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2018年07月16日 08:44:06    日报  参与评论()人

太仓怀孕做b超需要多少钱太仓妇产科医院Anheuser-Busch InBev, the world’s largest brewer, is exploring a takeover of rival SABMiller in a deal that would create a 5bn company responsible for one out of every three beers produced globally.全球最大啤酒酿造商百威英(Anheuser-Busch InBev)正考虑收购竞争对手SABMiller。这笔潜在交易将缔造一家2750亿美元的企业,届时全球每三瓶啤酒就有一瓶是该企业生产的。A tie-up between the owner of Budweiser and Stella Artois and the group behind Peroni and Grolsch, dubbed “mega-brew”, would rank as one of the six largest takeovers in history and the biggest in a year that was aly the strongest for blockbuster deals since 2007.该交易的一方拥有百威啤酒(Budweiser)和时代啤酒(Stella Artois)品牌,另一方拥有佩罗尼(Peroni)品牌和高仕啤酒(Grolsch)品牌。合并后的企业已有“巨型酿酒商”之称。该交易的规模将进入史上前六大交易之列。而且,在大宗并购交易已经是2007年来最强的今年,其规模将位居榜首。It would mark the latest stage of a remarkable consolidation in the global brewing industry driven by a group of Brazilian investors led by Jorge Paulo Lemann. They are also the founders of 3G Capital , the Brazilian private equity group which has been buying up US food companies such as Heinz, Kraft and Burger King sometimes with the support of investor Warren Buffett.该交易将标志着全球啤酒酿造业一轮非同寻常的整合进入新阶段,其推动者是以豪尔赫?保罗?莱曼(Jorge Paulo Lemann)为首的一组巴西投资者。这些投资者还创办了巴西私募股权集团3G资本(3G Capital),该集团一直在收购亨氏(Heinz)、卡夫(Kraft)和汉堡王(Burger King)等美国食品企业——其中部分收购是在投资者沃伦?巴菲特(Warren Buffett)的持下发起的。A series of deals over the past decade have transformed AB InBev and SABMiller into the world’s two biggest brewers. They, along with Heineken and Carlsberg , make half the world’s beer.过去十年,经过一系列并购交易,百威英和SABMiller已成为全球最大的两家啤酒酿造商。再加上喜力(Heineken)和嘉士伯(Carlsberg),这些企业生产的啤酒占了全球一半。Given the size of the two companies, AB InBev would have to agree to divestitures to obtain regulatory approval for a deal in multiple countries, including the US and China. SABMiller has a near-30 per cent share of the US beer market via MillerCoors, its joint venture with Molson Coors. It also has 23 per cent of China’s beer market through a joint venture with China Resources Enterprise.考虑到两家企业的规模,在包括美国和中国在内的多个国家,为获得监管机构对并购交易的批准,百威英将不得不同意出售一些资产。SABMiller通过与Molson Coors建立的合资企业米勒康胜(MillerCoors),占有美国啤酒市场30%的份额。此外,通过与华润创业(China Resources Enterprise)建立的合资公司,SABMiller还占有中国啤酒市场23%的份额。 /201509/399497上海嘉定妇幼保健人民医院网上预约 Don’t tell people what you do,” Per Sundin’s wife insisted as they went to a dinner party several years ago. Sundin wasn’t a banker, used-car salesman or weapons producer, but the head of a record label in Sweden. Back then, being a music industry boss in the Nordic country was a miserable job. Sales had more than halved between 2000 and 2008 as illegal downloading took over. Sundin, who has headed a record label since 1998, was known by international colleagues as the expert on The Pirate Bay, an infamous Swedish website used to illegally download the latest music and films.几年前,佩尔#8226;松丁(Per Sundin)与妻子参加晚宴时,妻子叮嘱他:“别跟别人说你是做什么工作的。”松丁既非家、二手车销售员,也非军火商,而是瑞典一家唱片公司的主管。那时在这个北欧国家,音乐产业高管的日子可不好过。由于非法下载猖獗,销售额在2000至2008年间锐减过半。从1998年起便开始担任唱片公司主管的松丁,是各国同事们眼中的“海盗湾”(The Pirate Bay)问题专家。海盗湾是一家臭名昭著的瑞典网站,人们通过它非法下载最新的音乐和电影。Today Sundin, now head of Universal Music in Sweden, is that rarest of things: a happy music executive. No longer shunned by colleagues, he is the company expert on something more attractive: Spotify. “Sweden has gone from being worst in the class to the best in five years. We were so down the drain when Spotify came and presented their idea. Today, Spotify is the majority of the success we have,” he says.但如今,担任环球唱片(Universal Music)瑞典分公司总裁的松丁成了稀有物:一位开心的音乐公司高管。同事们不再回避他,相反,他是公司里的Spotify专家——而Spotify可比海盗湾更吸引人。松丁表示:“瑞典在五年时间里从差生变成了优等生。当Spotify来介绍他们理念的时候,我们简直是一团糟。现在,我们的成功主要归功于Spotify。”Sundin’s happiness is mirrored by much of the music industry in Sweden. Music sales have increased by more than a quarter from their nadir in 2008 and Sweden has become one of the first countries in the world where streaming services – listening to music over the internet without owning it – make more money for the industry than CDs or downloads. Almost three-quarters of the SKr990m (£86m) made last year came from streaming.瑞典音乐产业的诸多从业者也体会到松丁的这种幸福。音乐销售额比2008年谷底时高出逾四分之一,瑞典也成为世界上首批流媒体音乐务(即用户在互联网上听音乐,但无音乐所有权)收入超过CD或下载务收入的国家之一。瑞典音乐产业去年收入9.9亿瑞典克朗(合8600万英镑),其中近四分之三来自流媒体务。Launched in Stockholm in 2008, Spotify has a library of more than 20 million songs that people can choose from. They either pay for the premium service to stream music without interruption or they listen for free but with adverts between songs. Sundin insists that Spotify – in which Universal and other big record labels have minority stakes – has saved the music industry, although the company itself remains lossmaking.Spotify于2008年在斯德哥尔创办,如今拥有2000多万首歌曲供用户选择。用户可以选择付费高级务,不间断收听流媒体音乐,也可以选择免费收听,但曲目之间会插播广告。松丁坚信Spotify拯救了音乐产业,尽管它还在亏损。环球唱片等大牌唱片公司持有Spotify的少数股份。His office is strewn with memorabilia, from a picture of a “Born to Run”-era Bruce Springsteen to gold records of his latest star, the DJ Avicii. Sundin is dressed simply in a black sweater and jeans, his completely bald head glistening under the lights. “It was devastating,” he says, thinking back to those years. “People thought it was OK to steal with The Pirate Bay. It wasn’t nice going to international meetings. Was it close to killing the industry? Yes. Then Spotify came and it was better than illegal downloading. It was super-fast, almost everything was on it, and it was free.”松丁的办公室摆满了纪念物,从《Born to Run》风靡之时布鲁斯#8226;斯普林斯汀(Bruce Springsteen)的照片,到他旗下新晋明星DJ艾维奇(Avicii)的金唱片,不一而足。松丁衣着休闲,一身黑毛衣配牛仔裤,光头在灯光下闪闪发亮。回忆起难熬的那几年,他说道:“那是毁灭性的。人们觉得从海盗湾下载盗版内容没什么问题。参加国际会议的经历很狼狈。海盗湾是不是差点毁了音乐产业?是的。后来Spotify出现了,它比非法下载要好。它速度极快,几乎无所不有,而且免费。”Spotify’s reach goes beyond its home base. It has more than 10 million paying subscribers and a total of 40 million active users in 58 countries. Many executives hope that streaming – including other services such as Deezer or Pandora’s internet radio – can demonstrate that record labels can still make money in the digital age. Apple seems to be making the same bet with its bn acquisition in May of Beats, a smaller streaming service and maker of headphones.Spotify走出了国门。它拥有1000多万名付费用户,而活跃用户总计达4000万,分布在58个国家。许多高管希望流媒体务——包括Deezer和Pandora互联网电台等其他务——可以明,唱片公司在数字时代仍能赚钱。苹果(Apple)似乎也在下同样的赌注,它在5月份斥资30亿美元收购了较小的流媒体务商Beats。Jonathan Forster, Spotify’s managing director for the Nordics, argues: “We find ourselves being in this position where Sweden is a crystal ball for the new music industry. And that’s as relevant for what might happen next in the UK or US as it is here in Sweden.” But could this country of just 10 million inhabitants really offer a blueprint for the future of music?Spotify北欧区执行董事乔纳森#8226;福斯特(Jonathan Forster)表示:“我们所处的情况是,瑞典成为了预知新音乐产业趋势的水晶球。瑞典即将发生的事情,对于英国或美国同样相关。”但这个只有1000万居民的国家,是否真能呈现音乐产业的未来蓝图?If it does, people like Ash Pournouri will be the winners. The 32-year-old is manager and producer of Avicii, whose track “Wake Me Up” is the most streamed song yet on Spotify, with more than 200 million listens. His At Night Management company is based at one of Stockholm’s most prestigious waterfront addresses. The first-floor office is home to four recording studios of various sizes and a cinema room with an enormous screen. At its heart is a boardroom pimped out by Ralph Lauren almost entirely in black, from the wallpaper to the mixing bar. “I want to show people how successful we are. There is still life in the business, and still a lot of potential for people to make it,” says Pournouri, clad in a black jacket, denim shirt and skinny tie.如果真是如此,那么像阿什#8226;普尔努里(Ash Pournouri)这样的人将成为赢家。32岁的普尔努里是艾维奇的经纪人兼制作人,艾维奇的曲目《Wake Me Up》已是Spotify上迄今播放次数最多的歌曲,收听量达200多万次。普尔努里的At Night Management公司总部坐落于斯德哥尔最有名的海滨地带,办公楼一层设有四个不同大小的录音棚,以及一间配有巨屏的放映室。该层的中心是一间会议室,它由拉尔夫#8226;劳伦(Ralph Lauren)设计,从墙纸到调音台几乎完全采用黑色色调。“我希望向人们展示我们有多成功。音乐产业仍有活力,对于投身这一产业的人们仍充满潜力,”身穿黑夹克和牛仔衬衫、打着细领带的普尔努里表示。Pournouri is a fervent believer in Spotify. “I always thought it was the next thing,” he says while sipping a latte. “How do consumers want to consume music? If you mimic the behaviour as much as possible of illegal downloading and make it even easier and for a small payment, then you have the solution.”普尔努里是Spotify的狂热信徒。“我一直觉得它是下一个大热门,”他边啜着拿铁边说,“消费者希望如何消费音乐?如果你尽可能模仿非法下载的模式,让整个体验变得更轻松,收取一小笔费用,那你就有了解决问题的出路。”Perhaps most appealing for him is what he calls Spotify’s “democratic” side. The more a song is streamed, the more an artist is paid. “Not only do you have a platform where you can reach the whole world but you have a way that you can be listened to a lot. It hasn’t been democratic before in any sense. People buy a CD even if they only like three songs. With iTunes you might like it this week but not next week. Spotify is more democratic – people listen to a good song over and over again,” he says.或许最吸引普尔努里的,是他所称的Spotify“民主”的一面。一首歌播放的次数越多,艺人的报酬就越高。他表示:“艺人不仅获得了接触全世界的平台,还有办法让自己的作品得到大量收听。以往的音乐产业从来没有这么民主过。人们就算只喜欢一张专辑中的两三首歌,也得买下整张专辑。至于iTunes,你或许这周还喜欢一首歌,但下周就不喜欢了。Spotify更民主——人们会反复听一首好歌。”Some artists, however, are less glowing. Thom Yorke, the singer of Radiohead, told a Mexican website that Spotify was “the last desperate fart of a dying corpse”. He added: “I feel like as musicians we need to fight the Spotify thing. I feel that in some ways what’s happening in the mainstream is the last gasp of the old industry.”但有些艺人的反响没有这么热烈。电台司令(Radiohead)主唱汤姆#8226;约克(Thom Yorke)向墨西哥一家网站表示,Spotify是“濒死之人放的最后一个绝望的屁”。他补充道:“我认为作为音乐人,我们需要反抗Spotify这类东西。我觉得从某种程度上,主流世界发生的事情是旧音乐产业的垂死挣扎。”Spotify has responded to growing criticism by detailing how artists get paid. It pays out about 70 per cent of its revenues to record labels, who share the pot depending on how often their artists’ songs have been played. On average, that works out to between Beijing Electron-Positron Collider (BEPC)北京正负电子对撞机Beijing Electron-Positron Collider ( BEPC) completed its first successful operation on October 16, 1988.“It was hailed as another major scientific achievement next to China’s successful development of man-made satellites, nuclear”and hydrogen bombs and other achievements.1988年10月16日,我国第一座高能加速器——北京正负电子对撞机首次对撞成功。这是我国继原子弹、氢弹爆炸成功、人造卫星上天之后,在高科技领域又一重大突破性成就。The construction of the positive and negative electron collider is the largest project in China’s history. It was proposed by the Chinese American scientist Tsungdao Lee when he first came back home in 1972, and was also the last project with instructions from Premier Zhou Enlai just before he passed away. The project broke ground in October 1984 and was completed in four years, marking major progress in Chinese science and technology.这项被认为是中国科学技术史上最大的科研工程,是在1972年由美籍华人李政道回国时首次提出,也是周恩来总理逝世前亲自主持的最后一个科研项目。1984年10月7日破土动工,仅用四年时间就完成了。The collider consists of five parts: accelerating electron and positive electron accelerator; high-speed electron and positive electron storage rings; detector for collision analysis; synchronized radiation experimental zone for research and use of the constant rays released by high-speed electrons and positive electrons; and computer center for analysis and calculation of the whole process with fast computer. As a complicated systematic engineering comprised of hundreds and thousands of sophisticated special equipments, its success indicated each equipment, the quality of components, the skill of installing and testing have entered the international advanced level of the 1980s.该对撞机由五个部分组成:加速电子和正电子加速器;高速电子和正电子储存环,探测器的碰撞分析;同步辐射实验区的研究和利用射线的不断释放的高速电子和正电子;计算机数据处理中心。是由数百种、上万台件高精尖专用设备组成的复杂的系统工程。它能一次对撞成功,表明对撞机的各种设备、部件的质量、安装调试的水平都达到世界一流。The success of China’s first high-energy accelerator Beijing electron-positron collider evoked strong repercussion in domestic science and technology circles and also created a stir in the international high-energy physics. Many renowned highenergy physicists in the world said that the success of Beijing electron-positron collider was a great progress in scientific development of China and also a milestone in the development of high-energy physics.我国第一台高能加速器北京正负电子对撞机一次对撞成功的消息,在我国科技界引起强烈反响,并在国际高能物理学界引起轰动。许多在世界上享有盛誉的高能物理学家说,北京正负电子对撞机对撞成功是中国科学发展的伟大进步,是高能物理发展的一个里程碑。 /201602/426274.006 and .0084 per stream. Or to put it another way: one million streams would give a label ,000-,400.面对着越来越多的指责,Spotify的对策是详细说明其补偿艺人的方式。它将自己约70%的收入付给唱片公司,而唱片公司能分到多少,取决于旗下艺人曲目的播放频度。平均而言,每次播放可以带来0.006至0.0084美元的报酬。换句话说,100万次播放可以为唱片公司带来6000至8400美元。But Spotify argues that to concentrate on the “per stream” maths is the wrong way of looking at things. In total, it has paid out bn in royalties to labels including 0m alone last year. It has also persuaded 10 million people to pay 0 a year for music. And it contrasts its fees with others: a “-streaming service” (presumably YouTube) would pay out just ,000 for one million listens while US terrestrial radio would hand over . Spotify has had some success – notable holdouts such as Led Zeppelin, Pink Floyd and Metallica have all signed up recently, leaving The Beatles as the main exception. But other bands, such as the Black Keys, refuse to release new music on to Spotify straightaway.但Spotify辩称,专注于每次播放的酬金是错误的解读方式。它总共向唱片公司付了10亿美元的版税,去年一年就付了5亿美元。它还说1000万人每年为听音乐付120美元。这与其他务商的费用形成了对比:某一家“视频流媒体务”(想必是指YouTube)只为每100万次收听付3000美元,而美国的地面无线电台只付41美元。Spotify取得了一些成功——齐柏林飞船(Led Zeppelin)、平克#8226;弗洛伊德(Pink Floyd)和金属乐队(Metallica)等知名的不合作者最近均与它签署了协议,使得主要的“钉子户”只剩下披头士乐队(The Beatles)。但Black Keys等乐队仍拒绝直接在Spotify上发布新曲。Per Herrey has known the heights of pop success, winning the Eurovision Song Contest in 1984 with “Diggi-Loo, Diggi-Ley”. He is now a lawyer for the Swedish musicians’ union and is preparing to sue several record labels over the royalties they pay from Spotify. He says the labels, not Spotify, are the villains. “They have stolen the rights of artists. It is betrayal from the record companies. They have snatched the rights and paid nothing to the artists. It’s ridiculous,” he says.佩尔#8226;赫雷(Per Herrey)经历过流行音乐成功的巅峰,他在1984年凭借一首《Diggi-Loo, Diggi-Ley》赢得欧洲歌唱大赛(Eurovision Song Contest)冠军。他如今是瑞典音乐人联盟的律师,正准备起诉数家唱片公司,称它们拖欠向音乐人付来自Spotify的版税。他表示,Spotify不是坏蛋,唱片公司才是。“它们窃取了艺人的权利。这是唱片公司的背叛。它们拿走了版权,却不分一点给艺人。这很荒唐,”他说。Herrey says the problem is that the artists do not even get the For lifeless chemical compounds to organize themselves into something alive, scientists generally agree, three sets of things must be present:科学家基本公认,无生命的化学物质自行组合形成生命,需要具备三个前提条件: Standing water and an energy source. 静态水和能量来源。 Five basic elements: carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, phosphorus and nitrogen. 五种基本元素:碳、氧、氢、磷和氮。 And time, lots of time. 还有时间,漫长的时间。In its search for environments where life might have started on Mars, the Curiosity rover has found the standing water, the energy and the key elements with the right atomic charges. As a result, scientists have concluded that at least some of the planet must have been habitable long ago.在寻找火星上适宜生命的环境的过程中,“好奇号”火星探测车找到了静态水、能源和原子电量正好合适的基本元素。据此,科学家得出结论,火星上至少有些地方在很久以前是适宜生命存在的。But the period when all conditions were right was counted in hundreds to thousands of years, a very small opening by origin-of-life standards.但在火星历史上,所有这些条件都具备的时间跨度大约是几百到几千年,而以生命起源的标准衡量,那实在不过是转瞬之间。That has now changed. John P. Grotzinger of Caltech, the project scientist for the mission, reported at a news conference on Monday that the rover’s yearlong trek to Mount Sharp provided strong new evidence that Gale Crater had large lakes, rivers and deltas, on and off, for millions to tens of millions of years. The geology shows that even when the surface water dried up, plenty of water would have remained underground, he said.不过,现在有了新发现。负责“好奇号”火星项目的加州理工科学家约翰·P·格罗青格(John P. Grotzinger)周一(12月8日——译注)在新闻发布会上宣布,“好奇号”向着夏普峰历时一年的跋涉发现了有力的新据,明盖尔环形山曾有大型湖泊、河流和三角洲,而且这些地貌断断续续存在的时间有数百万到数千万年之间。他说,已知的火星地理特征说明,即使是在地表水干涸的时候,也有地下水存在。Moreover, the team concluded, numerous deltalike and lakelike formations detected by orbiting satellites are almost certainly the dried remains of substantial ancient lakes and deltas. None of this proves that life existed on the planet, but the case for an early Mars that was ripe and y for life has grown stronger.此外,科学家团队还得出结论,环绕火星的卫星发现大量类三角洲或类湖泊地貌,几乎可以肯定就是古代湖泊和三角洲干涸之后的遗迹。这些均不能明火星上曾有生命,但早期火星适宜生命存在的可能性极大地增强了。“As a science team, Mars is looking very attractive to us as a habitable planet,” Dr. Grotzinger said in an interview. “Not just sections of Gale Crater and not just a handful of locations, but at different times around the globe.”“对于我们科学团队来说,火星作为一个生命宜居行星,显得十分诱人,”格罗青格说。“不仅是在盖尔环形山,也不仅是有限几个地点,而是在不同历史时期遍布火星各处。”And John M. Grunsfeld, a former astronaut who is NASA’s associate administrator for science, said that after almost 28 months on Mars, Curiosity has given scientists insight into how and where to look for clues of ancient life. “We don’t know if life ever started on Mars, but if it did, we now have a better chance of discovering it” on future missions, he said.美国国家航空航天局(NASA)科学副总监、前宇航员约翰·M·格伦斯菲尔德(John M. Grunsfeld)也说,“好奇号”在火星的近28个月让科学家学到很多东西,知道该怎样寻找古代生命的线索,以及到哪里去找。“我们不知道火星上是否曾有生命起源,但如果有的话,我们[在今后探索任务中]发现它的机会更大了,”他说。Another missing piece of the story has been the inability to detect organic compounds — the carbon-based building blocks of life.探索生命起源的过程中另一个缺失的环节是一直没有找到有机化合物——构成生命的碳基元件。That too may soon change. Last spring, several Curiosity team members reported the detection of some simple organics that appeared to be Martian. The findings were not definitive, but NASA has scheduled a news conference Dec. 14 at the annual meeting of the American Geophysical Union with “new information” about the search for organics. “Our original interpretation — that there was a good chance the organics we were seeing are Martian — hasn’t changed,” said Daniel P. Glavin of the Goddard Spaceflight Center, an author of the earlier paper. “This interpretation will be expanded on at A.G.U.”这一点也可能很快会有突破。今年春季,“好奇号”的几位科学家报告发现了可能是火星上的某些简单有机物。这个发现没有遽下结论,但航天局已经安排了12月14日在美国地球物理学会(American Geophysical Union)年会上召开新闻发布会,发布关于探索火星有机物的“新消息”。那篇论文的作者之一、戈达德航天中心(Goddard Spaceflight Center)的丹尼尔·P·格莱文(Daniel P. Glavin)说:“我们最初的解读——很可能我们发现的就是火星有机物——并没有改变。在U年会上我们会进一步介绍。”Curiosity does not carry life-detection instruments, in large part because there is no consensus on what such an instrument might be. A finding of life based on what at first appeared to be metabolic activity, detected during the Viking missions of 1977, was so controversial that NASA ultimately rejected it. So scientists have been using a variety of tools — from geology and other earth sciences, organic and mineral chemistry, atmospheric measurements and sophisticated cameras — to determine whether life could have arisen and survived in Gale Crater and other locations with similar characteristics.“好奇号”没有搭载生命探测设备,主要是因为究竟该用什么样的设备,科学家没有达成共识。1977年“海盗号”探测器报告发现了生命迹象,基于的是一开始被认为是代谢行为的现象。但那次发现争议很大,航天局最终做出了否定判断。因此,科学家开始用各种工具——包括地质学等地球科学的工具、有机和无机化学、大气探测以及精密摄像机等等——去判断盖尔环形山和其他类似地点是否曾经有生命出现并存活。Another member of the Curiosity team, Roger Summons of M.I.T., says that findings from that rover and previous missions suggest that early Mars may have been quite similar to early Earth.“好奇号”团队的另一名成员、麻省理工的罗杰·萨曼斯(Roger Summons)说,“好奇号”和历史上其他的火星探索显示,早期火星或许和早期地球十分相近。For the first billion years, he said, both planets had stable environments that could support life for substantial periods, and both still share the same chemistry and processes for altering rocks. There is a general scientific consensus that life began on Earth some 3.8 billion years ago, and Dr. Summons said it was clear that the same could have happened on Mars. Or as Dr. Grunsfeld put it, “What I get excited about is imagining a Mars 3.5 to 4 billion years ago, a planet with a thick atmosphere, maybe a blue sky with puffy clouds and mountains and lakes and rivers.”他说,最初的10亿年,两个星球都有稳定的环境,允许生命在相当长的时间里存在。直到今天,地球和火星仍然有相同的化学构成以及促使岩石发生转变的地质过程。科学界基本同意,生命在地球上开始于大约38亿年前。萨曼斯称,很明显同样的事情可能也发生在火星上。或者像格伦斯菲尔德说的那样:“让我激动的是想像一个35到40亿年前的火星,一个包裹在厚厚的大气层中的星球,可能有蓝天白云,有山脉、湖泊和河流。”Many similarities disappeared after Mars, a much smaller planet, lost much of its protective atmosphere by the end of its first billion years. So searching for possible Martian life involves digging deep below the surface or detecting microbial remains billions of years old. Identifying ancient microbial life has proved extremely difficult and controversial on Earth, and the challenge on Mars is considerably greater.在它基本度过第一个10亿年的时候,火星这颗小得多的行星丧失了大部分保护它的大气层,于是很多相似性也消失了。因此,搜寻火星生命就需要深深地挖掘地表下岩层,或者探测几十亿年前的微生物遗迹。在地球上辨识古代微生物极其困难,而且也难令所有人信;在火星上,这种挑战就更大了。For that reason, scientists have long called for a mission to bring rock and soil samples back to Earth for sophisticated analysis. The Mars mission scheduled for 2020 would begin the effort by experimenting with methods to select, lift and store promising samples.因此,科学家一直呼吁把火星岩石和土壤样本带回地球做深入分析。2020年开始的火星计划将开始尝试挑选、提取和储存有希望的样本。But there are no Mars samples now — except those that arrive as long-traveling meteorites — so astrobiologists have to conduct their search for life using other methods and teasing out hidden evidence.但是目前还没有火星样本——除了长途飞行来到地球的陨石——因此,宇宙生物学家只能用其他方法进行寻找生命的工作,梳理出隐藏的线索。The search for water on Mars, for instance, goes back decades and many missions. But scientists were never certain that the carved canyons and deltas were results of water running long ago, or perhaps lava or frozen carbon dioxide. Because of Curiosity, there is now a wide consensus that early Mars had much water.比如,寻找火星水的工作在几十年前的火星计划中就开始了。但科学家一直不能肯定,那些大峡谷和三角洲究竟是古代河流冲刷形成的,还是熔岩或冻结的二氧化碳造成的。多亏了“好奇号”,现在科学家普遍同意,早期火星上有很多水。This conclusion has been difficult to square with climate models, which point to a colder early Mars with a thin atmosphere that could not have supported large bodies of standing water, or rivers that ran for millions of years. But faced with mounting evidence of longstanding water and consequently warmer conditions, the climate scientists have gravitated toward two interwoven explanations — both with implications for early life.这个结论一度很难在火星气候模型中说得通。火星气候模型显示,早期火星冰冷,大气稀薄,不持大量静态水的存在,不可能有流淌了几百万年的河流。但面对越来越多的关于持续存在的水源和由此导致的温暖环境的据,气候学家开始倾向于两种互相交叉的解释——两种解释都意味着可能有早期生命存在。The first is that frequent volcanoes and meteorite impacts heated the planet substantially; volcanoes also emit gases known to synthesize into organic compounds. The second is that to explain the substantial water cycle required to keep many Martian lakes filled and rivers flowing, the planet needed a substantial ocean in its northern half. Large swaths of Mars north of its equator are one to three miles lower than the so-called southern highlands, and scientists have proposed that an ocean may have filled and molded the vast depression. Others disagree on several grounds, including that no remnant shoreline has been detected.第一种解释是,频繁的火山活动和陨石撞击让星球大幅升温;火山也会释放出气体,能合成有机化合物。第二个解释是,火星要维持水循环,让火星湖泊和河流成为可能,那么在北半球就应该有一大片海洋。火星赤道以北的大片区域比通称的南方高地要低一到三英里。科学家提出假设,北半球可能有古代海洋,塑造了广袤的低地。也有人不同意,基于好几条理由,包括没有探测到海岸线的遗迹。“We don’t have hard evidence of a northern ocean, but our models require that much water to explain what the geologists have now confirmed,” said Michael A. Mischna of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, another Curiosity team member. “What Curiosity has done is to bring together atmospheric and climate information with the findings of the geologists and geochemists, and created a broad and consistent story of a very wet early Mars.”“我们没有发现北半球海洋的确凿据,但我们的模型要求有一大片水体,这样才能解释目前地质学家已经实的结论,”“好奇号”团队成员、喷气推进实验室(Jet Propulsion Laboratory)的迈克尔·A·米什纳(Michael A. Mischna)说。“好奇号的工作就是将大气与气候信息,和地质学家与地质化学家的发现整合起来,构建一个大跨度、可以自圆其说的理论,描述一个非常湿润的早期火星。”While the evidence for water has become increasingly clear, the question of organic compounds is in flux. Such chemicals fall onto Mars all the time in interstellar dust and meteorites, as they do onto Earth. Yet none have been definitively detected.关于水的据已经越来越清楚了,但有关有机化合物的疑问还有一大堆。这类物质不断以星际尘埃和陨石的形式落到火星上,就像落在地球上一样,但目前还从来没有被确凿地发现。But on this mission, team members knew to look for a salt called perchlorate that has been demonstrated on Earth to destroy or transform organics in the presence of heat. Substantial amounts of perchlorate were found in Gale Crater, suggesting that if early Mars had organic chemicals and they survived eons of radiation bombardment, they are long since gone or they will remain very difficult to detect with current techniques.不过在这次火星探索中,科学家知道应该寻找一种叫做高氯酸盐的无机物。在地球上,高氯酸盐被明可以在高温下破坏有机物,或者促使有机物转化。在盖尔环形山上发现了大量高氯酸盐。这意味着,如果早期火星存在有机物,而且它们没有被持续的宇宙辐射消灭,那么它们现在也早就不存在了,或者用现有的技术很难发现。The Sample Analysis at Mars instrument is designed to identify relatively simple organics that burn off as gases in its oven. But it also carries nine cups with a solvent that can alter more complex molecules (like amino acids and nucleic acids) in ways that protect their signature.火星样本分析设备是用来识别相对简单的有机物的。这些有机物将在它的烤炉内作为气体燃尽。但它也带有九个杯子,盛着一种溶剂,可以转化更复杂的分子(比如氨基酸和核酸)同时保护它们的化学特征。This “wet chemistry” has been awaiting the finding of a sample rich in organics. A further problem is that one of its cups leaked, causing enormous headaches and making team leaders wary.这种“湿化学”技术一直还在等待富含有机物的样本被发现。另一个问题是设备的其中一只杯子发生了泄漏,制造了大麻烦,让团队负责人不放心。But Dr. Glavin, a member of the team, hopes the spilled solvent will itself be used to test previously collected Martian samples, making it the first wet-chemistry experiment ever on another planet.但团队成员格莱文希望,溢洒的溶剂可以被用来测试之前采集的火星样本,那将是外星球进行的第一次湿化学试验。Clearly, the search for life on Mars — past or present — will be neither straightforward nor swift.很显然,寻找火星生命——无论是古代生命还是现今的生命——不会是一帆风顺,也不可能马上成功。 /201412/348795.006-.0084 per stream; instead they get between 6 and 10 per cent of that small sum. The rest goes to the record label in what he calls a hangover of the days when the label had to recoup the costs of distribution and pressing. Now those costs no longer exist, Herrey argues that labels should give artists a similar deal to radio, where royalties are split 50-50.赫雷表示,问题是艺人连每次播放0.006至0.0084美元的酬金都拿不到,只能获得这一小笔钱的6%至10%,其余都被唱片公司收入囊中。赫雷称这种分配方式是旧时代的遗留物——以前,唱片公司要收回发行和压制唱片的成本。如今这些成本已经不复存在,赫雷主张,唱片公司应当像电台那样对待艺人,与他们平分版税。Herrey says artists are afraid of speaking out. “I can’t even begin to tell you how many artists I’ve talked to. They are too scared. Sweden is a small market and they are afraid of burning their bridges. Artists are also extremely sensitive to not show their fans they are interested only in money. The winners therefore are the big companies.” He adds that he believes the major record labels offered their back catalogue to Spotify at a reduced rate in return for their shareholdings in the company. Spotify refuses to say how much the labels own but people close to the company say it is less than the 17 per cent or so they were reported to have five years ago.赫雷称,艺人不敢大声抗议。“我都没法跟你说我同多少艺人谈过。他们太害怕了。瑞典市场小,他们不敢断了自己的后路。艺人也极为敏感,不想向歌迷们表现出自己只对钱感兴趣。结果,大公司成了赢家。”他补充称,据他所知,大型唱片公司以折价向Spotify提供旧曲目,以换取Spotify的股份。Spotify拒绝公布唱片公司持有的股份,但接近该公司的人表示,这部分持股不到五年前报道的17%上下。What is certain is that Spotify is changing the economics of music. Ludvig Werner, the head in Sweden of IFPI, an organisation representing the record industry globally, says: “The music industry has never been so different from one country to another. For instance, 10,000 CD sales in Poland can make more money than being number one in Sweden.” He adds: “Under the old business model, you pre-paid for eternal listening. The downside was if you didn’t like it, if you damaged it. For 90 years, we didn’t know as a business how you listened to a song: was it 10 times or 10,000?”可以肯定的是,Spotify正在改变音乐的商业模式。国际唱片业协会(IFPI)是代表全球唱片行业的机构,其瑞典分会主席路德维希#8226;维尔纳(Ludwig Werner)表示:“各国音乐行业从未有过如此大的差异。例如在波兰卖出1万张CD,可能比瑞典的排行榜第一名赚得还多。”他补充道:“在旧有的商业模式下,你预付一笔钱,获得永久的收听权。坏处是你可能不喜欢,你可能把CD损坏。在整整90年期间,音乐行业不知道你怎么听某一首歌:听了10次还是1万次?”Per Sundin now has the answer in his hands. He flips open his MacBook Air and logs on to a website, Spotify Analytics. Within seconds, he has dialled up information on Avicii. The 24-year-old DJ has been played 129,694,407 times in the past 59 days. That works out at 2.2 million streams a day by 1.16 million different listeners. Sundin calls up some more statistics. A fifth of Avicii’s listeners were in the US, with 17 per cent in Sweden. Males accounted for 60 per cent and Sundin can also see a breakdown by age. “When I wake up every morning I log into this and see what happened yesterday. This is addictive. And this is money,” he says.如今,佩尔#8226;松丁随时能够掌握。他麻利地打开自己的MacBook Air,登录一个名叫Spotify Analytics的网站。区区数秒间,他便已经查到关于艾维奇的信息。这位24岁DJ的曲目在过去59天内被播放129,694,407次,日均播放220万次,听众数量达到116万。松丁调出一些更具体的数据。艾维奇五分之一的听众位于美国,17%的听众位于瑞典。男性占60%。松丁还能看到用户的年龄构成。“我每天早晨醒来都会登录这个网站,看看昨天发生了什么。这让人上瘾,这也是实实在在的业务。”The power of the data has other effects as well. “The industry gets excited when you talk to them about this. We have an incredible amount of data about what is being played by whom and when,” says Spotify’s Jonathan Forster. Artists can plan tours by targeting cities where they have fans or see where they need to boost marketing. The company is aly adding other services such as allowing artists to sell merchandise or concert tickets via Spotify or even send an email when a new song is out.数据的力量还有其他影响。“跟行业人士谈到这些数据时,他们就会兴奋起来。我们拥有令人难以置信的海量数据,能够展示谁在何时收听了什么曲目,”Spotify的乔纳森#8226;福斯特表示。艺人在策划巡演时可以选择那些他们拥有大量歌迷的城市,他们也可以看出自己在哪些市场需要加强市场宣传。Spotify已经加入了其他务,如允许艺人通过Spotify出售商品或演唱会门票,甚至是在新歌发布时发送一封邮件。. . .. . .The company that is supposedly the future of the music industry is housed in a nondescript tower block north of Stockholm’s city centre. Get past Spotify’s reception and the offices finally begin to look like a typical start-up. Fridges stocked high with soft drinks, milk and even beer are dotted around, as are big comfortable chairs.这家被视为音乐产业未来的公司,坐落于斯德哥尔市中心以北一座不起眼的高楼里。走过Spotify的前台,办公室终于开始有了典型创业公司的模样。散布各处的冰箱堆满了软饮料、牛奶乃至啤酒,舒适的大椅子随处可见。 /201412/348076太仓市第一人民医院治疗宫颈糜烂好吗

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