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2018年11月19日 12:58:02
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重庆市做隆鼻哪家医院好万州区治疗痘痘多少钱Americas next defence secretary美国下任国防部长Fit for purpose量身定做Ashton Carter is well-qualified to lead the Pentagon, if he is allowed to阿什顿·卡特完全够格统领五角大楼,前提是他通过提名More hawkish than Hagel比哈格尔更有鹰派味道ASHTON CARTER once urged the pre-emptive bombing of North Koreas nuclear facilities. (It was in an article he wrote in 2006, while out of office.) He also wanted American troops to stay on in Iraq after 2011. Yet Barack Obama, who is hardly known for his hawkishness, appears poised to name him as defence secretary.阿什顿·卡特曾主张先发制人轰炸朝鲜的核设施(该主张曾写入他2006年下台时所写文章中),他还曾希望美国军队2011年后继续留在伊拉克。但是,布拉克·奥巴马几乎对卡特的鹰派作风不知就里,似乎准备提名他为下任国防部长。He would replace Chuck Hagel, a decorated veteran with a profound aversion to the ill-considered use of force. Mr Hagel, a Republican, was inarticulate, flummoxed by detail and floundered in the job, particularly when faced with the complex challenge of taking on the Islamic State in Iraq and Syria. Relentless micromanagement from the White House made things worse.他将取代查克·哈格尔(一位充满荣誉的老兵,相当厌恶妄动军事力量)。尤其是在面对伊拉克和叙利亚伊斯兰政权复杂多变的局势时,身为共和党议员的哈格尔先生,词不达意、为细节所困、工作状态糟糕。白宫的“微管理”,毫不留情,让局势越演越烈。Insiders praise Mr Carters competence and experience. A physicist by training, he was deputy defence secretary under Leon Panetta, responsible for controlling a 0 billion annual budget. Such was his indispensability that Mr Obama asked him to continue in the job for a year after Mr Panetta left in 2013, to help Mr Hagel—an uncomfortable period for both men.圈内人赞赏卡特先生的能力与经历。他曾是一名受过训练的物理学家,曾在时任国防部长里昂·帕内塔手下任美国国防部常务副部长,全权负责6000亿美元年度预算。而这一点恰恰成为奥巴马先生—在2013年帕内塔先生离职后—要求其继续工作一年的必要条件,来辅佐哈格尔先生(那一年对二人来说都难熬的一年)。Before that, Mr Carter was the head of acquisitions, restructuring the bloated Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) programme and cancelling costly under-performing or outdated programmes. Soldiers in the field called him “the Deliverer”, for his ability to cut through the Pentagons copious red tape and get urgently-needed kit to the front line, such as MRAPs (mine-resistant ambush-protected vehicles) to shield troops from roadside bombs.在此之前,卡特先生曾负责掌管国防部的科教和采购工作,重组臃肿的联合打击战斗机(JSF)计划,取消昂贵的表现不佳或者过时的计划。在作战的士兵称他为“投递员”,因为他能穿越五角大楼的繁文缛节,给前线送去急需的装备,比如能保护军队免受来自路边的炸弹的防地雷反伏击车(MRAPs)。In Bill Clintons first administration, Mr Carter was in charge of Americas vast nuclear arsenal and led the effort to dismantle and remove more than 8,000 nuclear weapons from states that had been part of the old Soviet Union. He also helped build security relationships with countries in eastern Europe that paved the way for them to join NATO.卡特先生曾在比尔·克林顿第一任期内负责庞大的核武器库,移除属前苏联时期的逾8000件核武器。他还协助与东欧国家建立安全关系,进而为其进入北大西洋公约组织(NATO)而铺平道路。Although some complain that Mr Carters intellectual self-confidence and command of the most esoteric technical details can make him appear arrogant or aloof, his confirmation hearings on Capitol Hill should be much easier than the grilling Mr Hagel received. Both Mac Thornberry and John McCain, the Republicans who are about to take the helms of the House and Senate Armed Services Committees, are likely to see Mr Carter as an ally in reforming the Pentagons sclerotic procurement practices. Mr McCain, an arch-foe of wasteful defence spending, often clashed with Mr Carter over the JSF; yet he developed a grudging respect for him. Kori Schake, a former Bush administration security official now at the Hoover Institution, a think-tank, describes Mr Carter as “able, intelligent, effective and energetic”.尽管如此,有人抱怨道:卡特先生聪明过人、自信满满,深谙科技奥秘,故他看上去傲慢冷漠;但是他在国会的审议听会应该会比哈格尔先生面对的“拷问”要轻松得多。即将接管众议院以及参议院武装务协会共和党议员麦克·索恩伯里和约翰·麦凯恩,二人—就改革五角大楼僵硬的采购计划—视卡特先生如盟友。麦凯恩先生,强烈反对高额的国防经费,常常与卡特先生就联合打击战斗机(JSF)计划意见不合;现在他勉强尊重卡特先生。前布什政府安全官员科瑞·斯卡克,现属一家名为胡佛研究中心的智库,形容卡特先生“能干、聪明、活力”。Mr Carter will need all those qualities and more if he is to make his mark over the next two years. He will want to forge a deal with Congress to bring more stability to the defence budget and undo some of the cuts mandated under sequestration. Since the world looks scarier now than it did a year or two ago, the military budget ought perhaps to grow a bit. However, Todd Harrison of the Centre for Strategic and Budgetary Assessments in Washington reckons that the political compromises needed for a long-term fix are unlikely.卡特先生若想在接下来的两年内声名大噪,他需要具备上述所有的品质。他将需要和国会达成一项协议,即促使国防预算趋于平缓;取消一些扣押下的托管削减费用。相比一两年前,世界越发可怕,军事预算本应该有所涨幅。但华盛顿战略与预算评估中心的托德·哈里森认为长期的政治妥协是不可能的。Mr Carter will also attempt to persuade Mr Obama and his ever-meddling team of advisers that some new thinking is needed to deal with the situation in Iraq and Syria. In particular, Mr Obamas habit of deliberately constraining military options (for example, by ruling out the use of combat troops on the ground or, as in Afghanistan, setting timetables unrelated to conditions) makes the task of any defence secretary immeasurably harder.卡特先生也将试图游说奥巴马先生和他的干预团队—咨询者们,一些新的想法需要注入,协商伊拉克与叙利亚的局势。尤其是,奥巴马先生的习惯—故意限制军队的选择权(比如,排除地面作战部队或者在阿富汗制定与时局无关的时间计划表)—使得任何一位国防部长寸步难行。For all his knowledge and experience of strategic issues, however, Mr Carter may still find himself excluded from real influence. Michael OHanlon of the Brookings Institution, a think-tank, says that when the decision was made to get rid of Mr Hagel, Mr Obama and his team on the National Security Council wanted someone personally close to the president who had worked his or her way up through their own ranks. To get a hearing from this inner circle, says Mr OHanlon, Mr Carter will have to decide “how much china hes prepared to break and how many political risks hes prepared to take”.卡特先生,虽拥有与战略问题相关的知识储备以及阅历,但他会发现自己依然无法施展真正的影响力。来自一家名为布鲁斯金研究院的智库的迈克尔·奥汉隆,表明奥巴马先生以及其国家安全委员会(NSC)团队决定摆脱哈格尔先生,意图是想选一位—与总统个人很亲近的、通过自己的努力往上爬的—替代者。奥汉隆先生补充道,要想打入(奥巴马国家安全决策)“小圈子”,卡特先生将必须决定“要破坏美中关系至何种程度,以及准备涉足多少政治风险”。译者:黄柳 译文属译生译世 /201412/347088Millennials are the largest generation in America, making up an entire third of the population.Theyre also the least likely to vote.A report from Tufts University says that less than 20% of people age 18 to 29 voted in the 2014 election.Andrew Koehlinger wants to do something about that. Hes the project director for VoteSpotter, an app that seeks to get younger voters engaged in the politics.;Vote Spotter in its simplest form is simply a nonpartisan tool that empowers citizens to get involved in the political process in a new way, in a way that they couldnt have done it before, by just simply tapping a few times on their mobile phone,; Koehlinger says.He explains that the app asks users for their address and tells them who their legislators are.;Thats step one, is simply getting people to understand who is representing them,; he says.Koehlinger tells us the app then sends users ;timely notifications and simple, concise bill summaries; that explain how their representatives are voting.Users can ;thumbs up or thumbs down; their legislators actions, and even call or email their representatives directly from within the app.Koehlinger tells us that VoteSpotter is an attempt to revolutionize political engagement the same way companies like Amazon, Facebook, and Uber have transformed shopping, social interaction, and transportation.;It just seems only natural that we should try and converge technology and politics to make it a lot easier for people to engage in the public policy process,; he says.201510/406825永川区去除黑眼圈多少钱

自贡市第四人民医院激光脱毛多少钱九龙坡妇幼保健院的地址重庆激光去痣一般多少钱Britain英国Studying languages学习语言Shout louder再大声一点A woeful approach to language education continues苟延残喘的语言教育THE last time she was recruiting for her export-sales team, Sarah Grain hired a Lithuanian who speaks Russian, Polish and German. Her two previous hires for Eriez Magnetics, which makes industrial equipment in South Wales, were an Italian who also speaks French, and a Venezuelan who speaks Spanish and Portuguese. All of them speak fluent English. “There were no British applicants who had the requisite language skills,” she says.最后一次为自己的海外销售团队招聘,Sarah Grain聘用了一位可讲俄语、波兰语和德语的立陶宛人。她为艺利磁铁—位于南威尔士的一家制造工业设备的公司—先前两次聘用的人分别是会讲法语的意大利人和会讲西班牙语与葡萄牙语的委内瑞拉人。而他们都能说流利的英文。Sarah表示,“没有符合必备语言技能的英国求职者。”Ms Grains conclusion is not unusual for a British company. In 2012 a European Commission survey tested the foreign-language proficiency of 54,000 students aged 14 and 15, in 14 nations. Sweden came top, with 82% of pupils reaching an “independent” or “advanced independent” standard. The average for all 14 states was 42%. England came bottom, with just 9%.Grain女士对一家英国公司的此般结论已经让人见怪不怪了。早在2012年,欧盟委员会就针对来自14个国家、14到15岁年龄不等的54000名学生进行了外语熟练程度的测试。瑞典学生以其中82%的人可达到“灵活使用”和“驾轻就熟”的程度而位居榜首。所有14个国家的平均人数为42%。英国垫底,仅仅有9%。Part of the explanation is that many peoples second language is English, while many Britons continue to believe that, as native speakers of the lingua mundi, they do not need to bother with foreign languages. They may be right—in terms of communication. But it means that, not only are they missing out on much cultural interaction, they may also be harming their own job prospects.部分原因是许多人的第二外语就是英语,这也是大部分英国人始终坚信的事,而作为以lingua mundi为母语的人,他们着实无需为外语而烦心。他们可能是对的——从沟通方面来说。但这却意味着他们不仅会错失多文化交流机会,也会危及到他们的工作前景。They have not been helped by the educational policies of successive governments. In 2004 Tony Blairs Labour government abolished the requirement to learn a language after the age of 14, causing the numbers taking a language GCSE exam at 16 to fall by half in state schools over the next seven years.历届政府的教育政策并未使他们获益。2004年,托尼布莱尔的工党政府废除了年满14岁就要学习一门语言的要求,此举直接导致之后的七年,公立学校的学生在语言方面GCSE(普通中等教育书)考试的通过率直降一半。Concerned about this rapid decline, the coalition government brought in a new performance indicator called the English Baccalaureate, or EBacc, in 2011. A modern language was one of its five core disciplines. Language teachers—an embattled breed—rejoiced. The number of students entering a GCSE language exam in 2013, the first year the changes took effect, rose by 20% (see chart).考虑到人数骤降,联合政府在2011年颁布了一项名为英国文凭书(EBacc)的技能指标。现代语言是5个核心学科之一。语言老师——随时严阵以待的一群人—都欣喜若狂。新指标颁布后第一年就见成效,2013年参加GCSE语言考试的学生人数增长了20%。Now, however, those gains could be lost, as the government has seemingly loosened the requirement. From 2016, under a new initiative called Progress 8, it has extended the number of core subjects to eight, appearing to make learning a language voluntary. This has pleased some teachers, who felt the EBacc was too narrow, but linguists are aghast.但是现在,随着政府对此项要求的逐渐放松,这些成绩可能会慢慢丢失。自2016年起,在一项名为Progress 8(8步走)的新倡议下,核心学科扩展至8门,这一举措使得语言学习更自主化。这让部分老师十分欣喜,他们认为Ebacc范围狭窄,而语言学家却对此举大为震惊。The decline of languages at GCSE has inevitably had an effect higher up the academic food chain. Though the number of those studying languages to A Level—the exams taken at 18—will increase thanks to the GCSE cohort of 2013-14, it is likely to fall back again. French and German are half as popular as they were 20 years ago. The number of universities offering language degrees has fallen, too: by 50% for German and 40% for French since 1998. The number offering Spanish has also fallen. Degrees in other languages, such as Chinese and Arabic, are becoming more popular, but they are still rare.GCSE中语言的减少,不可避免的会对提高学术竞争有所影响。尽管随着2013-14年GCSE的人气回温,那些语言学习高达A级—18岁方可参与的考试—的人数将会增加,但它仍可能再次降低。相较于20年前,法国和德国的人数已降了一半。提供语言学位的大学数量也已减少:自1998年起,德国减少了50%,法国减少了40%。提供西班牙语学习的学校也已减少。其他语种学位,比如汉语和阿拉伯语,正变得越来越多,但它们依然很稀缺。The economy and the labour market bear the consequences. In 2012 the British Chambers of Commerce found, in a survey of 8,000 British companies, that 96% had no foreign-language speakers. First-time exporters cited language as a barrier to entering international markets.经济和劳工市场直接承担此般后果。在2012年,英国商会发现,在一份涉及8000家英国公司的调查中,有96%的公司都没有会外语的人。首次试水的出口商将外语定为打入国际市场的一大障碍。Though Britain makes up 12% of the population of the EU, less than 5% of EU civil servants in Brussels are British. Not enough Britons can fulfil the language requirement of being able to work in French or German. And even if monoglot Brits can get jobs at multinationals, claims Richard Hardie, non-executive chairman of the British arm of UBS, a bank, “the chances of getting to the top if you only have English are much lower than before”.虽然英国占欧盟总人口的12%,但在布鲁塞尔担任欧盟公务员的英国人却少于总人数的5%。没有完全合格的英国人能够满足可在法国或德国工作的要求。而且即使只会单一语言的英国人在跨国公司工作,来自瑞银集团—一家—英国分公司的理查德·哈迪表示,“若你只会讲英语,那么你能高升的机会相比于以前已经大大降低了。”This lack of language skills also lowers growth. By exactly how much is hard to say, but one estimate, by James Foreman-Peck of Cardiff University, puts the “gross language effect” (the income foregone because language barriers alter and reduce international trade) in 2012 as high as £59 billion ( billion), or 3.5% of GDP.语言技能的缺乏也降低了增长。很难精确到用多少来说明,但是据卡迪夫大学James Foreman-Peck估计, “恶劣的语言效应”(由于语言障碍改变和减少了国际贸易)给2012年带来高达590亿英镑(合900美元),或是3.5%的国内生产总值的损失。In the linguistic gloom, there are a few bright spots. Some British universities are moving away from literature-based degrees towards joint degrees linked to practical subjects such as law or business studies. Some scientists are learning languages outside their course requirements to make themselves more employable.在幽暗的语言世界,有些许明亮之处。部分英国大学正在从以文学导向的学位转变至与类似法律和商业学习的实践学科关联的联合学位。一些科学家正在学习他们学科需求之外的语言,这会使他们更加称职。Meanwhile, in September 2014 the government mandated that all primary schools must teach a language. Getting children started at a young age is admirable. But, with so few language graduates coming out of universities, who is going to teach them ?与此同时,政府在 2014年9月要求所有的小学都要教授语言。让孩子们在幼龄时期接受语言教育是极好的。但是,从大学走出的语言学毕业生几近为零,谁又能来教他们呢?译者:张娣 校对:石海霞 译文属译生译世 /201503/362466重庆蒜头鼻手术哪家好

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