天涯部落

小圈子,大声音!呼朋引伴网聚部落!

创建新部落?

广州天河市哪家医院做人流好度排名快咨询

楼主:飞度管家养生在线 时间:2019年05月20日 13:02:30 点击:0 回复:0
脱水模式给他打赏只看楼主阅读设置
Science and technology科学技术Collective behavior集体行为Follow my leader跟领导走A groups “intelligence” depends in part on its membersignorance群体“智慧”部分依赖于群体成员的“愚昧”HUMAN beings like to think of themselves asthe animal kingdoms smartest alecks.人们总是喜欢将自己看作动物王国中最聪明的。It may come as a surprise to some,therefore, that Iain Couzin of Princeton University believes they havesomething to learn from lesser creatures that move about in a large crowd.然而,令一些人感到惊讶的是,普林斯顿大学的Iain Couzin相信人们能从更低等的、大群活动的动物中学到东西。Ashe told the AAAS meeting in Washington, DC, groups of animals often make whatlook like wise decisions, even when most of the members of those groups areignorant of what is going on.正如他在华盛顿AAAS召开的会议上所说的,虽然群居动物中的大部分成员对接下来会发生什么一无所知,但整个群体却常常做出看起来更明智的决定。Coming to that conclusion was not easy.得出这个结论并不容易。Beforelessons can be drawn from critters perched on the lower rungs of theevolutionary ladder, their behaviour must first be understood.因为必须首先理解这些动物的行为,人们才能借鉴,而由于这些动物处于进化阶梯的较低位置。One way to dothis is to tag them with devices that follow them around—motion-capturesensors, radio transmitters or global-positioning-system detectors that can puta precise figure on their movements.要做到这点,首先要用设备为他们打上标签以便跟踪—采用运动传感器、无线电发射装置和全球定位系统的探测器能精确描述它们活动。Unfortunately, it is impossible to tag morethan a few individuals in a herd, flock or swarm.不幸的是,能被标定的个体只是兽群、鸟群或蜂群中的少数。Researchers have thereforetended to extrapolate from these few results by using various computer models.研究者们因此将这些少量数据采用各种电脑模型进行推演。Dr Couzin has done quite a bit of this himself.Couzin士已经完成了一部分工作。Most recently, he has modelledthe behaviour of shoals of fish.最近,他建立了鱼群行为模型。He posited that how they swim will depend oneach individuals competing tendencies to stick close to the others while not actually getting too close to anyparticular other fish.他推测鱼群游动的方式有赖于鱼类个体倾向于截住对方,而又不真的靠近对方的竞争方式。It turns out that by fiddling with these tendencies, avirtual shoal can be made to swirl spontaneously in a circle, just like somereal species do.基于这些倾向就归纳出模型,这些模拟的鱼群可以自行转圈巡游,就像真的一样。That is a start.那只是一个开始。But real shoals do not existto swim in circles.不过真实的鱼群并不只是转圈游动。Their purpose is to help their members eat and avoid beingeaten.他们的目的是帮助成员觅食,同时防止被猎食。At any one time, however, only some individuals know about—and can thusreact to—food and threats.然而,无论什么时候,只有一些个体能对食物和威胁做出反应。Dr Couzin therefore wanted to find out how suchtemporary leaders influence the behaviour of the rest.因此,Couzin士想找出这些临时领导如何影响其余个体行为。He discovered that leadership is extremelyefficient.Couzin士发现这种领导方式及其有效。The larger a shoal is, the smaller is the proportion of it thatneeds to know what is actually going on for it to feed and avoid predationeffectively.鱼群越大,需要知道接下来做什么才能有效觅食和避免危险的“领导”比例就越小。Indeed, having too many leaders with conflicting opinions resultsin confusion.的确,领导越多,矛盾观点造成的混乱就越多。At least, that is true in the model.至少,模型上是这样。He is now testing it inreality.他现在正在真实环境下测试模型。Tracking individual fish in a shoal is hard.跟踪记录鱼群中的个体很困难。Fortunately, advances in pattern-recognition software mean it is no longerimpossible.幸运的是,模式识别软件的进步让这变成可能。Systems designed to follow people are now clever enough not only totrack a person in a crowd, but also to tell in which direction his head isturned.为跟踪人类设计的系统已经足够智能,不仅能跟踪人群中的某个人,而且能显示这个人的头转向何方。Since, from above, the oval shape of a human head is not unlike theoblong body of a fish, this software can, with a little tweaking, followpiscine antics, too.因此,尽管鱼类的身体是长条形,与这个软件可以识别的人类椭圆形头部不同,从原理上说,只要稍作修改使之适应鱼类外形即可。Robo fish机器鱼Dr Couzin has been using a program developedby Colin Twomey, a graduate student at his laboratory, to track individual fishin a tank.Couzin士一直在使用他实验室的研究生Colin Twomey开发的程序来记录水池中鱼类个体的行为。The result is not just a model of shoaling fish, but a precisenumerical representation of their actual movements and fields of vision.这个成果不仅是鱼群的模型,更是鱼群真实行动和视野的精确数值反应。Thatmeans it is possible to investigate whether real-life fishy leaders have thesame effect on a group as their virtual kin.这就意味着深入研究真实鱼群中的领导们与他们的“模拟亲戚”在鱼群中是否有同样影响变成可能。Alas, merely observing a shoal does not makeit clear which individuals lead and which follow.然而,仅仅只观察一个鱼群并不能清楚地区分哪个是领导,哪个是随从。Instead, Dr Couzin has builta biddable robot three-spined stickleback.作为替代,Couzin士制作了一条能发出命令的机器三棘刺鱼。A preliminary study of a shoal often flesh-and-blood sticklebacks shows that they do indeed mingle with therobot and that they follow its leadership cues as predicted.对一个有十条真实刺鱼鱼群的初步研究显示,他们确实接纳了那条机器鱼,并且接受它的领导指示。He is now making arobot predator to see how the shoal reacts to less benign intruders.他现在正在制作一个机器猎食者,用来观察鱼群对凶猛入侵者的反应。If the models are anything to go by, the bestoutcome for the group—in this case, not being eaten—seems to depend on mostmembers being blissfully unaware of the world outside the shoal and simplytaking their cue from others.如果模型一切正常,那么就可得出对群体来说最好的结果—不会被吃掉—这看起来有赖于大多数成员对鱼群外部世界毫无知觉,仅仅只是接受其他鱼指示的“傻鱼傻福”。This phenomenon, Dr Couzin argues, applies to allmanner of organisms, from individual cells in a tissue to voters in the democratic process.Couzin士指出,这个现象符合所有的组织行为,从组织中的个体单位到民主过程中的选民。His team has aly begun probing thequestion of voting patterns.他的研究团队已经开始探索选举模式的问题。But is ignorance really political bliss?然而,愚昧真是政治之福吗?DrCouzins models do not yet capture what happens when the leaders themselvesturn out to be sharks.Couzin士的模型还没有涉及领导们自己变成“鲨鱼”会发生什么。 点击此处下载本期经济学人讲解PDF与音频字幕 /201303/229553Science and Technology Physiognomy Facing the truth科技 面相学 面对真相Why a mans face can lie but still produce orgasms为什么男人那张会骗人的脸还能引起性高潮?THESE days, physiognomy is an unfashionable science.过去,面相学是一门冷门科学。The idea that character is etched into an individuals face is so much at variance with modern notions of free will that research in the area dwindled long ago.;相由心生;的观点严重违背了;自由意志;的现代观念,因此有关于面相与性格关系的研究少之又少。But it is making a tentative comeback.但现在,这种观点却有卷土重来之势。Two recent studies of faces suggest that their features do matter, biologically speaking: they can predict dishonesty and they can provoke orgasm.最近,两份研究表明:个性和面相有关系,即从生物学角度上讲,面相不但可以暴露一个人的不可信度,还可以引发性高潮。The study on dishonesty was done by Michael Haselhuhn and Elaine Wong of the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, and is published in the Proceedings of the Royal Society.关于不可信度的研究有威斯康辛大学密尔沃基分校的麦克?哈塞尔胡恩教授和伊莱恩?黄教授共同完成,实验结果发表在《英国皇家学会会报》上。Dr Haselhuhn and Dr Wong wondered if a feature aly known to reflect aggressiveness in men (but not women) might also predict a tendency to lie and cheat.哈塞尔胡恩教授与黄教授研究攻击性强的男性,认为他们更喜欢撒谎骗人。That feature is the ratio of a faces width to its length. The wider a mans face, the more likely he will hit you.而具有攻击性男性的特点表现在其面部长宽比上,脸宽的男性爱打人。Honest signals of aggressiveness make sense.坦率显露进攻性是明显有利的。Potential victims avoid starting fights they cannot win, while the aggressive get their way without risking injury.实力虚弱者会避免引发一场不能取胜的争斗,攻击性强者在没有受伤风险的情况下可以因此而取胜。It does not, however, obviously make sense to give away in advance of a negotiation that you are likely to lie or cheat in it.但在一场很可能需要说谎的谈判之前,表现进攻性不见得有明显的好处。Yet Dr Haselhuhn and Dr Wong found this was the case.两位教授发现事实还真就是这样。In both a staged negotiation using MBA students and a separate experiment in which ordinary undergraduates were given an opportunity to earn more money if they misreported the results of a series of die rolls,他们设计的是两组实验:一组是MBA学生谈判,另一组是普通大学生,给予他们说谎有利的机会,如果误报一系列模棒实验的数据,就有机会赚更多的钱。the two researchers found that the wider a mans face was, compared with its height, the more likely he was to lie about his intentions (in the case of the negotiations) or cheat (in the case of the die rolls).研究者发现,男性面部长宽比越小,就越容易在谈判中欺瞒自己的目的,在实验中瞒报数据。That did not, however, apply to women.但这一实验结果不适用于女性。The probable explanation is that the advantage of being seen, reliably, as aggressive outweighs the disadvantage of being, predictably, a cheat and a liar.这大概可以解释为:一个人被看做具有攻击性的;利;要大于被认为有作假嫌疑的;弊;。Also, the fear of retaliation provoked by aggressiveness means victims of cheating and lying might not want to push the point anyway, and might thus be willing to concede a certain amount of slippage in their negotiating position, knowing full well what is going on.而且,在谈判中,骗局或者谎言的受害者也许不会刻意坚持自己的主张,他们害怕攻击性强的人会报复自己,于是在清楚事态的前提下,他们会做出让步。Since women rarely use violence to get their way, they do not evolve such signals.而女性几乎不会用暴力来处理问题,所以在此实验中,测不出她们的诚实数据。The likelihood of a link between mens faces and womens orgasms is more obvious than that between faces and cheating, but is nevertheless significant.相比于面相与骗局之间的关系,男性面相与女性性高潮的联系就明显的多,也有意义的多。In a study to be published in Evolution and Human Behavior, David Puts and his colleagues at Pennsylvania State University found what you might expect—that sex with a good-looking man is more likely to result in orgasm than sex with a minger.宾夕法尼亚州立大学的大卫?普斯和他的同事们做了一项研究,结果发表在《进化与人类行为》杂志上。What this means is that good-looking men are even more likely to conceive children than was previously believed. Obviously, the handsome have more mating opportunities than the ugly.研究内容你可能已经猜到了-------与英俊帅气的男性做爱比和相貌平平的男性做爱更容易达到性高潮。也就是说英俊的男性更容易得到孩子。But if they more often bring a woman to orgasm, as well, each of those opportunities is more likely to result in conception,显然,英俊的男性比丑男约会机会更多,而且,如果他们经常使女性产生性高潮,每次高潮时,女性受概率也会增大。because contractions of the cervix and vagina during orgasm transport semen deeper into the reproductive tract.这是因为,在高潮期间,宫颈和阴道的收缩会将运送到生殖道更深处。And that is what Dr Puts found.这就是普斯教授的发现。He and his team recruited 70 couples and asked the women how they rated their mens masculinity and attractiveness, and how often and when they orgasmed.他们召集了70对伴侣,询问女性怎样评价男性的男子气概和魅力,以及她们产生性高潮的时间和频率。They also asked independent observers to rate the mens faces, and found broad agreement with the ratings from partners.研究人员还让每位女性独立的观察和评价男性面相,而评价结果则大体相仿。As they predicted, women whose menfolk had attractive, masculine faces orgasmed more often during intercourse.正如所预测的那样,那些拥有英俊迷人面庞的男性,其伴侣在性交过程中更容易达到性高潮。They did not, by contrast, orgasm more frequently during masturbation or other sexual activity.而在手淫等其他性行为中,相比之下,他们的高潮就来的不那么频繁了。The extra orgasms also came at the same time as the mans climax—just when they would do the most good for conception.而且,英俊的男子与其伴侣更容易双方同时高潮-------这为怀创造出了极好的条件。Women are thus choosing which men father their children not only in whom they take to bed, but in how they react to them, sexually.因此,女性选择未来孩子的父亲,不仅仅是看她和谁睡觉,更是看她和谁做爱时有有何反应。The consequence, since looks are inherited, is that their sons, too, will be sexy.结果呢,由于相貌会遗传,他们的儿子也会长的很性感。Whether they will be cheats and liars is another matter.至于会不会被人骗,那就是另一回事了。 /201211/211487

Its thursday, March 31st, Im Natali Morris and its time to get loaded.今天是3月31日,周四。我是Natali Morris,是时候接收最新的科技资讯了。We have a lot of Google news today and an announcement about me at the end of the show, so lets get to it.今天的信息有不少是关于谷歌的,此外,在节目的最后还有一条关于我的消息,接下来让我们开始吧。First off, Google launched Plus One. It lets you annotate Google search results and ads so that you recommend them to other people. Its a lot like the Facebook like button that you litter around the internet, but be careful with this because adding the Plus One to things on the internet is public. Speaking of public, Google settled with the Federal Trade Commission over last years allegation regarding Google Buzz. The company agreed to establish a comprehensive privacy program as a result. This happens in the same day they launch a very public product by Plus One, which is interesting.首先一条消息,谷歌推出了“加1”功能。这样你就能给谷歌的搜索结果和广告加注释从而推荐给其他的用户了。这就好像脸谱网上的“喜欢”按钮,但你要注意了,你在谷歌上的“加1”是公开的。说到公开,经过去年一年的协商,谷歌就名下的Buzz产品与美国联邦贸易委员会达成共同意见。谷歌最终同意创建综合保护隐私系统。谷歌同意的当天就公开推出“加1”功能,这很有趣。Google also announced that Kansas city is the first city that the company will suit up with its new broadband service. Last year, Google annnounced it would provide broadband that is up to one hundred times faster than the current norm to one lucky city. After much pleading on behalf of municipalities across the country, the big winner is Kansas city and everyone else is jealous, and I might have to just click my heels three times and go there.谷歌宣布将首次在堪萨斯城提供新型宽带务。去年,谷歌宣布将对一座幸运的城市提供快于传统网速百倍的宽带务。在全国市民激烈的辩论后,堪萨斯城成了最后的赢家,而其他城市只能嫉妒堪萨斯的好运气了,如果是我我可能会踮踮脚跟,动身去堪萨斯了。And Google launched an instant message program that integrate search into your chat. Its called Google Talk Guru. It lets you to start up a chat session where you ask questions and get responses from an automated bot. It can do pretty straightforward searches like whats the weather today, but for more complicated things you have to Google that yourself. In order to use this, you add the Talk Guru to your friend list.谷歌发布了一款即时通讯系统,这款产品可以通过聊天整合并提供你需要的信息。它的名字叫做谷歌Talk Guru。用户体验首先从聊天开始,用户问问题并得到自动系统回答。这款应用可以为你解答简单的问题,例如今天的天气怎么样,但复杂的问题还需要你自己搜索。要使用这款应用,你需要添加Talk Guru为你的好友。And not to be outdone by googles new broadband system verizon announced that it is beefing up its internate backbone to one hundred gigabyte Ethernet by the end of the second quarter this year. This will roll out across country in three segments, Chicago to Newyork, Sacramento to Los Angeles and Minneapolis to Kansas city.目前没有公司能超越谷歌的宽带速度,而且谷歌的最新款宽带在今年第二季度加速到了1Gbps。谷歌宽带将覆盖全国三大地区,芝加哥到纽约,萨克拉门托到洛杉矶,明尼阿波里斯市堪萨斯城。The fourth is apparently with Lucas films, they will be releasing the blue-ray edition of the star wars movie set eleven days early. The blue-ray set will now come out on September 16th for 140 dollars or 90 dallars if you pre-order on Amazon.第四条消息是关于卢卡斯影业的,卢卡斯影业将提前11天出售蓝光版《星球大战》。蓝光版将在9月16日上市,售价140美元,提前在亚马逊上订购只需90美元。A 19 years boy beat out 19 hundred contestants in the angry birds championship in Finland. Nokia held this competition and over 26 hundred people submitted, one finalist was only six years old. The winner was 19 years old Joneth C, he wins a title belt and a Nokia N8 and a trip for two to Hollywood.一名芬兰的19岁男孩在《愤怒的小鸟》中击败了1千9百名对手成为冠军。诺基亚公司举办了《愤怒的小鸟》比赛,超过2千6百名爱好者参赛报名,其中一名参加决赛的选手仅有6岁。最后的冠军是19岁的Joneth C,他赢得了一条冠军腰带,诺基亚N8手机和好莱坞双人游。Our last bit of news today is about me. I will continue to host Loaded through April 29th. But at the end of the month, I will be leaving CNet. Starting in May, the show will be in the capable hands of my colleagues here at Cnet TV. It has trully been an honor to bring you your daily technews and I have appreciated your viewership every single day. You can follow me in my next endeavors on twitter its @ Natali Morris or my personal site Natali Morris.com.最后一条消息是关于我的。我会一直主持这档节目直到4月29日。月底我会离开CNet。从5月开始我CNet的同事将接手这档节目。能为大家带来每日的科技资讯真的是我的荣幸,我感谢所有观众们的收看。你可以通过微@Natali Morris或登录我的个人主页Natali Morris.com继续关注我的动向。Thats your news for the day. Ill see you tomorrow. Im Natali Morris for Cnet. And youve just been loaded.以上就是今天的最新资讯。我们明天再见。我是Cnet的Natali Morris,感谢您的收看。注:本篇文章英文来自普特论坛,译文属原创,,。201210/206568

  • 中山结扎疏通哪家医院最好
  • 广州试管选择男女需要多少钱飞度养生在线
  • 广州长安妇科医院看妇科多少钱飞排名健康调查
  • 广州医科大学附属医院有微创手术吗
  • 中山大学附属第三医院输卵管复通飞度医院排名
  • 广东广州长安医院检查激素水平怎么样好不好飞度管家养生医生广州长安女子医院男性检查
  • 飞度管家免费咨询广州第三人民医院在哪里
  • 飞度免费问答广州治疗不孕不育那里医院好飞排名医院排名
  • 广州长安妇科医院做试管生男孩多少钱
  • 花都不孕不育专科医院飞排名四川新闻网
  • 广州白云华侨医院介绍飞度医院排行榜海珠人民医院介绍
  • 天河长安医院怎么预约
  • 飞度管家权威医院江门结扎疏通哪家医院最好
  • 广州长安医院疏通输卵管
  • 飞度咨询好医院在线广州白云无痛超导人流费用度排名免费问
  • 飞度管家免费平台广州番禺盆腔炎很难治疗吗
  • 广州天河哪家医院治疗不孕不育最好飞度排名搜医生广州试管生男孩哪家医院最好
  • 飞度动态新闻网广州市长安医院孕检怎么样好不好飞度管家健康调查
  • 广州人工授精生男孩多少钱啊飞管家健康家园
  • 广东计划生育医院妇科咨询
  • 天河子宫肌瘤做手术需要多少钱
  • 飞度【知道健康】广州白云妇科检查要花多少钱
  • 飞度排名好专家广东省长安医院打掉孩子
  • 广州治输卵管堵塞价格飞度技术快问
  • 广州做封闭抗体免疫治疗的医院
  • 广州检测精液价格
  • 广州白云妇科在线咨询
  • 佛山去那间医院修复结扎最好飞度咨询三甲医院
  • 飞度管家免费医生广州番禺治疗多囊什么医院最好
  • 广州白云阴道紧缩术费用
  • 相关阅读
  • 瞒天过海!集体耕地上建厂房!村民:相关部门集体哑火(三)
  • 暮影战神武灵攻略大全
  • 唐嫣赵丽颖吴昕林允儿李易峰和谁最有感(图)
  • 酒类电商双罢斗
  • 南京查处违规补缴社保证明份购房证明被注销
  • 内蒙古自治区政协原副主席赵黎平一审被判处死刑
  • 近日李念与刚斩获年北京青年电影节影帝的巩峥出现在街边
  • 徐娇穿白袜撑伞古典韵味十足邻家有女初长成
  • 单机斗地主下载:首存优惠
  • 小学生作业本开口说话曝光盗伐林木团伙
  • 相关推荐

    发表回复

    请遵守天涯社区公约言论规则,不得违反国家法律法规