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This is like a machine that its always something you need to fix, to oil, to repaint, to clean and possibly to replace.这就像一台机器,总有些东西你需要修理,加油,重新粉刷,清洗及可能的进行更换部件。The Manhattan Bridge needed major repairs at a relative early age. The threat came from the very trains it was built to carry. Held in place by steel cables, the Manhattan has the advantages and drawbacks of a suspension bridge. One advantage, it can flex; one drawback, it can flex. That drawback emerged when the first subway train crossed. As the heavy cars pass, the bridge sways. One side dips, the other rises a full meter. Steel isnt made to flex. The relentless torsion snapped off beams, spanning the lower roadway.在一个相对早期的年龄,曼哈顿桥就需要大修。威胁来自需要承载而建造的火车。钢架构的电缆使曼哈顿的的悬索桥有好有坏。好处是它可以弯曲;缺点也是它能弯曲。当第一次火车通过缺点就涌现了出来。当重型车辆经过,这座桥摇来摇去。一侧下降,另一侧升高。钢本身不是用来弯曲的,啪的一声无情的扭断横梁。The Manhattan Bridge was so neglected, the tracks finally had to be closed for repairs. In the 1980s, the city invested 2.5 billion dollars in a 3-decade program to overhaul its bridges. On the Manhattan Bridge, engineers installed heavy steel braces to stop the swaying.曼哈顿桥如此被忽视,铁轨最后不得不因为进行修理而关闭。在八十年代,这座城市在30年的审查桥梁的项目中投资25亿元。在曼哈顿桥,工程师安装了大型钢架构避免桥的摇摆。The effect is surprising even to us. The rocking motion, really abated.效果甚至对我们而言也令人惊奇。摇摆运动真的减轻了。注:听力文本来源于普特201203/173407。

Science and technology.科技。Photoelectric cells.光电池。To dye for.利用染料进行能量转化。A new type of cell may bring ;solar; energy indoors.一种新型电池也许能带来室内;太阳能;。THE phrase ;indoor solar power; sounds like an oxymoron. But there is growing interest in the idea of using photoelectric cells to run gadgets as well as power grids-and doing so even when those gadgets are inside buildings. Much of the light these cells used would, of necessity, come from incandescent bulbs, fluorescent tubes and light-emitting diodes (LEDs) rather than through the window from the sun. But if the right sorts of cells were available this could be cheaper than constantly replacing the batteries that currently power electronic gizmos.;室内太阳能;这个词听起来有点儿自相矛盾,可科学家们对于利用光电池来驱动用电装置和电网越来越感兴趣了—这些光电池即使在室内也能够正常工作。它们所利用的光能中的大部分势必来自白炽灯,日光灯和发光二极管,而并非透过窗户照射进来的太阳光。不过一旦某种特殊的光电池被研发出来,相比于通过频繁更换电池为用电装置供电的传统方式,新型光电池的应用将能够大大降低成本。On April 8th G24 Innovations, a firm based in Wales, announced that it may have come up with just such a cell. The latest version of its special, dye-based photoelectric devices has set a new record for the conversion of light from bulbs into electricity: an efficiency of 26%, compared with the 15% which previous ones can manage. That lifts dye-based cells to the point where they might be widely deployable for indoor power.在四月八日,一个总部位于威尔士的公司——G24 Innovations宣布他们已经开发出这种光电池。它的独特之处在于其基于染料的光电转化设置,该装置最新版本的转化效率已经从上一代的15%提高到创纪录的26%。这大大增加了将该类型电池应用于室内供电领域的可能性。Dye-based cells are similar to the silicon-based variety found on rooftops around the world in that both rely on a semiconductor to assist the conversion of luminous energy into the electrical sort. The difference is that in the case of silicon cells, this conversion happens directly. That means the frequency of light absorbed is constrained by the physical properties of silicon itself.这种基于染料的光电池同另外一种基于硅的光电池——如今已在全世界广泛应用,与屋顶随处可见——比较相似,它们的光电转换都依赖于一种半导体。不同之处在于硅型光电池的光电转化过程是直接进行的。这意味着被吸收的光的频率将受限于硅自身的物理性质。In the case of dye-based cells, which were invented at the Federal Polytechnic School of Lausanne, in Switzerland, in the 1990s, the light is first captured by molecules of a photosensitive dye. Tinker with the composition of this dye and you change the frequency of light that can be captured. This makes dye-based cells more flexible than silicon ones.至于染料型光电池,它们在二十世纪九十年代发明于瑞士洛桑的联合工艺培训学校,是利用光敏染料分子将光捕获。若要捕获不同频率的光,只需对染料的成分进行调整。因此染料型光电池使用起来比硅型光电池更为灵活方便。The dye molecules themselves are bound to tiny particles of titanium dioxide, a less-famous (but cheaper) semiconductor than silicon, and the whole assembly is immersed in an electrolyte and sandwiched between two electrodes. When a photon of light is absorbed by a dye molecule, an electron is knocked into the titanium dioxide. From there it travels to one of the electrodes and a current is thus generated.染料分子自身会与二氧化钛(一种不如硅名气大,但比硅便宜的半导体)的细小微粒相结合,然后整个装置会浸没于一种电解质里并夹于两个电极之间。当一个光子被一个染料分子所吸收,就会有一个电子被击入二氧化钛,这些电子会从二氧化钛中流入其中一个电极,从而产生了电流。The flexibility brought by the dye-based approach makes this sort of cell particularly useful indoors. Silicon-based solar cells have been optimised for sunlight. But artificial light, whether of the incandescent, fluorescent or LED variety, contains a different mixture of frequencies from that put out by the sun. By changing the composition of the dye, G24s engineers ensure that the maximum sensitivity of the cell coincides with whatever frequency mix is appropriate for the artificial light concerned.染料型光电池的这种灵便性使其能在室内发挥很大作用。硅型光电池是面向于太阳光的,而对于各种人造光源,无论是白炽灯,日光灯还是LED灯,它们发出的光的混合了多种频率,且与太阳光的不同。(为了利用人造光源的光能,)G24的工程师们通过改变染料的成分确保光电池的最大灵敏度区域契合于人造光源所发出的光的混合频率。Besides being tweakable to match the spectrum of a light-bulb, dye-based cells also work well in dim or diffuse light of the sort often found indoors. Silicon-based systems do not. And dye-based cells, having no rigid parts, can bend, and are mechanically robust compared with the silicon sort. That gives them a further advantage over silicon cells, especially for powering consumer gadgets.除了能根据灯泡光的光谱对吸光性能进行微调外,即使是在常见于室内的昏暗或漫射的光照情况下,染料型光电池也能够正常工作。这个优点是硅型光电池所不具备的。而且染料型光电池全由非刚性材料构成,可弯可折,与硅型光电池相比其机械强度更高。这使得它们比硅型光电池又多了一项优势,尤其是在消费电子类产品供电领域。Steven Burt, G24s chief financial officer, talks of light-bulb-powered TV remote controls, smoke detectors and computer keyboards. (A non-removable internal battery would store charge for use when the lights are off.) The company aly offers prototypes of bags and jackets with photosensitive panels woven in, designed to charge digital cameras and mobile phones, and a hotel in Las Vegas is using G24s products to run its electric window-blinds. Mr Burt also sees a market for powering the networks of sensors needed to monitor things like temperature and humidity in modern ;smart; buildings.G24的财务总监——Steve Burt谈到可用灯泡光进行供电的有电视遥控器,烟雾检测器和电脑键盘(无灯光时其内置的电池会发挥作用)。这家公司已经开始提供袋子和夹克的样品,其中被缝入了光敏夹板,按照设计理念将可为数码相机和手机充电,此外一家的酒店正在使用G24的产品来运行其电动窗帘。而在另一片市场——智能建筑中构成监测网络的温度,湿度等传感器供电领域中,Burt同样看到了公司产品不错的应用前景。Eventually, says Mr Burt, the ability of dye-based cells to produce useful quantities of power even in dim and diffuse light could see them used outside, perhaps on rooftops in cloudier parts of the world-a market at present dominated by traditional, silicon-based cells, even though they are not well-suited to the purpose. But for now, G24s factory in Cardiff, not a city known for its sunshine, remains powered by a wind turbine.染料型光电池在昏暗光或漫射光的照射条件下依然能够产生数量可观的电能,Burt先生认为这项能力将会促使其在室外的推广应用,也许可以安装在多云天气区域的建筑物屋顶上(目前这片市场中占统治地位的还是传统的硅型光电池,虽然效果并不太突出)。不过直到现在,G24设在加的夫(这可不是一个阳光充足的城市)的工厂仍是由风力发电机供电。 /201209/198875。

BUSINESS商业报道Steve Jobs resigns斯蒂芬乔布斯辞职The minister of magic steps down魔法部长隐退Can Silicon Valleys most disruptive firm prosper without its maker?没有了创始人,硅谷曾经最混乱的公司会繁荣起来吗?IN A commencement speech to students at Stanford University in 2005, Steve Jobs, the chief executive of Apple, advised his audience to avoid being trapped by dogma and to have the courage to follow their hearts and their intuition.2005年,苹果首席执行官斯蒂芬乔布斯在斯坦福大学毕业典礼上对学生们提出建议,不要被教条束缚,要勇于跟随自己的内心和直觉。“Stay hungry. Stay foolish,” he said as he signed off.结束时,他说,永远不要裹足不前。By following his own advice, Mr Jobs, who resigned as Apples boss on August 24th, has turned the company from a basket case on the brink of bankruptcy when he returned to its helm in 1997 into a world-beater that is reshaping a big chunk of the technology industry.乔布斯于8月24日辞去苹果总裁一职。就像他所说的那样,自从1997年他登上苹果的领导地位,他将这个毫无希望的濒临破产边缘的公司带入世界领先地位,并重建为科技产业的巨头。Earlier this month, Apple even briefly surpassed Exxon Mobil, an oil giant, to become the worlds most valuable company.就在这个月初,苹果甚至超越了石油大腕埃克森美孚,成为世界上最有价值的公司。No other boss in recent history has embodied and defined a firm as completely as Mr Jobs.在近代史上,没有一个人能像乔布斯那样将一个公司做的如此风生水起。So his decision to resign as chief executive has inevitably raised the question of whether Apple will remain as hungry and as wildly successful without its entrepreneurial maestro at the helm.因此他辞去首席执行官的决定不可避免地引发了争论—在其开拓者离开后,苹果还能否保持前进的动力以及巨大的成功。Other giants in the tech industry have seen their fortunes fade after iconic leaders have departed.科技产业的其他大型公司,在招牌领导人离去后,财富就缩水了。Microsoft has struggled to regain its mojo since Bill Gates stood down as its chief executive in January 2000.2000年比尔盖茨辞去微软的首席执行官后,微软经历了一段困难时期才重拾辉煌。Could Apple suffer a similar fate?苹果也会经历同样的命运吗?That seems unlikely for several reasons.由于一些原因,苹果可能不会经历相同的命运。One is that the company has had plenty of time to plan for this moment.原因之一,公司有足够的时间对现在进行规划。Mr Jobs has stepped aside from day-to-day management at Apple on a couple of occasions before, after having surgery for a rare form of pancreatic cancer in 2004.乔布斯以前也有过不参与苹果日常管理的时候,例如04年因胰腺癌接受手术的时期。Each time, Tim Cook, Apples chief operating officer, temporarily assumed his bosss responsibilities.每次,都是由苹果的首席运营官蒂姆库克暂代总裁职位。That allowed Mr Cook, who is taking over from Mr Jobs as CEO, to get a taste for the top spot—and it gave Apples board a chance to see him in action.这让库克尝到了做第一把交椅的滋味,并且让苹果的董事会看到了他所起的作用。On each occasion, Mr Cook kept Apples money-making machine ticking over smoothly.每一次,库克都使苹果有稳定的收入。An expert in manufacturing and logistics, he closed down almost all of Apples manufacturing operations after he arrived at the firm in the late 1990s and outsourced much of these to Asia.他是一位制造学和后勤学的专家,在20世纪90年代末来到苹果后,他几乎撤销了所有的制造工序,并将其转包给亚洲国家。Announcing his promotion, Apples board said that he had shown “remarkable talent and sound judgment in everything he does.”谈到他的升职,苹果董事会表示他所做的一切显示了卓越的才能和非凡的决策力。Talent is something that Apple also has an abundance of elsewhere in its ranks.才能,是苹果的高管最不缺乏的。Executives such as Phil Schiller, who oversees the companys marketing, and Jonathan Ive, a Briton whose domain is design, are part of a team that has worked closely together for many years.像是执行官菲尔席勒,他负责公司的营销。还有乔纳森伊夫,英国人,他负责设计。这两个人都是苹果队伍的一员,队员们已经协调合作了很多年。If Mr Cook can keep this group intact, then Apples future should be bright.如果库克能使这样的队伍继续保持下去,苹果的未来就是光明的。The firm also benefits from an intensely loyal and motivated workforce. Glassdoor, an online jobs and careers community, carries reviews of the company from almost 1,000 Apple employees.公司的成功还得益于忠实而有的职工们。玻璃门—一个在线职业联盟——通过调查了大约1000名苹果职工对该公司进行了检验。Most are glowing about the firm and in particular about Mr Jobss impact on it. One post even calls Apples former boss “the Thomas Edison of this century”.大部分职工对公司充满热情,并十分肯定乔布斯对公司的影响。一个帖子甚至称苹果前任总裁为“当代爱迪生”。Paul Saffo of Discern Analytics, a financial-analytics company, reckons that this depth of loyalty will mean that even though Mr Jobs is stepping down, the firms employees will continue to ask themselves “what would Steve do?” when making decisions.保罗萨佛的识别分析—一个金融分析公司——猜想,这种程度的忠诚度意味着,即使乔布斯隐退,公司的员工们在做决定的时候依然会问自己“斯蒂夫将会如何做”。当然,提出问题比猜想正确要容易得多。Another reason for optimism is that Mr Jobs is not disappearing from the scene entirely. Instead he is taking on a new role as the chairman of Apples board, which should allow him to keep weighing in on important decisions for some time to come, assuming that his health allows.人们可以抱有乐观态度的另一原因是,乔布斯并没有完全从舞台上消失,他只不过是扮演了新的角色—苹果董事会主席。如果他的健康状况允许,他可以继续权衡未来的重要决策。Apple has a pretty clear product pipeline for the next couple of years, which is reassuring.在接下来的几年中,苹果有一条非常清晰的生产线,人们大可放心。The firm is due to unveil the latest version of its hugely successful iPhone in the coming weeks and is expected to launch a new iPad early next year.在未来几周内,苹果将会揭开新版iphone的面纱,并在明年初将新一代ipad投放市场。But Apple is far more than the sum of the devices that it sells, impressive though they are.但是,苹果不仅仅是它销售的产品的总和,虽然这些产品都让人们爱不释手。Its secret sauce lies in the integration of these with software and services such as its iTunes online content store and its recently announced iCloud online-storage offering.它的秘诀在于通过软件和务将这些设备集中为一体。例如它的itunes在线资料库和最近提供的icloud在线储备库。These form what tech types like to call an “ecosystem” that has proved so popular that it is forcing other companies to develop similar capabilities.这种类型的科技被称为“生态系统”,它是如此受欢迎,以至于迫使其他公司纷纷效仿。Google, which has long excelled at developing software, recently splashed out .5 billion for Motorola Mobility so that it could get its hands on the firms smartphones, tablets and other devices.谷歌一直擅长于开发软件,最近向托诺拉移动公司注资125亿美元以将该公司的智能手机、平板电脑和其他设备弄到手。And Amazon, which has a huge cloud business, is planning to launch its own tablet computer to compete with Apples iPad.有着巨大云业务的亚马逊公司也在计划推出自己的平板电脑与苹果的ipad竞争。The good news for Apples investors is that the firm has been given a great head start in the battle for dominance of this emerging tech landscape thanks to Mr Jobs, whose vision of the future has been honed over a long and tumultuous career.对于苹果的投资者们来说,好消息是,多亏了乔布斯,苹果公司在抢夺科技领域领导地位的竞争中占据非常有利的地位。After co-founding Apple with Steve Wozniak in the 1970s, he went on to pioneer the era of the personal computer in the following decade. He was then ousted from Apple after a boardroom coup in 1985.乔布斯对未来的远见在长期而丰富的职业生涯中经过了历练。20世纪70年代,在与史蒂夫沃兹尼亚克共同创办了苹果公司后的十年里,乔布斯开创了个人电脑的时代。然后在1985年的一次苹果董事会政变中被驱逐出苹果公司。After that, Mr Jobs followed his heart and his intuition by building up Pixar, a film studio that specialises in computer-animated films. It has produced a string of hits, from “Toy Story” to “Finding Nemo”.在那之后,乔布斯跟随了自己的内心和直觉创办了皮克斯电影工作室,它专门从事电脑动画电影,并制作了一连串的好作品,如“玩具总动员”和“海底总动员”He returned to Apple as an adviser in 1996, when the firm was in dire straits.1996年,在苹果陷入重大困境之际,他作为顾问重返公司。A year later he was made interim chief executive.一年后,他成为临时执行总裁。Asked at the time what he thought Mr Jobs should do with Apple, Michael Dell, a rival computer-maker, helpfully suggested that he should shut it down.当竞争对手—电脑制造商迈克尔戴尔被问到,他认为乔布斯应如何对待苹果的时候,戴尔好心建议他应该将苹果公司关闭。Find out how much of an Apple iPhone is actually a Samsung with our ;teardown; infographic.Mr Jobs ignored that advice.Instead he led the company on to its greatest triumphs. Among them were the creation of the iMac, which revived the firms ailing computer business, and the development of the iPod, which ended up transforming the music industry. But just as important as what Apple did was what it did not do.乔布斯没有接受这个建议。相反,他将公司带入了全盛时期。在此期间,苹果生产了imac,使破败的电脑业务焕发了生机。同时,也研发了ipod,结束了音乐工业的转换。苹果做了什么,这很重要,但是,苹果没有做什么,一样重要。Charles Golvin of Forrester, a research firm, says that one of Mr Jobss greatest skills has been to decide which projects the firm should not undertake.弗雷斯特研究公司的查尔斯戈尔文说乔布斯的计策之一便是决定哪些项目公司不应该去做。It has been widely rumoured, for example, that engineers at Apple were urging its boss to create a tablet computer in the early part of the decade.例如,有件事情广为流传,苹果的工程师们曾在十年间的早期建议他们的老板生产一台平板电脑。But Mr Jobs turned a deaf ear to their entreaties and instead insisted that the company focus on producing a smartphone.但是乔布斯没有接受他们的恳求,而是坚持使公司致力于生产一款智能手机。The result was the iPhone, which transformed yet another market and is still minting money.结果便是iphone的问世,它改变了另一个市场并依然在赚钱。In a creative cauldron like Apple, ideas are rarely in short supply.在像苹果这样一家具有创造力的大公司里,从不缺乏建议。But the skill of choosing the right ones to focus on at the right time is rare.但是采纳正确的建议并在正确的时间实施,这种能力确是不多见的。Mr Jobs has it. Apples shareholders will have to hope that Mr Cook does too.而乔布斯就有这种能力。苹果的股东们应该期待库克也有这种能力。 点击此处下载本期经济学人讲解PDF与音频字幕 /201303/230569。

MORMONS are outing themselves. In 2010 the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints launched a multi-million-dollar campaign to counter ;misconceptions; about the religion, and last October it was vastly expanded. Billboards have now gone up in a dozen American cities, featuring real members. ;Irsquo;m a Mormon,; say lawyers, scientists and surfers, smilingly directing viewers to the church website. There the curious can chat with a missionary, or browse some 80,000 profiles to find Mormons who are like them.Over the past year, according to the church, people have initiated about 1m chats via the site, often asking about the Mormon record on gay rights, or other controversial things. And since the launch of the October campaign there have been 30,000 more Mormon profiles to look at.门教徒如今开始积极地向外宣扬自己的教派了。2010年,耶稣基督末日圣徒教会投资数百万美元举办了一场活动,试图来改变人们对门教的一些误解与偏见,这场活动自去年10月份开始可谓开展得如火如荼。如今在美国十几个城市里你都可以看到路边的广告牌上印着形形色色的门教徒微笑地表示:;我是个门教徒。;他们都真实地生活在我们身边,有的人是律师,有的是科学家或冲浪者,观者们还可以从广告牌上了解到教会的网址。好奇的群众不仅可以与传教士交谈以解心中疑惑,甚至可以翻阅8万名门教徒的个人简介,来了解这些和他们看上去一样的普通人的生活。据门教会透露,去年通过这个活动,人们大约发起了1百万次聊天,聊天内容通常都是关于门教对同性恋者权利的观点,以及其它备受争议的敏感问题。此活动自去年10月份以来,人们阅览了超过3万门教徒的个人资料。Some might think this unnecessary. In 2010 the church added some 400,000 converts and babies, pushing worldwide membership above 14m. If Mitt Romney wins the Republican nomination, there may be a Mormon president soon enough. In a January poll of Mormons from the Pew Forum on Religion amp; Public Life, 63% reckoned that acceptance of their religion is rising.有些人认为这样的做法是不必要的。2010年时,有40万名皈依者与新生儿加入了门教会,此后全球的门教成员超过了1千4百万。如果米特bull;罗姆尼获得了共和党提名候选人提名,也许很快美国就要出现一位门教总统了。一月份皮尤宗教与生活论坛显示,63%投票的门教徒认为他们信仰的宗教正获得越来越多人的认可。Still, Mormonism has some way to go. The complaints against the religion are familiar. It is a young religion, and it strikes many people as weird. Its greatest breaks with mainstream society, such as polygamy, are in the past, but the church still stumbles into the occasional controversy, most recently over its opposition to gay marriage. Mainstream Christians are particularly sceptical: millions dispute that Mormons are Christians at all.然而,门教要获得真正广泛的认可仍旧是任重而道远。人们反对门教的理由可谓是老生常谈:大家感觉这个新生的教派很古怪,甚至有些异端。而且它与主流社会的价值不符,比如早期教会经典持多妻制度(后被禁止实行),虽然都已是过去的事了,但是时至今日教会依然常常陷入其它的争端。最近争议最大的莫过于它对同性婚姻的反对了。上百万的主流基督徒十分挑剔,他们质疑门教根本就不属于基督教。The churchrsquo;s professions of normalcy, like Mr Romneyrsquo;s, apparently irritate some people, but the suspicions must soften at some point. Matthew Bowman, the author of a new history of the religion (and a Mormon himself), reflects that this is actually the fifth or sixth ;Mormon Moment; since 1902, when the Senate spent several years arguing over whether to unseat Reed Smoot, an apostle from Utah. Each time, he says, the same barbs reappear. There may be a cautionary tale there. Today Smoot is remembered for his support for tariffs rather than his religion.门教自认为是一个正常的宗教,正如罗姆尼所称的那样,然而如此言论显然使一些人十分不快,但是质疑的声音达到一定程度后注定要减弱。新的门教历史一书的作者马修bull;鲍曼(一名门教徒)表示这场争议实际上算得上是自1902年以来的第五个或第六个;门时刻;。1902第一个;门时刻;期间,美国参议院花了数年时间,一直争论是否该除去来自犹他州的门使徒里德bull;斯穆特的议员资格。鲍曼指出,每一次类似的诽语都一再地重现。这也许是个一个警示性的故事,但如今被人们所熟知的是斯穆特发起的斯姆特-霍利关税法,而不是他个人信仰的教派。In any case, the churchrsquo;s campaign could help. It confirms the impression that Mormons are nice, and makes thoughtful use of the web by asking members to post their own responses to frequently asked questions. Over time, however, Mormons will probably gain acceptance through growth as much as the other way around; a bigger church must have a bigger tent.不论如何,教会此次举办的活动对提升教会形象还是有用的。它通过充分利用网站资源,让教众在网上关于人们最常问的话题给出自己的答复,同时实了门教徒是友善而正派的。久而久之门教也许会通过壮大发展而会获得更多的认可,但反过来也有可能通过自发地包容外界而得以扩大发展,所以门教发展最重要的一点即是能够包容更多的异议。That adds a twist to Mr Romneyrsquo;s saga. Throughout his career, people have wondered if his religion will hurt his chances; polls show that about a quarter of Americans are wary of voting for a Mormon. But some people dislike Mr Romney for other reasons, and may judge his religion accordingly. If a church is trying to make friends, having any politician as its most prominent member may be a mixed blessing.门教徒的身份给罗姆尼的生平平添了几分挫折。在他的事业上,人们常会疑惑他的宗教信仰会否会成为他前进的绊脚石;民意投票显示出近1/4的民众很难轻易把票投给他。但是一些人是由于其他原因而不喜欢罗姆尼,于是会连带对他的宗教抱有批判的看法。如果一个教会想扩大影响,吸纳更多信徒,那么以任何一名政客作为它最众所周知的教徒都是好坏参半,焉知非福。201202/172850。

Business商业Chesapeake energy切萨皮克能源Caging a wildcat囚住野猫Shareholders curb Aubrey McClendon股东限制奥布里·麦克兰登的权力;WILDCAT; was once American slang for risky business; then it was applied specifically to drilling for oil or gas in virgin land. Either way, it fits Aubrey McClendon, the boss of Chesapeake Energy. Since co-founding the firm in 1989, the tall Oklahoman has overseen the acquisition of vast tracts of land and found oodles of natural gas under it. As Chesapeake became Americas second-largest natural-gas producer, Mr McClendon became the face of fracking, a gas-extraction technique hated by greens.;野猫;本是美国俚语,意指高风险商业活动。后来专指在未开垦的土地上开采石油或天然气。这两种解释都适用于切萨皮克能源公司奥布里?麦克兰登。自从1989年与合伙人一同创立该公司,这个高大的俄克拉荷马州人就一直监管土地收购业务,使公司获得了大量土地并在地下发现了丰富油气资源。随着切克披萨成长为美国第二大天然气生产企业,Mr McClendon也成为;水力压裂;形象代言人,这是一项令环保人士痛恨的天然气提取技术。More recently Mr McClendon has enraged shareholder activists. On May 1st they clipped his wings. While remaining chief executive, Mr McClendon will give up the chair of Chesapeake to someone independent. Shareholders hope this will stiffen the spine of a boss-friendly board. Mr McClendon will also negotiate the scrapping, by 2014, of a programme by which he was allowed to buy a 2.5% stake in every new well drilled by his company.最近,Mr McClendon触怒了股东中的激进分子。 这些人于5月1日剥夺了Mr McClendon对公司的控制权。尽管保住了首席执行官的位子,Mr McClendon还是要将董事长职位让位于某个独立的第三方。股东们希望此举能够让原本对总裁过于友好的董事会可以挺起脊梁 。同时,Mr McClendon将商议于2014年废除一向(激励)项目,在该项目中Mr McClendon有权在公司开采的所有新油井中占有2.5%的股份。Mr McClendon has long argued that this unusual arrangement was in the best interests of shareholders. ;You could say Im the only CEO in America who truly participates alongside his company in the day-to-day business activity on the same basis as the company,; he told Forbes last year. Presumably he believes that his incentives will now become less well-aligned. Many shareholders disagree.一直以来,Mr McClendon坚持认为这项不寻常的安排是为了实现股东的最大利益。去年在福布斯的采访中,Mr McClendon说;你可是说我是美国唯一一个真正参与公司日常商业事务,并与公司站在同一立场的CEO。;事到如今,大概他也认为这项激励措施使他与公司的立场并不一致。(可是)许多股东对这一点并不认可。As Chesapeake has grown, so has Mr McClendons appetite for debt to finance his stakes in wells. (To avoid cherry-picking, he was obliged to invest in all of each years new ones, or none at all.) In the first year of the programme, according to the Wall Street Journal, the firm drilled 19 wells; last year it was around 1,700, and Mr McClendon had to stump up over 7m.切萨皮克能源公司的逐步发展,Mr McClendon对资本的胃口也越来越大,他不断通过借贷来为购买油井股票融资。(为了避免挑选行为惹人注目,他不得不对每年的新开发的天然气井全部投资或者全都不投)。据华尔街日报报道,在该项激励计划实施的第一年,公司开发了19个天然气井,到2011年,公司天然气井数量约为1700个,Mr McClendon为此需要付4.57亿美元。He did this mostly by borrowing: he admits to personal debts of 6m. In 2008, as natural-gas prices plunged along with the firms market capitalisation, he had to sell most of his shares in Chesapeake to repay debts. The following June, the board gave him a special m bonus to invest in the well programme, while suspending the requirement that he own shares in the firm worth five times his annual salary. This generous move was what first stoked the ire of shareholder activists.Mr McClendon主要靠借贷来付这笔钱,他承认自己负有高达8.46亿美元的个人债务。2008年,随着市值缩水天然气价格大跌,他不得不卖掉自己持有的大部分公司股票来偿还债务。年6月,董事会拨给他价值7500万美元的特殊津贴来投资天然气井项目,同时,他必须持有相当于其年工资五倍的公司股票的这一强制要求也被取消。这种大方的举动第一次激怒了股东中的激进分子。Hedge funds short-selling Chesapeakes shares talk of ;red flags; that suggest trouble ahead. For example, the board is looking into reports that Mr McClendon borrowed money from financial firms that had a business relationship with Chesapeake. The firm also disclosed that the taxman was looking at the well programme as part of an audit. On May 2nd, Mr McClendon complained that ;a great deal of misinformation; has been published.对冲基金卖空切萨皮克股票被人们视为;前方危险;的警告。例如,董事会正在调查的一份报告指出:Mr McClendon从一些与切萨皮克公司有业务关系的金融公司借款。切萨皮克公司也披露税务部门正打算将油气井激励计划(涉及的资产)纳入审计范围。5月2日,McClendon对此表示不满,声称公开报道中含有;大量虚假信息;。To have a boss with such big debts looks risky. Did the board know the details? This much is clear: neither the board nor shareholders can claim they were unaware of the programme that let Mr McClendon invest in new wells, which has existed since the firm went public in 1993.公司总裁负债累累,这看上去不妙。董事会是否了解其中细节?很明显:董事会和股东都无法宣称他们对这项允许McClendon投资新油井的激励计划毫不知情,(事实上)自从1993年公司上市,该计划就已经存在了。As the forthcoming flotation of Facebook may show, investors are often willing to overlook weak corporate governance when offered the chance to buy shares in a newly listed firm run by a brilliant entrepreneur. The turmoil at Chesapeake should remind them:caveat emptor.FACEBOOK上市前的一系列事件也许可以反映出投资者的误区——当一家由天才企业家经营的公司刚刚上市时,投资者在获得机会购买该公司股票的同时却忽视了公司管理中的薄弱之处。发生在切萨皮克能源公司的混乱局面也是对这类投资者们的提醒:一经出售,概不负责。 /201210/204094。

Yael: Want some soymilk, Don?雅艾尔:想喝点豆浆吗,唐?Don: Ill pass, thank you.唐:不用,谢谢。Yael: What about some of this tofu salad?雅艾尔:来点豆腐沙拉怎么样?Don: Why are you pushing soy foods on me?唐:为什么你老是向我推荐豆制品?Yael: Because it turns out that there is yet another benefit to consuming soy, and this benefit is for men specifically. When digested, soy creates a molecule called equol, which blocks the male hormone dihydrotestosterone, otherwise known as DHT.雅艾尔:因为事实明食用豆制品另有益处,对男人更是如此。在消化时,豆类会产生一种雌马酚分子,这种分子会阻碍男性分泌DHT(双氢睾酮激素)。Don: Hold up there. Why on earth would I want to consume something that will block my precious male hormones? Arent those important?唐:等一下。到底为什么我要吃这种对我宝贵的雄性激素有害的东西?我的性激素难道不重要吗?Yael: Down boy! Testosterone does serve important functions, but DHT is not so desirable, considering its involvement in prostate cancer. The pharmaceutical industry has focused a lot of energy into developing drugs that do what soy does naturally. Except the problem is that the drugs created to fight prostate cancer dont just affect DHT, but they affect testosterone too. These drugs inhibit testosterone from converting into DHT. In doing so, they not only reduce the harmful effects of male hormones, but they reduce the beneficial effects of these hormones too.雅艾尔:坐下,伙计!睾丸素的功能的确很重要,但考虑到它与前列腺癌有关,DHT就不那么值得拥有了。制药行业集中大量精力投入到开发药品上去,但得到的效果与天然的大豆相差无几。但有一个问题,用来抵抗前列腺癌的药物不仅会影响DHT,还会影响睾丸素。这些药物阻止睾丸素转化为DHT。这样,它们虽然减小了雄性荷尔蒙的有害影响,但也阻碍了这些激素的有益影响。Common side effects of these drugs include reduced libido, impotence, decrease in muscle strength, and an increased risk of osteoporosis. Whats so promising about soy is that it doesnt prevent the conversion of testosterone into DHT, but instead blocks DHT from functioning once its made. The result is that soy prevents DHT from doing its damage without blocking the beneficial effects of male hormones. Scientists think that because of its effects on DHT, soy may prove beneficial in treating other conditions associated with DHT, such as male pattern baldness.这些药物的副作用通常包括降低性欲,阳痿,肌肉无力,增加骨质疏松的风险。大豆前景那么广阔的原因在于它并不阻碍睾丸素转换为DHT,恰恰相反,它阻碍DHT发挥应有的作用。因此大豆能防止DHT危害人体,同时保雄性荷尔蒙对人体的有益影响。考虑到大豆对DHT的影响,科学家们认为大豆可能有利于治疗其它与DHT有关的病症,例如男性模式脱发。Don: On second thought, how about you pass that tofu over this way?唐:经过重新考虑,你还是把豆腐递到这边来吧。 原文译文属!201208/195907。