly because their brains are more attuned to their reward centers.一部分原因是他们的大脑对脑内的奖赏区域更熟悉,While the teenage prefrontal cortex is still developing, their #39;Nucleus Accumbens#39;,因为他们的前叶额皮质层还在发育中,他们的“伏隔核”or #39;pleasure and reward zone#39;, forms early on.或“愉悦和奖赏区域”成型更早。Neuroimaging studies have shown that when presented with a big potential reward,神经影像研究表明当有大的潜在的奖赏时,teen brains light up way more than kids or adults brains, but if the reward was small,青少年的大脑亮起来的区域比小孩或成年人更多,但当奖赏很小时teen brains hardly fired at all.他们的大脑几乎没有反应。So basically, give an adolescent a pat on the back, and you#39;ll get a shrug.所以基本上,在一个青少年背后轻拍一下,他只会耸耸肩。Give them a hot date or a wining goal, and their brains light up like Vegas.给他们一个火辣的约会或一个令人振奋的目标,他们的大脑会闪亮得像。This of course, does not always result in great judgment.基于这样的反应,你不能指望他们能做出多伟大的决定。A jacked up thrill-seeking impulse, combined with exquisite pang of peer pressure,一股上涌的寻找刺激的冲动加上同伴的压力带来的痛苦plus a new driver#39;s license, new sex parts, and access to substances can lead to some not good results.和一个新的驾照、新的性伴侣再加上毒品,这些足够导致一些不好的结果。But still, this long and some times tedious remodeling process that our bodies go through in the teenage years, isn#39;t all bad.但是话说回来,我们青春期的身体经历的这个长长的、有时候有些乏味的重塑过程并不全是坏事。Many scientists have pointed out that our delayed adolescence lets our brains keep their flexibility longer,许多科学家指出,较长的青春期使得我们的大脑保持灵活更长的时间which Yeah, may make teens a little slow, but also more adaptable, as they prepare for the adult world.也许会使青少年长得有点慢,但更能适应随后到来的成人世界。In this way, you can see teen impulsiveness as boldness; or independent thinking, and moodiness,从这个意义上说,你可以将青春期的冲动当成大胆或独立思考,as a source of new found empathy; and excitability, as passion.将感性当作共鸣,兴奋过度当作热情。Which means, there#39;s a lot of awesome energy floating around out there y to decrease all kinds of world suck就是说,这些精力旺盛的青春期的人们在准备改变这个世界的旧有成见。Thanks for watching the SciShow, and thanks specially to all of our subscribers on Subbable, who make this channel possible!感谢观看SciShow。特别要谢谢我们在Subbale上的所有贡献者。有他们才有这个频道!You can be an honorary associate producer of SciShow, or even pick the topic of a future episode!你也可以成为SciShow的一名荣誉制作者,甚至决定未来某一系列的主题!To find out how, go to ;subbable.com/scishow;. And you can always find us on Facebook and Twitter, and in the comments below,具体方式,请至subbale.com/scishow。你也可以在Facebook和Twitter及其下的部分找到我们。and if you wanna keep gettin#39; smarter with us here at SciShow, you can go to ;youtube.com/scishow; and subscribe.如果你想和我们一起变得更聪明,欢迎至youtube.com/scishow订阅我们的节目。 Article/201706/515382西安早孕试纸检查多少钱 I need to make a fire for tonight,我要为晚上生火做准备and there#39;s no shortage of deadwood in this forest.好在这林子里有许多枯枝朽木Get some of this birch bark out拿些桦树皮出来and just really rough it up and then it will take the spark.然后揉揉搓搓 就可以制造火花来点火了The great thing about birch bark is it will light even when it#39;s damp.用桦树皮的好处就是 就算弄湿了它也还能燃着And that#39;s all the oils inside it.因为桦皮中含油Build up a big bird#39;s nest with all this kindling and it will dry out as well.用这些引火柴堆成鸟巢的形状 让它们也被烘干It#39;s always worth nurturing your fire when it#39;s little.火苗很小的时候要注意添加柴火And it will look after you when it gets big.火生起来之后 便可以保护你了My fire will keep me warm and safe.火可以让我感到温暖安全Whenever you#39;re camping out, you#39;re gonna be vulnerable.在外安营扎寨 一定要保持警惕The thing is, I know there are wolves and bears in this area.重要的是 我知道 这片地区有狼和熊出没There#39;s a lot of mythology around wolves and packs of wolves attacking humans.有很多神话都描述过狼 成群结队地攻击人类The reality is,if you see a wolf in the wild,you#39;re incredibly lucky.而事实是 如果你在野外遇见狼 那你就可以去买票了But, you know, I#39;m not gonna take any chances tonight.但我今晚会做好一切准备防范未然I#39;m gonna make a really simple torch,我要做个简易的火炬so if I do hear anything or anything comes near this camp,一旦我听到什么或者有东西靠近我的营地I#39;ve got a weapon, which is fire and that is always gonna deter predators.我就可以用火当武器 火是吓跑掠食者的利器 Article/201704/506524渭南龟头炎症

陕西省妇幼保健院看妇科好不好The Milky Way could fit inside宇宙是系的10 million million million times.一千亿亿倍Our entire galaxy#39;s just a dot on the landscape.整个星系只是宇宙中的一个小点In the observable universe,在可观测宇宙中there are 170 billion galaxies just like it.有一千七百亿类似的星系Janna Levin is a professor of theoretical astrophysics.扬娜·莱文是一名理论天体物理学的教授She#39;d like to put every single galaxy we can see on the map.她想把可观测到的每个星系都绘制出来But, before she can do that,但在此之前it#39;s vital to account我们需要先弄清楚for one of the most surprising features of the universe.宇宙的一个惊人特征Making a map of the whole universe绘制宇宙之图is not like mapping a map of the ed States.不同于绘制美国地图It#39;s an observational fact that,据长久以来的观测if you look at the galaxies around us,如果我们看周围的星系and the most distant galaxies that we can see,以及离我们最远的星系they all appear to be moving away from us.你会发现它们都在离我们而去重点解释:1.look at (仔细地)看例句:Don#39;t look at me like that.别那样看着我。2.appear to 看来似乎例句:These stars appear to move around the North Star. 这些星星似乎环绕着北极星转。3.away from 离开例句:He hasn#39;t been away from home before.以前他从没有离开过家。 Article/201705/511736陕西省中医科哪家好 新英语900句之基础篇 Lesson34:TALKING ABOUT PAST ACTIVITIES谈过去活动496. It kind of reminds#61557; me of that trip we took with Mom and Dad to Canada. 这有点让我想起了我们和爸爸妈妈去加拿大的那次旅行。497. I don’t remember#61558; how cold it was though. 但是我记不起来有多冷了。498. Where exactly did we go in Canada? 我们去了加拿大的哪儿?499. How could I possibly forget? 我怎么可能忘记呢?500. I didn’t run out of money. 我没有花光钱。501. I used to like surfing#61559;. 我以前喜欢冲浪。502. I once had a fever#61560; for almost a week. 我有一次发了近一个星期的高烧。503. I broke my leg skiing five years ago. 五年前我滑雪的时候摔断了腿。504. This reminds me of my trip to France. 这让我想起了我的法国之旅。505. I’ve only been on an airplane#61561; once. 我只坐过一次飞机。506. I used to live in Mexico. 我以前住在墨西哥。507. I got in a car accident#61562; last year. 我去年出了车祸。508. My dog saved my life one time. 我的救过我一次命。509. I spent 3 years in the army. 我在部队呆过三年。510. I loved to go fishing with my dad. 我喜欢和我爸爸一起去钓鱼。【生词解读】1. remind v.提醒;使想起;使记起2. remember v.记得;想起;回忆起3. surfing n. 冲浪游戏 4. fever n.发烧;发热;热度5. airplane n.飞机6. accident n.意外事情;偶然因素;机遇 /200708/17047临潼区妇幼保健医院有无痛人流术吗

西安市临潼区人民医院男科Hi again, welcome back to engvid.com, I#39;m Adam, today#39;s lesson is meant to show you ways of increasing your vocabulary.再次见到大家很高兴,欢迎回到engvid.com,我是Adam,今天的课程是要教你们一些增加词汇量的方法。I know some of the other teachers on engvid.com have done these lessons.我知道engvid.com上有些其他的老师已经做过这种课程了。I just want to throw my two cents in if you know what that means, is I want to give my own piece of advice.我只是想跟大家分享一下我的拙见,如果你们知道这是什么意思的话......也就是我想给你们一些我自己的建议。I have a few ideas for you, we are going to start with these, we#39;re going to look at a few others more practical ones as well.我给你们准备了一些方法,我们会先从这些开始讲,然后还会再看其他几个更实用的想法。The most important thing that you can do to increase your vocabulary is , a lot.要增加词汇量,你们能做的最重要的事是阅读,大量阅读。What should you ? Anything and everything.But the most important thing is what you are interested in, okay?你们应该读什么?任何东西,所有材料都可以。但最重要的是阅读你们感兴趣的材料。If you like sports, a sports magazine.If you like movies, a movie magazine, even better the script of the movie.如果你们喜欢运动,那就读本运动杂志。如果喜欢电影,那就看本电影杂志,能读一读电影剧本就更好了。If the movie is based on a novel, the novel.For example, recently the movie Life of Pi was very famous in the theaters.如果这部电影是根据一本小说改编的,那就去读这本小说。举个例子来说,最近在各大影院都很火爆的电影《少年派的奇幻漂流》。It#39;s based on a novel, the novel, it#39;s a pretty good book.它就是根据一部小说改编的,这本小说很不错,你们可以看一下。My favorite movie Shawshank Redemption, based on a novella by Stephen King.我最喜欢的电影《肖申克的救赎》,改编自Stephen King的中篇小说。Read it, best way to increase your vocabulary.Also don#39;t just learn new words and try to remember them.去读一读吧,这是增加词汇量最好的方法。还有,学新单词的时候不要只是干巴巴地学并且试着记住它们。Write, write a lot, use the words you#39;re learning, right?你们要动手写,多写,要把你们正在学的单词用起来。Every time you learn a new word, you should have a notebook with you all the time anyway.不管怎样,每次你们学习一个新单词的时候,都应该在身边带一个笔记本。Write the word in a sentence, but not just any sentence, make sure that the sentence clearly shows that you know the meaning of the word, okay?用这个单词造一个句,但是也不要随便造句,你们要确保这个句子能够清晰地显示你们知道这个单词的意思,懂吗?So let#39;s... for example, I know everybody knows this word but... ;beautiful;, everybody knows this word, but let#39;s say it#39;s a new word for you.比如......我知道;beautiful;这个单词你们都认识,每个人都认识这个单词,不过我们假设这对你们来说是个新单词。Don#39;t write ;The sky is beautiful;, it doesn#39;t tell me anything about the word ;beautiful;.不要光写个;The sky is beautiful;,这个句子并没有告诉我任何关于单词;beautiful;的信息。The sky is also blue, does beautiful mean blue?No, make sure you#39;re using something.天空也是蓝色的啊,;beautiful;的意思是蓝色吗?不是,请一定要在句子里加上其他成分。I love to see a beautiful sky that has pretty clouds and sunshine and a nice color, nice shade of blue, because it makes me feel happy.比如:我喜欢看这片有着漂亮的云、阳光和好看的颜色、好看的蓝色的美丽天空,因为它让我觉得很开心。Not the best example, it#39;s a very long sentence but you get my idea.这个例子虽然不是最好的示例,句子太长了,但是你们懂我的意思就好。Now again, coming back to that notebook, always have a notebook with you, always have a pen with you and don#39;t limit yourself to one new word.再说一次,回到笔记本这个话题上来,你们随时都要带一本笔记本,随时都要带一笔,还有,不要局限于一个新单词。When you learn a new word, make sure you learn different forms of the same word, okay?当你们学习一个新单词的时候,请一定要学习同一个单词的不同形式。So for example, the word ;beautiful;, let#39;s say this is a new word for you, you learn the word ;beautiful;.比如单词;beautiful;,我们假设这对你们来说是个新单词,你们在学;beautiful;这个单词。Put it in your adjective column, it#39;s an adjective, that#39;s what you want.把它写在你们笔记本上形容词那一栏,它是个形容词,是你们想学的单词。But why not learn the other forms?For example, what is the adverb form of ;beautiful; ?但是为什么不学学它的其他形式呢?比如,;beautiful;的副词是什么?I think most of you know it, it#39;s ;beautifully;, so you have now two new words.我想你们大部分人都知道,那就是;beautifully;,那么现在你们有两个新单词了。What is the noun form of ;beautiful;?It#39;s ;beauty;, you now have three new words in your vocabulary.;beautiful;的名词形式是什么呢?是;beauty;,现在你们的词汇量里增加了三个新单词。Is there a verb form of ;beautiful; ?Yes, as a matter of fact there is.;beautiful;有没有动词形式呢?有,事实上还真有。;Beautify;, means to make beautiful, you now have four new words.Think of other words, ;beautician;.那就是;beautify;,它的意思是“使......美丽”,你们现在学会了四个新单词。再想想其他单词,比如;beautician;。;Beautician; is a person who works making people more beautiful, she does facials and manicures and pedicures and wax and whatever else these beauticians do.;beautician;(美容师)的工作职责是把人们变得更加美丽,她会做美容、美甲、足疗、脱毛以及任何这些美容师会做的其他事情。Anyways try to find other forms, learn many words instead of just one word, okay?反正你们一定要试着找到单词的其他形式,学习多个单词而不是仅仅只学一个。Now some people like to study roots and suffixes and prefixes.有些人喜欢研究词根、后缀和前缀。Personally I#39;m not a huge fan of this recommendation, but first, let me explain what a root is.个人来说,我对这个做法并不是很推荐,不过我还是先给你们解释一下什么是词根吧。For example, you have the root ;-ject;, so you learn inject, eject, object, subject, all the different words that come from the root,举个例子来说,你们看到了一个词根;-ject;,然后就可以学到这些单词:inject, eject, object, subject,这些不同的单词都是来自同一个词根,so many people only study the word or the root ;-ject; and think that it will help them understand all the words with this root.于是很多人就只学习这个单词或词根;-ject;,他们觉得这样就能弄懂所有由这个词根组成的单词。It#39;s a good idea if you have the patience.想法不错,但是你们得有这个耐心。I think most people who are studying English don#39;t like to study roots, because it#39;s like studying another language.我觉得大部分学英语的人都不喜欢学习词根,因为这就像在学另一门语言一样。If it works for you, do it, if it doesn#39;t, don#39;t, okay.如果这个方法对你们有用的话就照着做,如果没用就不要做。And now another thing you can do--listen.Listen to any spoken English that you can.现在我们来讲讲你们能做的另一件事——听。听任何你们能找到的英语口语。I think some of you may have heard of Ted.com, it#39;s a good website, people give talks and lectures about different topics.我想你们中一些人也许听说过Ted.com,那是个很好的网站,在那上面人们会发表关于不同话题的讲话和演讲。Listen, listen carefully.Anytime you hear a word that you don#39;t recognize, write it down.听一听他们的讲话,认真听。任何时候你们听到了不认识的单词都要把它写下来。If you don#39;t know the spelling, no problem, write it phonetically.如果你们不知道这个单词怎么写也没关系,按照读音把它写下来。Write the word just like it sounds, then if you have access to a transcript,根据它听起来的样子把这个单词写下来,然后如果你们能看到文本的话,means all the words that were spoken written down, check the transcript and find your word.也就是被记录下来的演讲的全部内容,如果能看到的话,请核对一下文本,找到你们不认识的那个单词。If you can#39;t, if you don#39;t have a transcript, go to a dictionary.如果找不到,如果你们没有文本的话,那就用字典。Now some of you have asked me to recommend a dictionary, very simple, and online you can get the paper one, or the online one.你们中有些人叫我推荐一部字典,这非常简单,从网上你们能找到纸质版的,也能找到电子版的。Merriam Webster#39;s, m-w.com, American English, oxford dictionaries.com, British English, okay?你们可以在m-w.com上找到韦氏字典,那是一部美式英语的字典,然后在oxford dictionaries.com上能找到英式英语的字典。Now I know I#39;ve seen a lot of students use like their electronic dictionaries,我看见过很多学生使用他们的电子词典,they go from like English to Korean, English to Japanese, English to Spanish, don#39;t do that anymore, okay?他们用的是像英韩词典、英日词典和英西词典之类的,不要再这么做了好吗?English to English, this way you#39;re learning more words as you#39;re learning one word.使用英英词典,这样你们在学习一个单词的时候能学到更多的单词。I don#39;t know this word, I look at the definition, in the definition I might be... I might be learning other words, okay?比如我不认识这个单词,我去看了看释义,在释义里我也许会学到其他的单词。You will maximize how many words you learn by using an English to English dictionary.通过使用英英词典,你们学到的单词数量会达到最大化。Now again about those electronic dictionaries, sometimes like especially when people are trying to write,我再说一下电子词典方面的事情,有时候,尤其是当人们在写作的时候,they will write a sentence in their native language and then press translate on this dictionary, and get a sentence in English.他们会用母语写一个句子,然后按词典上的翻译键,接着就能得到一个英语的句子。Now I#39;ve seen sentences that I knew came from the dic... from the electronic dictionary, because they made no sense.我看到过一些我一眼就知道是从电子词典中翻译来的句子,因为它们根本讲不通。Okay? They were terrible terrible sentences, don#39;t do that, okay?那些句子超级超级糟糕,不要这么做好吗?The people who made these dictionaries might not know English very well, keep that in mind, okay?那些制造这些电子词典的人也许并不是很懂英语,记住这一点。So these are some ideas, now I#39;m going to tell you what I think are the best ideas to increase your vocabulary.以上是我告诉你们的一些想法,现在我要跟你们讲我认为的增加词汇量最好的方法。Okay, so now we#39;re going to look at a couple of other ways you can increase your vocabulary.现在我们要来看几个能帮你们增加词汇量的其他方法。These are very effective but they take a lot of patience, a lot of perseverance.下面的这些方法非常有效,但是需要很多耐心和很大的毅力。You have to try hard, you have to keep doing it because vocabulary, not so easy right?你们必须努力,必须坚持,因为增加词汇量可不是件简单的事,不是吗?Okay, so first we#39;re going to start with cards.好了,首先我们要从卡片开始。You get yourself a stack of cards, maybe this big, not too big, because you want to carry them in your pocket, take them with you everywhere you go, okay?你们要给自己准备一叠卡片,也许这么大,不要太大了,因为你们要把它们放在口袋里,去哪儿都要随身带着。On one side of the cards, you#39;re going to write words, four maybe five words that are new words for you.在卡片的一面,你们要写上四五个新单词。You#39;re going to write sentences on the back, on the other side of the card.在卡片的另一面也就是背面,你们要写下句子。You#39;re going to use these words in sentences so you have a clear meaning or you can write the meaning of the word, dictionary meaning, both okay.你们要把这些单词用到句子里去,这样你们就有一个清楚的含义,或者你们也可以写下这个单词的意思,字典上的释义,两种都可以。Now you#39;re going to split your cards into three piles, okay?然后你们要把这些卡片分成三摞。You can like have the pile of cards of words that you know, words you#39;re very comfortable with, eventually you will have a pile like this.你们可以分出一摞写着你们认识的单词的卡片,就是那些很顺口的单词,最终你们会得到像这样的一摞卡片。Words that you#39;re very comfortable with, you know them very well, you don#39;t need to look at these cards very often, okay?这一摞是你们觉得很舒、非常了解的单词,这些卡片不需要你们很频繁地去看。Now before I continue, where do you get these words?在继续之前,我问一下你们知道从哪儿找这些单词吗?Get from a TOEFL site or an IELTS site or an SAT site or an SAT book, for example they have lists of words that you need to learn.从或者雅思网站上找,或者SAT网站或SAT书,上面有很多你们要学的单词。Put all these words on cards, split them up like this.把所有这些单词写在卡片上,然后像这样把它们分出来。You know these words very well, don#39;t need to look at.如果你们对这些单词很熟知的话,就不需要看了。These words you#39;re almost sure or at least you recognize these words, you#39;ve seen them before, you#39;ve heard them before, you can guess what they mean maybe in context.下面这些单词你们几乎能确定它们的意思,或者至少能认出它们,你们以前见过或听过这些单词,也许根据上下文能猜出它们的意思。So you#39;re not sure, put them in this...this pile, this pile you will look at all the time.那么对于你们不太确定的单词,把它们归到这一摞,这一摞卡片你们要一直看。And then in the last pile, you put words that you really don#39;t know, okay?接下来,最后一摞的单词是你们真的不认识的单词。This is the pile you will look at the most, you will study these words.这是你们要看的时间最多的一摞单词,要好好学习这些单词。As they become more familiar, you move them to this pile, this pile you study also very regularly.等它们变得熟悉了一些之后,就把它们移到这一摞,这一摞卡片你们也要定期学习。You take this... this pile is the one you put in your pocket and take with you, when you go outside.这一摞是你们出门的时候要放在口袋里随身带着的。On the bus, look at your words, long line at the bank, pull out your cards, look at the words, okay?在公交车上的时候,你们可以看看这些单词,在里排长队的时候,你们也可以把卡片拿出来看看单词。When this word becomes very comfortable for you, when you know what this word means, move it over to this pile, leave it at home, okay?当这个单词变得对你来说很舒的时候,当你知道了这些单词的意思的时候,就把它移到这一摞里来,这一摞是要留在家里的。Don#39;t know-almost sure-know, study-move-study- move-put aside, once in a while look at them just make sure you remember.你们要经历的过程是:不认识-几乎确定-认识,学习-移动-学习-移动-放在一边,偶尔你们还要再看看这些单词,谨防你们会忘记。Because if you never look at these again, you will forget them, okay?因为如果你们再也不看这些单词的话,就会忘记它们的。So it#39;s all the time, continual, you have to practice, practice, practice, practice.所以要一直看,持续不断地看,你们必须练习、练习、练习再练习。Vocabulary is a lot of memorization, that#39;s the way it is.词汇需要大量的背诵,它就是这么回事。Now here#39;s another thing you can do, okay, this is the last one I#39;ll show you today.现在还有一件事是你们可以做的,这也是我今天要跟你们讲的最后一点。What you do is you make yourself groups of words, okay?你们要做的就是自己把单词分组。You take... you can do it many ways, you can make yourself a little... like a... a little brainstorm.你们可以按照很多方式来做,可以自己做一个小头脑风暴。You, for example if we#39;re looking at root, you write the root in here ;-ject;举个例子来说,如果我们在看词根,你们在这里写下词根;-ject;,and then you wirte reject, inject eject, subject etc, or in a list, however way it works for you.然后写下单词reject, inject eject, subject等等,或者你们也可以列一个表,无论什么方式,只要对你们来说有用就行。So three ways that I will recommend to group words, again if you like the roots, group them like that: eject, reject, object, subject, inject.我会给你们推荐三种单词分组的方法,再说一下,如果你们喜欢词根,那就按照词根分组,比如:eject, reject, object, subject, inject。Now the reason you#39;re going to make groups is because maybe you don#39;t remember object or object, remember, now moreover,要给单词分组的原因是,也许你们不记得;object;的意思了,但是你们记得;-ject;,你们记得这个小组,but you remember ;-ject;, you remember this group, you sort of remember what ;-ject; means, so you can apply it to object.在一定程度上记得;-ject;的意思,那么你们就能把这个意思适用于;object;。;-ject; is like push, in most contexts object is push away, refuse, okay?;-ject;有推的意思,在大部分语境中,;object;是推开,也就是拒绝的意思。So if you don#39;t remember the word, hopefully you will remember the idea of the group and then that will remind you what the word means, okay?所以,如果你们不记得这个单词,但愿你们记得这个小组的概念,然后它们就会提醒你们这个单词的意思。Another group you can use is similar meanings, so synonyms, words that have similar meanings or a similar function, okay?你们能用的另一种分组方法是相似的意义,即同义词,也就是有着相似的含义或者相似功能的单词。So for example, I#39;m going to look at this function ;increase;, extend, expand, accelerate, intensify, reinforce,比如,我要看;increase;(增加)这个功能,那么extend, expand, accelerate, intensify, reinforce,all of these have some sort... in their meaning, have some sort of connection to increase.这些单词的含义都跟;increase;有某种联系。;Extend;, make longer, increase length or time, duration; ;expand;, increase size or scope;;extend;的含义是“使......更长”,“增加长度或时间”,“音延”; ;expand;是“增加规模或范围”;;accelerate;, increase speed; ;intensify;, increase intensity; ;reinforce;, increase strength.;accelerate;是“提高速度”;;intensify;是“加强强度”;;reinforce;是“增加力度”。So you... maybe you see the word ;reinforce;, you#39;re ing something, you see the word ;reinforce;.也许你们看到了单词;reinforce;,也许你们在阅读某个材料的时候看见了;reinforce;这个单词。You#39;re not exactly sure what it means, but you remember the group it was in, the group was the increase group.你们不能完全确定它的意思,但是你们记得它所在的小组,它在;increase;小组里。So ;reinforce; means increase, plus, the context of the sentence you saw it in will help you understand it means increase strength,所以;reinforce;的意思是增加,另外,你们看见的它所在句子的语境也会帮你们理解它的意思,它有“ 增加力量”的意思,or sometimes it could be increase number like a number of soldiers, reinforce the position.或者有时候它也有“增加数量”的意思,比如士兵的数量,或者加强地位。The last group is theme, for example let#39;s say for today that the theme is technology, okay?最后一种分组是主题,比如我们假设今天的主题是科技。So you write words that have to do with technology.那么你们写的单词就要和科技有关。;Obsolete;, ;state-of-the-art;, ;update;, ;downgrade;, ;cutting-edge;, all these words we can talk about like computer softwares or computers.比如;obsolete;, ;state-of-the-art;, ;update;, ;downgrade;, ;cutting-edge;,所有这些单词我们都能用来谈论电脑软件或者电脑。;Obsolete;, old not useful anymore, nobody uses this anymore...uh... Windows XP maybe not completely obsolete but almost obsolete or hardly anybody uses it anymore.;obsolete;的意思是“旧的,不再有用的,没人会再用的”,比如Windows XP,它也许不是完全废弃的,但是也几乎废弃了,或者基本上没人会再用它了。;State-of-the-art; means the newest; ;cutting-edge;, the newest, the most modern, that the most advanced you can get; ;update; to make newer; ;downgrade; to make less.;state-of-the-art; 的意思是“最新的”;;cutting-edge;是“最新的,最现代的,能获得的最先进的”;;update;的意思是“使......变得更新”;;downgrade;是“使......更差一些”。For example, I have Windows 8, I don#39;t like it, I want to downgrade to Windows 7, but I can#39;t do it, Windows 8 won#39;t let me.举个例子来说,我用的是Windows 8系统,我不喜欢它,想把它降级成Windows 7,但是我没法儿这么做,因为Windows 8不会让我这么做的。But anyway so you have a theme, you have a function, you have the root.不管怎么说,你们有三种分组方法:主题、功能、词根。Learn in chunks, if you don#39;t remember one word, you#39;ll remember the group, it will help you understand the word you#39;re looking at, okay?学习词块,如果你们记不住单个单词,你们会记住整个小组,它会帮你们弄懂眼前的这个单词的。Go to engvid.com, I#39;ll give you a quiz, give you some more practice with these ideas,你们可以去engvid.com网站上看看,我会在那里上传一个小测验,让你们多练习一下这些方法,and subscribe to my YouTube channel and come again and we will do this again.Thanks!同时也别忘了订阅我的YouTube频道,还有,我们下次上课的时候欢迎再来观看。谢谢! 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