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楼主:飞度搜医生 时间:2017年10月17日 13:59:29 点击:0 回复:0
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Pi in China圆周率在中国Pi,the ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter, is a very im-portant constant in mathematics. The calculation of pi was an important criterion showing the development level of a nation’s mathematics in ancient times.China attained some glaring achievements in this respect.圆周率,即圆的周长与其直径之比,是数学中最重要的常数之一。对它的计算,可以作为显示出一个国家古代数学发展的水平的尺度之一。而中国古代数学在这方面取得了令世人瞩目的成绩。Pi was approximated in China as 3 at the beginning. Though very simple to use,the number was far from being precise.中国古代最初把圆周率取作3,这虽应用起来简便,但太不准确。On the journey of finding a precise pi,Liu Hui,a prominent mathematician of the Kingdom of Wei during the Three Kingdoms period,took the first crucial step by approximated pi. He did this by approximating circle polygons(plane structures,usually with three or more sides and angles that are used to help measure various aspects of shapes) via doubling the number of sides to get better approximations.He approximated pi as 3. 14.在求准确圆周率值的征途中,首先迈出关键一步的是三国时期魏国杰出的数学家刘徽。他创立割圆术,用圆内接正多边形无限逼近圆而求取圆周率值。用这种方法他求得圆周率的近似值为3. 14。Green is born of blue,but beats blue;the student surpasses the teacher. Lat-er, with Liu’s method,Zu Chongzhi determined pi to 7 digits.青出于蓝,而胜于蓝。后继者祖冲之利用割圆术得出了正确的小数点后七位。Zu Chongzhi ( 429一500 ) was a famous mathematician,astronomer and me-chanic in the Southern and Northern dynasties(421一581).Smart and fond of learning since childhood,he liked natural science,literature and philosophy, and later became a world-famous scientist.祖冲之(429 - 500)是中国南北朝(421- 581)时著名的数学家、天文学家和机械制造家。他从小聪明好学,爱好自然科学、文学和哲学,经过刻苦的学习钻研,终于成为一位享誉世界的科学家。The achievements Zu Chongzhi made in mathematics have been universally acknowledged. Dated as far back as 1500 years ago,He worked out an accurate value of pi. Pi is usually represented by }r, and it has always been a very important yet difficult research topic for mathematics to calculate the value of pi. Many math-ematicians of ancient China made painstaking efforts in this research with satisfac-Cory results. Based on earlier research,Zu Chongzhi continued to carry out system-atic study. After calculating more than 1,000 times,he concluded that the value of pi falls between 3. 1415926 and 3. 1415927;and therefore he became the first sci-entist in the world who calculated the value of pi to seven decimal places.Zu Chongzhi also put forward the thesis that the approximate value of pi was 355/113,which was called milu ( close ratio ),pushing the calculation of pi to a new stage.The value was the most accurate in the world at that time,and Japanese mathe-maticians respectfully called it the“Zu Chongzhi Ratio”.Not until more than 1,000 years later, did scientists in the West come up to and surpass the achievements of Zu Chongzhi.祖冲之在数学方面的成就为世界所公认。远在1500多年前,祖冲之就计算出了精确的圆周率。。圆周率通常用“∏”来表示,求算圆周率的值是数学中一个非常重要也是非常困难的研究课题。中国古代许多数学家都为研究这个课题付出了心血,并取得了喜人的成果。祖冲之在前人研究的基础上,继续进行了深人系统的研究,经过1000多次的计算,得出圆周率在3.1415926和3.1415927之间,成为世界上第一个把圆周率推算到小数点后七位数字的科学家。祖冲之还提出二的近似值为355/113,称为“密率”,把数学中关于圆周率的计算推进到一个新阶段,成为当时世界上最精确的圆周率。日本数学家尊称它为“祖率”。直到1000多年以后,西方的数学家才达到和超过了祖冲之的成就。 /201512/410700Shenzhou V Spacecraft神舟五号载人飞船Shenzhou V-atop a Long March 2F rocket-was successfully launched on October 15, 2003 ,at 09:00 Beijing time ( UTC +8) ,carrying one astronaut, Yang Liwei. As the country’s first manned space launch, the launch of the Shenzhou V space capsule, however, will mark China’s entry to an exclusive club by becoming only the third nation in history to successfully place an astronaut into Earth’s orbit after the ed States and Russia. Chinese President Hu Jintao watched the launch of the spaceship. The Shenzhou program, supported and run by the military, had been carried out under much secrecy. Most people got their first glimpse of the launch preparations on Monday, when Chinese state television began airing news stories and a documentary on the upcoming mission. At 09:34 Beijing time( UTC + 8) , the astronaut send the message of“I feel good. ”to the earth. And when it came to the sixth orbiting around the earth there was the first “sky-to-ground greeting” between Yang Liwei and Cao Gangchuan, the Defense Minister. At 18:40 Beijing time ( UTC +8) , Yang Liwei displayed the national flag of China and the flag of --UN and gave the greetings to the Earth. Yang Liwei also had a communication with his families at 19:59 Beijing time ( UTC +8).“神舟五号”载人飞船是中国神舟号飞船系列之一,为中国首次发射的载人航天飞行器,于北京时间(UTC +8)2003年10月15日9时在中国酒泉航天发射中心用“长征二号”F型运载火箭发射,将航天员杨利伟送入太空。这次的成功发射标志着中国成为继前苏联(现由俄罗斯承继)和美国之后,第三个有能力独自将人送上太空的国家。中国国家主席胡锦涛在现场观看了飞船的发射。“神舟五号”的研制和发射都是由军方实施,相当保密。许多人是在周一即将发射前官方媒体开始对此进行报导时才首次了解发射的准备过程。9时34分杨利伟向地面表示“感觉良好”。17时32分,飞船在进行第六圈飞行时,杨利伟与国防部长曹刚川进行第一次“天地对话”。18时40分,中国航天员杨利伟在太空展示中国国旗和联合国旗,并向地球发出问候。19时59分,杨利伟与家人通话。The launch of Shenzhou V took place at the Jiuqian Space Center, in north- western Gansu Province and landed after orbiting about the Earth 14 times during a 21-hour period in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. The orbital module remains in orbit for several months.“神舟五号”在完成了14圈绕地球的飞行后,返回舱于2003年10月16日6时23分在内蒙古着陆场成功着陆,离预定着陆地点仅差4.8千米。轨道舱继续绕地球运行半年左右。 /201603/430088Smallpox Inoculation人痘接种Smallpox inoculation or variolation was a great invention of medicine in ancient China. Inoculation against smallpox using material from small-pox patients was probably first practiced by the Chinese in the 10th century. A story was recorded that a Song Dynasty (960-1279) chancellor of China, Wang Dan,summoned physicians from all over the country to try to find some remedy for smallpox. From Mount Emei in Sichuan, a Taoist hermit, known as a ; miracle-working doctor; brought the technique of inoculation and introduced it to him.However, the first clear and credible reference to smallpox inoculation in China comes from Douzhen Xinfa written in 1549 by Wan Quan. Inoculation, according tothe historical records, was not widely practiced in China until the reign of Emperor Longqing (1567-1572) during the Ming Dynasty. Powdered smallpox scabs were blown into the noses of the healthy, and they would then develop a mild case of the disease and from then on were immune to it. During the seventeenth century,the practice sp to the Turkish regions, and then to the European countries. The French philosopher Voltaire once praised, ;I am informed that the Chinese have practised inoculation in the past hundred years; this is a great precedent and ex-ample set by the Chinese nation considered to be the most intelligent and courteous in the world. ;人痘接种预防天花是中国古代医学家的伟大发明。中国人可能早在10世纪已懂得利用天花患者的病毒来接种的人痘接种法。有史书记载了一个故事:宋朝宰相王旦曾召集全国各地医师商议防治天花的方法,随后有一个被称为“神医”的四川峨眉山道教隐士将人痘接种术传给了王旦。不过,中国关于人痘接种最早的明确可信的记载来自明代医学家万全1549年的《痘疹心法》一书。据史料记载,人痘接种被广泛应用是在明朝隆庆年间(1567一1572)。将天花痘痂粉末吹人健康者的鼻孔,使其染病但症状较轻,痊愈之后便会终身对天花具有免疫力。17世纪,这一方法流传至土耳其一带,后又传至欧洲各国。法国哲学家伏尔泰这样赞扬人痘接种:“我听说一百年来,中国人一直就施用人痘接种法;这是被认为全世界最聪明、最讲礼貌的一个民族的伟大先例和榜样。” /201601/419336

The battle between Apple and law enforcement officials over unlocking a terrorist’s smartphone is the culmination of a slow turning of the tables between the technology industry and the ed States government.苹果公司与执法官员就破解一部恐怖分子用过的智能手机展开的战斗,意味着技术行业与美国政府之间发生缓慢改变的局面进入高潮。After revelations by the former National Security Agency contractor Edward J. Snowden in 2013 that the government both cozied up to certain tech companies and hacked into others to gain access to private data on an enormous scale, tech giants began to recognize the ed States government as a hostile actor.美国国家安全局前承包商雇员爱德华·J·斯诺登(Edward J. Snowden)2013年披露政府通过拉拢某些技术公司,并侵入其他公司来获取规模巨大的私人数据之后,技术行业巨头们开始形成了把美国政府作为一个敌对方的认识。But if the confrontation has crystallized in this latest battle, it may aly be heading toward a predictable conclusion: In the long run, the tech companies are destined to emerge victorious.但是,如果说双方的对抗在这场最新战斗中变明确的话,战斗可能已经在走向一个可预测的结局:从长远来看,技术公司注定会取得胜利。It may not seem that way at the moment. On the one side, you have the ed States government’s mighty legal and security apparatus fighting for data of the most sympathetic sort: the secrets buried in a dead mass murderer’s phone. The action stems from a federal court order issued on Tuesday requiring Apple to help the F.B.I. unlock an iPhone used by one of the two attackers who killed 14 people in San Bernardino, Calif., in December.此时此刻,结局可能看起来不是那样。对手中,一方是美国政府强大的法律和安全机器,它争夺的是那种最能赢得同情的数据:藏在死了的制造群体谋杀的人手机里的秘密。政府的行动源于联邦法院周二的命令,命令要求苹果公司帮助联邦调查局破解去年12月在加利福尼亚州圣贝纳迪诺杀死14人的两名袭击者之一用过的iPhone。In the other corner is the world’s most valuable company, whose chief executive, Timothy D. Cook, has said he will appeal the court’s order. Apple argues that it is fighting to preserve a principle that most of us who are addicted to our smartphones can defend: Weaken a single iPhone so that its contents can be viewed by the American government and you risk weakening all iPhones for any government intruder, anywhere.另一方是世界上市值最高的公司,其首席执行官蒂莫西·D·库克(Timothy D. Cook)表示,他将对法院的命令提出上诉。苹果公司认为,它在为保护一个原则而战,而我们中间那些痴迷于智能手机的大多数人会持这个原则:削弱一部iPhone,使其内容能被美国政府检查,你将面临一种为任何地方的任何政府削弱所有iPhone的风险。There will probably be months of legal tussling, and it is not at all clear which side will prevail in court, nor in the battle for public opinion and legislative favor.可能会有好几个月的法律角逐,哪一方会在法庭占上风还完全不可知,谁会赢得公众舆论和立法者的青睐也不清楚。Yet underlying all of this is a simple dynamic: Apple, Google, Facebook and other companies hold most of the cards in this confrontation. They have our data, and their businesses depend on the global public’s collective belief that they will do everything they can to protect that data.然而,这一切的背后有一个简单的动力:苹果、谷歌、Facebook等公司掌握着控制这场争夺战局势的大部分主动权。它们拥有我们的数据,它们的业务依赖于全球公众的集体信念,那就是公司将尽一切可能来保护这些数据。Any crack in that front could be fatal for tech companies that must operate worldwide. If Apple is forced to open up an iPhone for an American law enforcement investigation, what’s to prevent it from doing so for a request from the Chinese or the Iranians? If Apple is forced to write code that lets the F.B.I. get into the Phone 5c used by Syed Rizwan Farook, the male attacker in the San Bernardino attack, who would be responsible if some hacker got hold of that code and broke into its other devices?这种信念的任何裂纹,对必须在全世界开展业务的技术公司来说,都可能是致命的。如果苹果被迫为美国执法机构的调查破解了一部iPhone的话,有什么能阻止它在中国或者伊朗的要求下这样做呢?如果苹果被迫编写代码、让联邦调查局进入制造圣贝纳迪诺袭击的男子赛义德·里兹万·法鲁克(Syed Rizwan Farook)用过的iPhone 5c的话,如果某个黑客获得了这些代码、用其闯入其他设备,那会由谁来负责呢?Apple’s stance on these issues emerged post-Snowden, when the company started putting in place a series of technologies that, by default, make use of encryption to limit access to people’s data. More than that, Apple — and, in different ways, other tech companies, including Google, Facebook, Twitter and Microsoft — have made their opposition to the government’s claims a point of corporate pride.苹果在这些问题上的立场是在斯诺登出现后形成的,那之后,公司开始采用一系列的技术,这些技术在默认情况下将使用者的数据加密以限制他人访问。不仅如此,苹果、以及包括谷歌、Facebook、Twitter和微软在内的其他公司以不同的方式,都把它们反对政府的主张作为企业的一种骄傲。Apple’s emerging global brand is privacy; it has staked its corporate reputation, not to mention invested its considerable technical and financial resources, on limiting the sort of mass surveillance that was uncovered by Mr. Snowden. So now, for many cases involving governmental intrusions into data, once-lonely privacy advocates find themselves fighting alongside the most powerful company in the world.苹果正在全球显露的新品牌是隐私;它已经把公司的信誉押在限制那种被斯诺登披露的大规模监听监视上,更不用提在这方面投入了公司可观的技术和财务资源。所以在目前,就许多涉及政府侵入数据的案子而言,曾经孤独的隐私倡导者们发现他们正在与世界上最强大的公司一起作战。“A comparison point is in the 1990s battles over encryption,” said Kurt Opsahl, general counsel of the Electronic Frontier Foundation, a privacy watchdog group. “Then you had a few companies involved, but not one of the largest companies in the world coming out with a lengthy and impassioned post, like we saw yesterday from Tim Cook. The profile has really been raised.”“可作为比较的事情是20世纪90年代有关加密的争夺战,”隐私监督组织电子前沿基金会(Electronic Frontier Foundation)的法律总顾问库尔特·奥普萨尔(Kurt Opsahl)说。“那时,有几家公司参与其中,但没有世界上最大的公司,用一篇充满的长文站出来表态,就像我们昨天看到的蒂姆·库克所做的那样。现在的确是高调得多了。”Apple and other tech companies hold another ace: the technical means to keep making their devices more and more inaccessible. Note that Apple’s public opposition to the government’s request is itself a hindrance to mass government intrusion. And to get at the contents of a single iPhone, the government says it needs a court order and Apple’s help to write new code; in earlier versions of the iPhone, ones that were created before Apple found religion on privacy, the F.B.I. may have been able to break into the device by itself.苹果及其他科技公司还握有一张王牌:使设备越来越难以侵入的技术手段。需要注意的是,苹果公开回绝政府要求,本身就是对政府大规模侵扰的一种阻碍。政府表示,为了获取这一部iPhone的内容,政府需要获得法庭命令,在苹果的帮助下编写新代码;对于早期版本的iPhone,也就是苹果在隐私保护方面产生执着追求之前的版本,FBI或许自己就能进入这些设备。You can expect that noose to continue to tighten. Experts said that whether or not Apple loses this specific case, measures that it could put into place in the future will almost certainly be able to further limit the government’s reach.预计套索会继续收紧。专家们表示,无论苹果是否输掉这起官司,苹果未来采取的举措几乎肯定会进一步限制政府的影响范围。That’s not to say that the outcome of the San Bernardino case is insignificant. As Apple and several security experts have argued, an order compelling Apple to write software that gives the F.B.I. access to the iPhone in question would establish an unsettling precedent. The order essentially asks Apple to hack its own devices, and once it is in place, the precedent could be used to justify law enforcement efforts to get around encryption technologies in other investigations far removed from national security threats.这不是说圣贝纳迪诺袭击案件的结果不重要。就像苹果及几名安全专家说的那样,下令强迫苹果编写软件,使得FBI可以进入相关的iPhone,会创下一个令人不安的先例。这项命令基本上是要求苹果入侵自己的设备,一旦这么做了,那么在其他远未涉及国家安全威胁的调查中,这个先例就会为绕过加密技术的执法行动提供正当理由。Once armed with a method for gaining access to iPhones, the government could ask to use it proactively, before a suspected terrorist attack — leaving Apple in a bind as to whether to comply or risk an attack and suffer a public-relations nightmare.一旦获得进入iPhone的方法,政府就可以要求在潜在恐怖袭击爆发前主动使用它,致使苹果陷入困境——是遵从命令,还是冒着袭击发生、遭遇公关噩梦的风险。“This is a brand new salvo in the war against encryption,” Mr. Opsahl said. “We’ve had plenty of debates in Congress and the media over whether the government should have a backdoor, and this is an end run around that — here they come with an order to create that backdoor.”“这是反加密一方发起的一场全新的攻击,”奥普萨尔说。“国会和媒体已经就政府是否应该拥有后门的问题展开了很多辩论,现在他们要绕过辩论——直接下令开设后门。”Yet it’s worth noting that even if Apple ultimately loses this case, it has plenty of technical means to close a backdoor over time. “If they’re anywhere near worth their salt as engineers, I bet they’re rethinking their threat model as we speak,” said Jonathan Zdziarski, a digital forensic expert who studies the iPhone and its vulnerabilities.但值得注意的是,即便苹果最终输掉官司,该公司掌握很多可以最终关闭后门的技术。“如果他们是称职的工程师,我打赌此时此刻他们正在重新考虑他们的威胁模型,”研究iPhone及其安全缺陷的数字取专家乔纳森·兹阿尔斯基(Jonathan Zdziarski)说。One relatively simple fix, Mr. Zdziarski said, would be for Apple to modify future versions of the iPhone to require a user to enter a passcode before the phone will accept the sort of modified operating system that the F.B.I. wants Apple to create. That way, Apple could not unilaterally introduce a code that weakens the iPhone — a user would have to consent to it.兹阿尔斯基表示,对于苹果来说,一种相对简单的补救方式就是改变未来推出的iPhone,在手机接受苹果根据FBI的意愿改动过的操作系统前,用户要输入密码来确认。如此一来,苹果不能单方面引入削弱iPhone防护的代码,需要获得用户的同意。“Nothing is 100 percent hacker-proof,” Mr. Zdziarski said, but he pointed out that the judge’s order in this case required Apple to provide “reasonable security assistance” to unlock Mr. Farook’s phone. If Apple alters the security model of future iPhones so that even its own engineers’ “reasonable assistance” will not be able to crack a given device when compelled by the government, a precedent set in this case might lose its lasting force.“没有什么能百分之百防黑客,”兹阿尔斯基说,但他指出法官在这起案件中下令要求苹果提供“合乎情理的安全协助”,破解法鲁克的手机。如果苹果更改未来推出的iPhone的安全模式,以至于政府强迫苹果破解相关设备时,其工程师的‘合乎情理的协助’也无济于事,该案件创下的先例可能也会失去持久力。In other words, even if the F.B.I. wins this case, in the long run, it loses.换句话说,即便FBI赢了这场官司,从长远来看,他们还是会输。 /201602/427271

Online marketplace Amazon.com Inc made its debut in the 2015 Thomson Reuters Top 100 global innovators list, leaving International Business Machines Corp, the world#39;s largest technology services company, out of the list.电子商务巨头亚马逊首次进入汤森路透2015年全球创新百强名单,而世界上最大科技务公司IBM却未能上榜。Amazon joins the innovators list for the first time for innovations in data centers, devices, electronic methods and systems, according to its latest report.根据最新相关报告表示,亚马逊凭借在数据中心、设备、电子方法和系统等方面的创新而上榜。The Thomson Reuters Top 100 global innovators program identifies innovators annually through an in-depth analysis based on a series of patent-related metrics that analyze what it means to be truly innovative.汤森路透2015年全球创新百强名单是基于对专利相关的标准进行深入研究,寻找真正的创新企业。There are 27 companies that are dropped from the list this year, including ATamp;T, IBM, Siemens and Xerox.包括ATamp;T、IBM、西门子和施乐等在内的27家公司今年未能继续上榜。;For IBM, although they regularly top the list of U.S. patentees by volume of patents each year, the Top 100 Global Innovators listing evaluates not just volume, but also success, globalization and impact,; said Bob Stembridge, analyst with Thomson Reuters.“尽管IBM每年拥有的专利数量经常位居美国榜首,但本榜单不仅评估数量,也评估成功、全球化和影响力,”汤森路透分析师Bob Stembridge表示。Besides, Japan and the ed States are still innovation hot spots and chemical, semiconductor and electronic components and autos are the top innovative industries, according to the report.除此之外,报告还显示,日本和美国依旧是创新的热点,其中化学、半导体、电子零部件和汽车等行业的创新最多。What deserves to be mentioned the most is, Uber and Tesla Motors Inc did not make it to the list. ;Both Uber and Tesla do innovate, but not at a sufficient level to feature in the Top 100 list of innovative organizations around the globe as measured by patent metrics of volume, success, globalization and impact. They neither have sufficiently large portfolios to qualify for inclusion with less than 100 granted inventions during 2010-2014,; Stembridge said.值得一提的是,优步和特斯拉也未能上榜。“优步和特斯拉都在创新,但用专利数量、成功、全球化和影响力进行衡量,都不足以上榜,”Stembridge说道。“还有,这两家公司在2010-2014年这段时间也没有获得超过100项的专利技术,从而达到该榜单要求。” /201511/410110

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