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2019年02月23日 08:13:00 | 作者:度排名指定医院 | 来源:新华社
In Japan, the global leader in high-tech toilet design, the latest restroom marvel should come with a health warning for hypochondriacs - it doubles as a medical lab that can really spoil your day.作为高科技马桶设计方面的全球领先者,日本最新设计的一款马桶能为那些怀疑自己生病的人敲响健康警钟,不过这款兼有身体检查功能的马桶真的会让你郁闷一整天。Japanese toilets have long and famously dominated the world of bathroom hygiene with their array of functions, from posterior shower jets to perfume bursts and noise-masking audio effects for the easily-embarrassed.长期以来,日本在卫生洁具方面一直处于世界领先地位,其所设计的马桶因功能多样化而闻名于世,这其中包括背部淋浴喷头、香水喷洒装置以及掩盖人们在上厕所时发出尴尬声音的遮音工具等。The latest ;intelligent; model, manufactured by market leader Toto, goes a step further and isn#39;t for the faint-hearted: it offers its users an instant health check-up every time they answer the call of nature. Designed for the housing company Daiwa House with Japan#39;s growing army of elderly in mind, it provides urine analysis, takes the user#39;s blood pressure and body temperature, and measures their weight with a built-in floor scale.这款最新的;智能;马桶模型由知名卫具公司东陶公司制造,其功能上又有新突破,但不适合胆小者使用:因为这款马桶每次都会对如厕者进行一次即时身体检查。这款马桶是为房产公司大和房建设计的,考虑到日本日益壮大的老年人队伍,这款马桶兼有尿液分析、为使用者量血压和体温,并用其内置地秤为使用者测量体重等多项功能。;Our chairman had the idea when he was at a hospital and saw people waiting for health checks. He thought it would be better if they could do the health tests at home, ; says Akiho Suzuki, an architect at Daiwa House.大和房建的建筑师铃木明步说:;我们的老板在一家医院看见人们排队等待体检时产生了这一想法,他觉得如果人们能在家就做体检会更方便。;Toto#39;s engineers developed a receptacle inside the basin to collect the urine for sugar content and temperature checks, and an armband to monitor blood pressure. The out is displayed on a wall-mounted computer screen.东陶公司的工程师们在马桶上安装了一种尿液收集器,用于检测血糖和体温,并带有监控血压的臂带。检查结果会在安装在墙上的电脑屏幕上显示出来。;With the current model, your data is sent automatically to your personal computer, and then you can email it to your doctor,; said Suzuki. ;In the next generation model, the data will be sent automatically to family members or doctors via the Internet,; she said. The electronic marvel, called the ;Intelligence Toilet;, is capable of storing the data of up to five different people and retails for 350,000 to 500,000 yen (about 4,100 to 5,850 dollars) in Japan, she said. ;For now our customers are essentially middle-aged and senior people. But we hope the young generation will also become more health-conscious.;铃木说:;目前的模型能将你的数据自动传输到你的个人电脑上,然后你可以通过电子邮件发送给你的医生。下一代模型则能将数据自动通过网络发送给你的家庭成员或医生。;她说,这一被称为;智能马桶;的电子卫具能够储存五个人的数据,目前在日本的零售价格为每套35万到50万日元(合4100到5850美元)。;目前我们的顾客主要是中老年人。不过我们希望年轻人也能更加重视自己的健康。;The model is the latest advance in a string of sophisticated toilets, known as ;washlets; in Japan, which have become ubiquitous in recent decades.这一模型是日本高科技马桶系列卫洗丽的一款最新产品,近几十年来,卫洗丽产品在日本已经相当普及。 /201410/334003The immense processing power of Google#39;s global computing network and the brainpower of its secretive Google X research labs remain largely hidden from a curious world. But this week we were given a glimpse of what the company#39;s great minds, human and electronic, are thinking about: cats.谷歌全球计算网络的强大信息处理能力以及神秘的Google X实验室中的技术天才很少为外界所知。但上周我们有幸一睹该公司的强大头脑(不管是人脑还是电脑)在想什么:猫。 Google scientists built the world#39;s biggest electronic simulation of a brain, running on 16,000 computer processors, and discovered what it would learn when exposed to 10m clips randomly selected from YouTube s. Unprompted, the computer brain taught itself to identify the feline face.谷歌科学家们用1.6万块电脑处理器构建了全球最大的电子模拟神经网络,并通过向其展示自YouTube上随机选取的1000万段视频,考察其能够学到什么。结果显示,在无外界指令的自发条件下,该人工神经网络自主学会了识别猫的面孔。That might seem a trivial accomplishment, demonstrating little more than the obsession of cat owners with posting s of their pets. But in fact Google has made a significant advance in artificial intelligence, a research field that has promised much but delivered little to computer users.也许这看起来只是琐碎的成就,除了表明猫主人们热衷于上传宠物视频之外,说明不了更多问题。但实际上该成果表明谷歌在人工智能领域已取得重大进展。对电脑用户而言,人工智能研究一直前景广阔,但迄今成果寥寥。In their presentation at a machine learning conference in Edinburgh, the Google researchers demonstrated the company#39;s ambitions in AI as well as the strength of its computing resources.在爱丁堡一个关于机器学习的会议上,谷歌研究人员所作的演示表明该公司在人工智能领域雄心勃勃,并有极其强大的计算资源作为撑。Standard machine learning and image recognition techniques depend on initial ;training; of the computer with thousands of labelled pictures, so it starts off with an electronic idea of what, say, a cat#39;s face looks like. Labelling, however, requires a lot of human labour and, as the Google researchers say, ;there is comparatively little labelled data out there;.标准的机器学习以及图像识别技术依靠数以千计带标签的图片,对电脑进行初始;训练;,使电脑从一开始就对猫脸长什么样有一个概念。但是给图片加标签需要耗费大量人力,并且正如谷歌研究人员所说,;带标签的数据相对有限。;Google needs to master what it calls ;self-taught learning; or ;deep learning;, if it is to extend its search capabilities to recognise images among the vast volume of unstructured and unlabelled data. That would enable someone who, for example, owned an unidentified portrait painted by an unknown artist to submit a photograph of it to a future Google – and stand a reasonable chance of having both the scene and the painter identified through comparison with billions of images across the internet.为将搜索能力拓展至面向海量非结构化及无标签数据的图像识别领域,谷歌需要掌握其所谓的;自学;或;深度学习;技术。借助此类技术,未来如果某人有一幅出自不知名画家的描绘不知何处风景的画作,他可将此画的照片上传谷歌,经谷歌将其与互联网上数十亿计的图像进行比对后,此人有相当好的机会获知风景所在地与画家身份。The study presented this week is a step towards developing such technology. The researchers used Google data centres to set up an artificial neural network with 1bn connections and then exposed this ;newborn brain; to YouTube clips for a week, without labelling data of any sort.谷歌上周展示的研究成果,就是向开发此类技术迈出的一步。研究人员借助谷歌数据中心,构建具有10亿个连接的人工神经网络,并用一周时间让这个;新生大脑;接触YouTube视频片段,而未以任何方式贴标签。 /201207/189110苹果CEO史蒂夫·乔布斯(Steve Jobs)表示:“施密特是苹果董事会的一名杰出成员,他投入了有价值的时间、才能、热情和智慧以帮助苹果成功。不幸的是,随着谷歌进入苹果的核心业务,例如推出Android和Chrome系统,施密特作为苹果董事会成员的效果已明显下降。由于可能存在利益冲突,施密特将不得不回避我们很大一部分会议。因此我们均认为,现在是施密特辞去苹果董事的恰当时机。 ” Google Chief Gives Up Board Seat at AppleSAN FRANCISCO — The alliance between Apple and Google, two Silicon Valley giants with a powerful common enemy in Microsoft, is now clearly fraying.Apple announced on Monday that Eric E. Schmidt, Google’s chief executive, was stepping down from its board. The move comes as the Federal Trade Commission is looking into whether the two companies violated antitrust laws by sharing common board members. The resignation won’t make that investigation disappear. In a statement Monday afternoon, Richard Feinstein, director of the F.T.C.’s Bureau of Competition, commended the companies for acknowledging “that sharing directors raises competitive issues.” But he said the agency would continue to investigate the remaining overlap between the companies’ boards. Google and Apple still share one board member, Arthur Levinson, the chairman of Genentech.Mr. Schmidt’s resignation from Apple’s board constitutes a stark admission — Apple and Google had previously played down the issue — that the companies are now directly competing in the crucial race to develop the next generation of software for mobile phones and personal computers.Steven P. Jobs, Apple’s chief executive, said in a statement that as Google moved into more of Apple’s businesses, “Eric’s effectiveness as an Apple board member will be significantly diminished, since he will have to recuse himself from even larger portions of our meetings due to potential conflicts of interest.”The news of the F.T.C. investigation in May drew attention to the growing overlap between Apple and Google in areas like mobile phone software, browsers and online .Last month, Google announced that it was developing an operating system for computers based on its Chrome browser, which would compete with Microsoft Windows and Apple’s operating system, Mac OS X.And in recent weeks Apple rejected two of Google’s applications for the iPhone, including one for Google Voice, a service that allows people to make cheap international calls and send free text messages. The software could have hurt the business of Apple’s partner in the ed States, ATamp;T, which subsidizes the cost of the iPhone and recoups that money through monthly charges.Last week, the Federal Communications Commission began an inquiry into why Apple had rejected Google Voice, asking in letters to all three companies whether Apple consulted with ATamp;T in making its decision.When the F.T.C. investigation became known in May, Mr. Schmidt first dismissed suggestions that his role on Apple’s board posed a conflict. Then, at a conference in July, he said he would have to talk to Apple and reassess his role on the board. In a statement on Monday, Mr. Schmidt said he had enjoyed his time on the Apple board, but that the companies “agreed it makes sense for me to step down now.”Jeffrey A. Sonnenfeld, senior associate dean at the Yale School of Management, said of the two boards, “These are brilliant people who were smart enough to rationally see what the rest of the world saw a while ago, in terms of the obvious and growing conflicts of interest.”The F.T.C. is specifically looking into whether Google and Apple violated Section 8 of the Clayton Antitrust Act, which says that companies with common board members must limit the sharing of information through those directors.According to a person briefed on the investigation, Google is arguing that revenue from products like Chrome, which compete with Apple products, did not constitute more than 2 percent of its sales — one of the standards in the law. That argument is difficult to evaluate because Google gives away software like Chrome to drive more traffic to its money-making search engine. One possible remedy is for Mr. Levinson to leave one of the two boards. The F.T.C. also might ask the companies to sign a consent decree saying that they will refrain from cooperating or sharing strategies in areas where they overlap.Gary L. Reback, a lawyer at Carr amp; Ferrell, who in the 1990s helped persuade the Justice Department to pursue its case against Microsoft, said Mr. Schmidt’s departure from Apple’s board suggested Google was taking antitrust questions seriously. “This is a company with enormous market power, and antitrust enforcers are going to look carefully at everything Google does,” Mr. Reback said. “Google’s first response, which was basically ‘Go fly a kite,’ is not going to work. They are going to have to comply.”Mr. Schmidt joined Apple’s board in 2006, but his relationship with Apple goes back much further. During Apple’s darkest days in the 1990s, Mr. Schmidt, then chief technology officer of Sun Microsystems, was among the Valley’s most prominent Apple supporters. Sun almost acquired Apple at one point.More recently, Google has actively developed software for the Macintosh as Apple has come back from near extinction to capture nearly 10 percent of the market for personal computers.Google programs for the Mac include its search toolbar, Google Earth and the Picasa photo-sharing software, while applications for Google Maps and YouTube are shipped with the iPhone. When it comes to their common enemy, Microsoft, the companies may have less of a reason to coordinate their strategies nowadays. This year, Microsoft posted its first quarterly year-over-year drop in sales, and it has repeatedly fallen short in trying to extend its dominance of desktop computers to the Web and mobile phones. Last week, in an effort to catch up to Google in search, Microsoft said it would acquire Yahoo’s search business.Google and Apple “still have a common enemy, but what’s really more interesting is how the common enemy is doing everything it can to make itself irrelevant,” said Stewart Alsop, a longtime industry watcher. 2006年8月,施密特加盟苹果董事会,如今已满三年。今年5月,美国联邦贸易委员会(FTC)曾调查谷歌和苹果两家公司董事会间的亲密关系是否违反反垄断法。 根据1914年的《克莱顿反垄断法》,一人不能同时出任两家相互竞争公司的董事,否则将削弱彼此间的竞争。 /200908/80207The headline of IDC#39;s quarterly report on the state of the global mobile phone market Friday was that smartphone shipments, on the strength of their 41.6% year over year growth, overtook feature phones for the first time. The overall cellphone market, by contrast, grew an anemic 4%.IDC于本周五发布了关于全球手机市场现状的季度报告,其中的头条新闻是:凭借年同比增长41.6%,智能手机出货量首度超过功能手机。相比之下,整体手机市场只增长了区区4%。;Phone users want computers in their pockets,; says IDC#39;s Kevin Restivo.IDC分析师凯文·雷斯蒂沃称:“手机用户们都希望自己口袋里揣着的手机可以媲美电脑。”With the usual caveat that of the top three vendors, Apple (AAPL) and Nokia (NOK) publish shipment figures and Samsung doesn#39;t, we offer IDC#39;s estimated market share data for all mobile phones -- smart and otherwise -- as a pair of matched pie charts.我们以两张对应的饼图,分别呈现IDC估计的智能手机与非智能手机的市场份额数据。依照惯例,我们要提醒大家:销量前三名的厂商中,苹果(Apple)和诺基亚(Nokia)公布了发货量,但三星(Samsung)没有。A few things to note:请注意以下几点:LG and ZTE have switched placesLG和中兴(ZTE)交换了位次Nokia continues to hemorrhage market share (down 25% year over year)诺基亚的市场份额继续大幅缩水(同比下降25%)Research in Motion#39;s (BBRY) Blackberry, No. 4 last year, has fallen off the top 5 vendor listResearch in Motion的黑莓(Blackberry)去年在所有手机厂商中排名第4,而如今已跌出前五名Apple#39;s growth is down to single digits (from 88.7% year over year in Q1 2012 to 6.6% in Q1 2013)苹果增速下降到个位数(2012年第一季度,苹果公司同比增长88.7%,而今年一季度,这个数值仅为6.6%)Despite nearly 29% growth year over year, as IDC estimates it, Samsung is still dwarfed by Others.IDC估计,尽管三星年同比增长近29%,但它的出货量仍然少于前五名之外其它所有厂商的总发货量。 /201305/237650

Scientists at Duke University in North Carolina have built an experimental camera with more than 30 times the data-collecting capacity of today#39;s best consumer digital devices, a development that could fundamentally alter the way images are captured and viewed. 美国北卡罗来纳州杜克大学(Duke University)的科学家制造出了一台数据采集容量为当今最先进的消费型数码相机30多倍的实验性相机,这一成果可能会彻底改变人们拍摄和观看图片的方式。 While today#39;s best digital cameras take images having pixel counts in the tens of millions, the latest device produces a still or image with a billion pixels, which is five times more detail than can be seen by a person with 20/20 vision. A pixel is one of the many tiny areas of illumination on a display screen from which an image is composed. The greater the number of pixels, the more detailed the image. 现今最好的数码相机可拍摄分辨率达数千万像素的图片,这款最新的相机能够拍摄10亿级像素的静态图片或视频图像,而且清晰度比完美视力的人眼所能看到的图像要清晰五倍。像素是显示屏上所显示的一个个小方点,它们排列在一起就构成了影像。其他条件相同的情况下,像素数越高拍出来的图片就越清晰。 The experimental Duke device, known as AWARE-2, is a long way from being a commercial product. The current version needs lots of space to house and cool its electronic control boards; it weighs 100 pounds and is about the size of two microwave ovens stacked together. It also takes about 18 seconds to shoot a frame and record the data on a disk. 杜克大学研发的这款实验性相机名为“AWARE-2”,其要实现商业化生产还需很长一段时间。当前这个机型需要很大空间来存放和冷却其电子控制面板。它的重量达100磅(约45公斤),体积约相当于两台微波炉叠在一起。用它来拍摄图片并把数据存在磁盘上需要18秒左右。 The availability of a hand-held gigapixel camera could spark an alternative approach to photography. Instead of deciding where to focus a camera, a user would simply shoot a scene, then later zoom into any part of the picture and view it in extraordinary detail. Desirable or useful portions could thus be identified or #39;mined#39; after the images are captured. 手持式10亿像素级相机的问世可能会引发另一种摄影方式的产生。摄影者不必决定把焦点对准何处,只需把画面拍下来,将图片的任一部分放大即可极其细致地观看它们。在拍完图片之后,摄影者可把满意的或是有用的部分确定下来或者是“抽取”出来。 Taking a picture with a traditional digital camera ;is like looking through a soda straw since you can only see a narrow part of the scene,; said David Brady, optical engineer at Duke University, who led the team that designed the one-gigapixel camera. ;Ours is more like a fire hose-the world comes at you full [blast];. 杜克大学光学工程师戴维#8226;布拉迪(David Brady)说,用传统数码相机拍照就像通过一根苏打水吸管看东西,因为你只能看到一小块画面,而他们的新型相机则更像从消防软管看东西,整个世界完全展现在你的眼前。 Dr. Brady said that when his team used the device to take a photograph of the Seattle skyline, they were able to zoom in and the ;In; and ;Out; signs written on a parking garage located half a mile away. Similarly, if the camera were used to take images of a tennis match, the viewer could zoom in on a player, or on someone at the far end of the stadium, and see both images in equal detail. 布拉迪是这台10亿像素相机研发团队的领头人,他说其团队在用它来拍摄西雅图天际线的图片时,能够把图片放大看到半英里之外一个停车库上写着的“入口”和“出口”标识。同样地,如果观众用这台相机来拍摄网球比赛的视频,也可以把选手或坐在球场远处另一端的观众的图像放大,看到的图像都同样清晰。 Details of the Duke camera were published Wednesday in the journal Nature. The million project is funded by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, part of the U.S. Department of Defense. The military is interested in high-resolution cameras as tools for aerial or land-based surveillance. 有关这台相机的详细信息最近发表在了《自然》(Nature)杂志上。这个2500万美元的研究项目由美国国防部尖端研究项目局(Defense Advanced Research Project Agency)资助。美国军方有意将高分辨率相机用于航空及地面监控用途。 Many scientists believe the age of gigapixel photography isn#39;t too far away. 许多科学家都认为,10亿像素级摄影时代距离我们不会太遥远。 The Pan-STARRS telescope in Hawaii uses several gigapixel cameras, though it is designed for astronomical use. Some drones carry megapixel cameras, but they tend to have a relatively narrow field of view. The Gigapixl Project is using large-format film cameras to create a highly detailed coast-to-coast portrait of North America, focusing on cities, parks and monuments. 夏威夷“全景巡天望远镜与快速反应系统”(Pan-STARRS)的望远镜也使用了数个10亿像素级的相机,但它是用于天文用途的。一些无人机安有百万像素级的摄像头,但它们的视场角往往比较狭窄。10亿像素计划(The Gigapixl Project)正使用大画幅胶片相机拍摄高清晰度的北美全景照片,并把焦点放在城市、公园和纪念碑上。 By comparison, the Duke device the ;first cut at making gigapixel; cameras for general use, said Shree Nayar, a computer-vision researcher at Columbia University in New York, who has seen the camera work but wasn#39;t involved in the project. The challenge, he added, is to shrink the electronics and reduce the amount of power the system required. 纽约哥伦比亚大学(Columbia University)计算机视觉技术研究者希瑞#8226;纳亚尔(Shree Nayar)称,相比之下,杜克大学研发的相机是促进10亿像素级相机用于普通用途的首台设备。他还说,其中的困难在于如何缩小电路板空间并降低设备所需的电量。纳亚尔观看过这台相机的操作,但他并未参与该研究计划。 The secret of the Duke device is a spherical lens, a design first proposed in the late 19th century. Although very effective spherical lenses exist naturally lenses-the human eye, for example-researchers have long found it tricky to accurately focus images using lab-made versions. 杜克大学所研发的10亿像素相机的秘诀是一个球形镜头,该设计创意最初于19世纪晚期提出。尽管效果非常不错的球形镜头天然就存在(比如人眼),但是长期以来研究人员发现要想用实验性的机型精准对焦还是颇有难度。 The Duke group overcame the challenge by installing nearly 100 micro-cameras, each with a 14-megapixel sensor, on the outside of a small sphere about the size of a football. The set-up yields nearly 100 separate-but accurately focused-images. A computer connected to the sphere then stitches them together to create a composite whole. 杜克大学的研究团队克了这一困难,他们在一个足球大小的球形小镜头的外部安装了近100台微型相机,每台相机都配有一个1400万像素的传感器。这种配置可拍摄近100张独立而且对焦精准的图片,与球形镜头连接的计算机随后会把它们拼凑在一起合为一张完整的图片。 The camera described in the Nature paper only takes black-and-white pictures. Dr. Brady said his team will finish building a 10-gigapixel color version by year-end and will then construct a 50-gigapixel device. 发表于《自然》杂志的论文所描述的相机只能拍摄黑白照片。布拉迪士称其团队将于今年年底制成一台100亿像素的色相机,并计划在未来制造一台500亿像素的相机。 The team hopes to begin manufacturing industrial-type gigapixel cameras on a limited basis in 2013. But scientists estimate it will take at least several years before a hand-held consumer version of the technology becomes available.该团队希望在2013年开始对10亿像素相机进行小规模的量产,但是科学家们估计手持式消费型10亿像素级相机至少还需要数年时间才能面市。 /201207/189118

For years, nearly all of the world#39;s iPhones and iPads rolled off the assembly lines of a single company: Foxconn.多年来,全球几乎所有iPhone和iPad都来自同一家公司的装配线。这家公司就是富士康(Foxconn)。It was a famous partnership between two outsize personalities -- Steve Jobs, Apple Inc.#39;s intense and mercurial co-founder, and Terry Gou, the Taiwanese manufacturer#39;s equally demanding chairman.这是两位个性鲜明的人物达成的一项远近闻名的合作关系:一位是苹果(Apple Inc.)专注且脾气捉摸不定的联合创始人乔布斯(Steve Jobs);另一位则是同样苛刻的富士康董事长郭台铭。But under current Chief Executive Tim Cook, Apple is dividing its weight more equally with a relatively unknown supplier, giving the technology giant a greater supply-chain balance.但在苹果现任首席执行长库克(Tim Cook)的领导下,苹果正将其业务更加公平地分包给另一家知名度较小的供应商。这家科技巨头的供应链因此变得更加平衡。Pegatron Corp., named after the flying horse Pegasus, will be the primary assembler of a low-cost iPhone expected to be offered later this year. Foxconn#39;s smaller rival across town became a minor producer of iPhones in 2011 and began making iPad Mini tablet computers last year.和硕联合科技股份有限公司(Pegatron Corp.)将成为预计今年晚些时候推出的一款低价iPhone的主要组装企业。和硕的名字来源于希腊神话中的飞马珀伽索(Pegasus)。作为富士康的同城竞争对手,规模较小的和硕在2011年成为iPhone的次要制造商,并从去年开始生产iPad Mini平板电脑。Pegatron#39;s rise means an end to the monopoly that Foxconn Technology Group -- the trade name for Hon Hai Precision Industry Co., the world#39;s largest electronics contract manufacturer -- has held over the production of Apple#39;s mobile products.和硕的崛起意味着富士康对苹果移动产品生产垄断的终结。富士康是全球最大的电子产品合同制造商鸿海精密工业股份有限公司(Hon Hai Precision Industry Co.)的商标名。People familiar with the matter point to strategic reasons for the shift: risk diversification after Foxconn#39;s manufacturing glitches last year with the iPhone 5 that resulted in scratches on the metal casings, and Apple#39;s decision to expand its product lines amid growing competition from Samsung Electronics Co. and others.知情人士指出了果进行上述转移的战略原因:去年富士康制造工艺存在缺陷导致iPhone 5的金属外壳出现划痕,苹果因此希望分散风险;来自三星电子(Samsung Electronics Co.)和其它厂家的竞争日益激烈,苹果决定扩大其产品线。Pegatron also has been willing to accept thinner profits as it courts Apple#39;s business, analysts said. The company declined to comment about its pricing.分析师称,在试图争取苹果业务的同时,和硕也愿意接受更薄的利润。和硕拒绝对其定价置评。Apple declined to comment.苹果不予置评。Foxconn#39;s cost advantages from scale have waned as it works to improve factory conditions after a spate of high-profile worker suicides and accidents in recent years. Although Pegatron briefly caught the public eye in 2011 due to a factory explosion that injured dozens of workers, the smaller company has largely escaped the laserlike spotlight that has forced Foxconn to increase wages and make changes to its labor practices.近年来,在发生了一系列备受瞩目的员工自杀和事故之后,为了改善工厂条件,富士康的规模成本优势已经减弱。虽然2011年旗下一家工厂爆炸导致数十名工人受伤曾在短时间内令和硕成为公众关注的焦点,但这家规模较小的企业在很大程度上躲过了一系列备受瞩目的事件。正是这些事件令富士康提高工资,并改变其涉及工人的种种做法。Foxconn, in its growing heft as the world#39;s largest electronics contract company, was also getting more difficult for Apple to control, with incidents such as changing component sourcing without notifying Apple, people familiar with the matter said. At the same time, Foxconn became frustrated with the growing complexity of Apple products, such as the iPhone 5, which is difficult to make in the volumes Apple needed.知情人士说,作为全球最大的电子产品合同制造商,富士康的影响力越来越大,苹果也越来越难以控制这家企业。此前曾发生过富士康改变零部件采购来源却没有通知苹果等事件。与此同时,富士康对日益复杂的苹果产品感到不满。比如富士康的iPhone 5产量就难以满足苹果所需。Executive changes at Apple have also made a difference. Mr. Jobs had been easier at forgiving his favorite manufacturing partner, according to several people familiar with the relationship. Now, instead of relying on the uniquely close partnership between #39;two leaders with a hero complex#39; -- as one of the people said -- Mr. Cook is putting a greater premium on risk diversification, they said. Still, Mr. Cook and Mr. Gou have a strong relationship and have known each other even before Mr. Cook joined Apple in 1998, one of the people said.苹果公司管理层变动对此也有影响。知情人士说,乔布斯更容易原谅他最喜欢的制造合作伙伴犯下的错误。上述人士说,如今,库克更为看重风险的分散,而不是依靠乔布斯和郭台铭“这两位同样看重英雄情结的商业领袖”(其中一位知情人士的原话)结下的独特的密切伙伴关系。尽管如此,其中一位知情人士说,库克和郭台铭的关系仍然非常牢固。早在库克1998年进入苹果公司之前,两人就已经相识。But with its growing importance as an Apple supplier, Pegatron will likely also face growing scrutiny. The company declined to comment on whether it has made any changes to its labor practices after the 2011 factory explosion.但随著作为苹果供应商的和硕的重要性日益显现,该公司也有可能面临越来越多的审视。在2011年工厂爆炸发生后,和硕对其是否改变了种种用工做法不予置评。As with other contract manufacturers, Pegatron#39;s success is based largely on secrecy and tact as it juggles production of competing products from companies such as Apple, Microsoft Corp., Hewlett-Packard Co. as well as Dell Inc.就像其他合同制造商一样,在生产苹果、微软(Microsoft Corp.)、惠普(Hewlett-Packard Co.)以及戴尔(Dell Inc.)等公司相互竞争的产品的过程中,和硕的成功依靠的是保密和机变。At its sleek headquarters on the outskirts of Taipei, engineers serving different clients eat lunch together in the same cafeteria and gather after hours in the gym, but they rarely know the details of each others#39; work. Sensitive projects are cordoned off by keycard access, or even face recognition software.在台北郊区华丽的和硕总部大楼,为不同客户务的工程师们中午在同一个食堂吃饭,下班后又聚集在健身房,但是他们很少知道彼此的具体工作内容。敏感项目一般由门禁系统甚至面部识别软件来把守。While Pegatron migh seem to be a newcomer on the surface, the Taipei-based company#39;s Apple ties run deep, with its earlier incarnation packaging Apple computers by candlelight more than a decade ago.尽管从表面上看,和硕似乎是初来乍到,但这家台北公司与苹果有很深的渊源,早在10多年前,这家公司的前身曾在烛光下为苹果包装电脑。Pegatron Senior Vice President Andy Tsai said that in 1999, the company he founded, Alpha-Top Technology Corp., landed the contract for Apple#39;s first-generation iBooks. It wasn#39;t the best first collaboration: a massive earthquake in Taiwan knocked out power and paralyzed production.和硕的资深副总裁蔡进国表示,1999年,他创办的公司Alpha-Top Technology Corp.获得了苹果第一代iBook的生产合同。首次合作并不顺利:台湾的一次大地震导致工厂断电,生产陷入瘫痪。#39;At that time, there were a lot of Apple people in my factory, telling us to find a solution,#39; said Mr. Tsai. #39;I bought a lot of power generators, and we even used candles on the packing line.#39;蔡进国说,当时我的工厂里有许多苹果的人,他们让我想出解决办法;我买了许多发电机,我们甚至在包装流水线上使用了蜡烛。Alpha-Top managed to keep its Apple business, although orders tapered off after it was acquired by Asustek Computer Inc., which juggled its own competing brand and contract work. Asustek spun off its contract manufacturing business in 2010 into Pegatron under pressure from clients.Alpha-Top得以保住了苹果的业务,不过,在被华硕电脑有限公司(Asustek Computer Inc.)收购之后,公司的订单逐渐减少。华硕在从事合同制造业务的同时也在竭力推出自己的同类品牌。在客户的压力之下,华硕2010年把合同制造业务剥离出来,成立了和硕。Pegatron#39;s revenue in the first quarter -- 219.1 billion New Taiwan dollars (US.4 billion) -- is dwarfed by Foxconn#39;s NT9.1 billion (.3 billion). The smaller company also has thinner operating margins: 0.8% compared with Foxconn#39;s 1.7%.和硕第一季度的营收为2,191亿新台币(约合74亿美元),远远低于富士康的8,091亿新台币(约合273亿美元)。由于规模较小,和硕的运营利润也较低,为0.8%,相比之下,富士康为1.7%。Pegatron, which has about 100,000 employees in Taiwan and China, expects to increase its China workforce in the second half of the year by around 40%, Chief Financial Officer Charles Lin said. Analysts attribute the staffing increase largely to expected production of low-cost iPhones.和硕的首席财务长林秋炭说,和硕在台湾和中国大陆总共拥有大约10万名员工,预计今年下半年公司在中国大陆的工人数量将增加大约40%。分析人士认为,和硕增加人手主要是因为公司预计将生产低成本的iPhone。Pegatron began making iPad Minis last year, but some people familiar with the situation said low yield rates meant volume was lower than originally planned and Foxconn ended up taking on the bulk of the production.和硕去年开始生产iPad Mini,但是一些知情人士说,由于和硕的生产效率较低,其产量赶不上最初的计划,最终富士康承担了大部分的生产任务。#39;There#39;s a learning curve for any new products, so our yield rates are increasing,#39; said Mr. Lin, although he declined to comment on any Apple products.林秋炭说,生产任何新产品都需要一个学习的过程,我们的生产效率正在不断提高。不过他拒绝对任何苹果产品置评。More than half of Pegatron#39;s revenue in its consumer-electronics and communications businesses this year will be from Apple, said KGI Securities analyst Angela Hsiang. She expects Pegatron to make the majority of iPad Minis sold this year, as well as the majority of the coming less-costly iPhone.凯基券(KGI Securities)的分析师Angela Hsiang说,今年,和硕的消费电子和通信业务的营收中,来自苹果的将超过一半。她预计,今年销售的大部分iPad Mini以及大部分即将面市的低价iPhone都将由和硕生产。Foxconn spokesman Simon Hsing conceded the company is in the midst of a challenging period.富士康的发言人邢治平承认,公司正处在一个充满挑战的时期。#39;We are transforming the business and expanding in areas like e-commerce, #39; Mr. Hsing said, without providing more specific details.邢志平说,我们正在实施业务转型,在电子商务等领域进行扩张。他没有提供更多具体细节。 /201305/242249

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