时间:2019年02月23日 23:32:04

The version promulgated by the Emperor Meiji in 1889 [CHKD]created a state empowered to direct Japan’s modernisation fusing economic, political and social power in the service of the national purpose, legitimised by an absolute monarchy.1889年由明治天皇颁布的宪法缔造了一个带领日本迈向现代化的国家体制——集中经济、政治和社会力量,为国家目标务,而这一切的合法性来自绝对君主制。The later document decentralised power and divested the state of its military power.和平宪法对权力进行了分散,剥夺了国家的军事力量。Will a new constitution once again seek to mend the social compact? Or will leaders set their sights lower, tinkering, tweaking language or amending the 1947 blueprint of their democracy to meet today’s social needs? It is too early to tell. 新版宪法会寻求再次修改这种社会契约吗?抑或日本领导人会降低期望值、在字面上稍作调整,或是修改1947年制定的民主蓝图以满足当今的社会需求?现在评判还为时过早。The committee to revise the constitution has catalogued the changes Japan’s political parties think could improve their founding document. 修宪委员会已经列出了日本各政党认为可以改进该国宪制文件的修改内容。The governing Liberal Democratic party has a draft to share, as Mr Abe pointed out after the election, a draft he says could serve as a basis for legislative discussion.正如安倍晋三在选举后所指出的那样,执政的自民党制定了自己的草案,安倍称该草案可以作为立法讨论的基础。But it will take far more than the 242 legislators in the upper house or even the roughly 700 in both houses to determine what a new constitution might look like. 但是,制定新宪法所需要的不仅是上42名议员的持——即使获得两院近700名议员的持也不够。Article 96 of the present document declares that two-thirds of all the members of each house of parliament must create a proposal for revision. After that, a national referendum must be held to gain approval.现行宪法6条规定,上下两院各三分之二以上的议员必须拿出一份修订提议。之后必须由全民公投批准修订。And the fact is that, while voters have created an opening for those who advocate revision, they seem deeply ambivalent about the prospect of tampering with the document that has supported their transition to democracy.事实是,尽管选民们为那些提倡修宪的政客创造了一个切入点,但是他们似乎对修订曾经持日本实现民主转型的宪法的前景深感矛盾。Popular sovereignty brings agency to the people; it should not be abandoned easily. All the social institutions must claim a stake in the process and all citizens must take responsibility for the outcome. 人民主权给人民带来能动性;它不应该被轻易抛弃。所有社会机构都应该参与这一过程,所有公民都必须对结果负起责任。Revising simply for the sake of revising will only weaken confidence in Japan’s democracy, at home and abroad.为了修宪而修宪,只会削弱国内外对日本民主的信心。来 /201608/463245

Michael Bloomberg, the former New York mayor and billionaire entrepreneur, has launched a scathing attack on Donald Trump’s business record in a bid to discredit the property developer’s pitch to bring corporate skills to the White House.为了戳破唐纳#8226;特朗Donald Trump)所谓把自己的商业技巧带给白宫的花言巧语,前纽约市长、拥有亿万财富的企业家迈克尔#8226;布隆伯格(Michael Bloomberg)对这位房地产开发商的经商履历发起严厉抨击。Mr Bloomberg, who toyed with entering the presidential race as an independent candidate earlier this year, assailed Mr Trump at the Democratic convention in Philadelphia as a destructive chief executive and con artist.今年早些时候,布隆伯格曾考虑以独立候选人身份参与总统竞选。在费城民主党代表大会上,布隆伯格抨击特朗普是一个破坏型首席执行官,一个行骗高手。“Throughout his career, Trump has left behind a well-documented record of bankruptcies, thousands of lawsuits, angry shareholders and contractors who feel cheated, and disillusioned customers who feel ripped off,he said.布隆伯格说:“纵观特朗普的职业生涯,他留下了翔实的记录,破产、数千起诉讼、觉得被欺骗的愤怒的股东和合同商,以及感到受骗上当的大失所望的客户。”“Trump says he wants to run the nation like he’s run his business. God help us.”“特朗普说,他要像经营自己的生意那样经营这个国家。上帝保佑我们吧。”His speech stood out as a forthright primetime appeal to independent voters who may be considering backing Mr Trump. It came from one of the event’s more politically unusual speakers: Mr Bloomberg was elected New York mayor three times as a Republican, but has also been a Democrat and is now an independent.在这个关键节点,布隆伯格的讲话对那些可能考虑持特朗普的独立选民有很强的吸引力。布隆伯格的政治经历比较不寻常,他曾以共和党人身份三次当选纽约市长,但也曾是一名民主党人,现在又是无党派人士。He told his audience that too many Republicans wrongly blamed immigrants for the country’s problems and that too many Democrats blamed the private sector.他向观众们表示,有太多共和党人错误地将国家问题归咎于移民,而太多民主党人则归咎于私营部门。“There are times when I disagree with Hillary [Clinton],he added. “But whatever our disagreements may be, I’ve come here to say: we must put them aside for the good of our country. And we must unite around the candidate who can defeat a dangerous demagogue.”布隆伯格说:“我曾多次与希拉里意见不合。但不管我们会有什么分歧,我要在这儿说:为了我们的国家利益,我们必须搁置这些异议。我们必须团结在一位能打败危险的煽动者的候选人周围。”Mr Trump, whose career stretches from Trump-branded hotels and casinos to reality television, has argued that his business know-how will help him to energise the US economy, a pledge that has resonated with many Americans struggling with stagnant wages or unemployment.特朗普的职业履历除了特朗普品牌酒店、,甚至还有真人秀节目。他辩称自己的经营诀窍将帮助他激励美国经济,这一许诺引起了许多陷入工资停滞,或失业的美国人的共鸣。Citing his own creation of Bloomberg, his eponymous financial information business, Mr Bloomberg said he knew business leaders could bring pragmatism to public office, but Mr Trump was not a problem solver but a “bomb thrower布隆伯格以自己创建彭社——以他名字命名的金融信息企业——为例,他说自己知道企业领导人能给公职带来实用主义,但特朗普并不是个问题解决者,他是一个“投弹手”。Mr Trump has rallied few high-profile business leaders to speak for him, but has generated a lot of support among small business people.特朗普没能召集到多少知名商业领袖为他站台,但在小企业人群中获得了大量持。But while Mr Bloomberg is well-known in elite circles and has campaigned hard for tighter gun control, he has a lower national profile one factor that counted against his potential bid for the White House.不过,布隆伯格虽然在精英阶层享有声望,而且强烈呼吁加强管制,但在全国知名度较低,这一因素不利于他入主白宫。Before his speech, Judi Ingelido, a delegate from the swing state Colorado, said: “I honestly don’t know much about him. I know he’s been outspoken on some of our issues. He seems more establishment, but it’s nice to have a couple of billionaires to help put that message out to others in their circles.”在布隆伯格发表此次讲话前,来自摇摆州科罗拉多州的一名代表说:“老实说,我不是很了解他。我知道他对我们的一些问题一向直言不讳。他似乎更属于权势集团,但能有几个亿万富翁帮忙把这些信息传达给他们圈子里的其他人也挺好的。”Addressing Mr Trump’s signature anti-globalism views on trade and immigration, Mr Bloomberg accused him of “hypocrisy针对特朗普关于贸易和移民的标志性反全球化观点,布隆伯格指责其“伪善”。“Trump says he’ll punish manufacturers that move to Mexico or China, but the clothes he sells are made overseas in low wage factories,Mr Bloomberg said. “He says he wants to put Americans back to work, but he games the US visa system so he can hire temporary foreign workers at low wages.”布隆伯格说:“特朗普说他将惩罚那些转移到墨西哥或中国的制造商,但他卖的衣都是海外廉价工厂制造的。他说他要让美国人重获工作,但他钻美国签系统的空子,以便自己用低薪雇到外国临时工。”Mr Bloomberg’s speech bore similarities to attacks on Mr Trump from senator Elizabeth Warren, a firebrand from the Democratic party’s liberal wing.布隆伯格的讲话与参议员伊丽莎#8226;沃伦(Elizabeth Warren)——民主党自由派积极分子——对特朗普的抨击颇为相似。But he differed by making a point of appealing to people who care about companies. “Trump’s business plan is a disaster in the making,he said. “He would make it harder for small businesses to compete#8201;.#8201;.#8201;.#8201;threaten the retirement savings of millions of Americans, lead to greater debt and more unemployment.”但布隆伯格的不同之处在于他的话吸引了那些关心企业的人。他说:“特朗普的商业计划就是一个正在形成的灾难。他会令小企业更难竞争……威胁到数百万美国人的退休金储蓄,造成更大的债务,并导致更多人失业。”来 /201607/457205

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