原标题: 福建福清市二院专家飞度管家云专家
Feng Shuyuan, a retired worker living in Hengyang, Hunan province, recently completed a three-dimensional wooden sculpture of ;Riverside Scene at Qingming Festival,; a renowned ancient Chinese painting that depicts scenery along the Bianhe River in the capital of the Northern Song Dynasty (960–1127).最近,湖南省衡阳市的退休工人冯树元完成了《清明上河图》的三维木制雕刻。《清明上河图》是一幅著名的中国古代绘画,描绘了北宋(960-1127)都城汴河沿岸的风貌。The separate components of the sculpture were assembled on the morning of Oct. 15.这一雕刻的单独组件在10月15日的早晨组装完成。On the sculpture#39;s wooden base are hundreds of figures wearing various expressions, life-like camels and horses, and structures that show off the traditional architecture of the era.在雕刻的木基上有数百个表情各异的人,栩栩如生的骆驼和马,以及显示时代传统建筑的结构。Feng#39;s inspiration came from a conversation that he had with a fellow passenger on a train in 2004. The passenger expressed his desire to see a 3-D version of ;Riverside Scene at Qingming Festival; some day.冯树元的灵感来源于他2004年在火车上与一位同乘者的谈话。这名乘客表示他想在未来的某一天看到《清明上河图》的3D版本。To make this masterpiece, Feng went specially to Guangzhou to take reference pictures. He also traveled to various cities to obtain his raw materials.为了做出这一杰作,冯树元专门前往广州参考画作。此外,他还前往各个城市寻找他的原材料。The tools Feng used for his sculpture include abandoned graters and saws from the factory where he used to work, as well as needles from around his house.他用于雕刻的工具包括工厂废弃的锉刀和锯条,以及他家的缝衣针。Before he retired, Feng used to work at a factory for tractor manufacturing. In early 2012 Feng suddenly experienced a cerebral hemorrhage. After that, he had no choice but to reduce his workload.退休前,冯树元在拖拉机制造厂工作。 2012年初冯树元突发脑溢血。在此之后,他别无选择,只能减少他的工作量。Feng basically completed the sculpture by October 2013. However, at that time he came across an expected problem.2013年10月,冯树元基本完成了雕刻。但是,当时他遇到了一个始料未及的问题。The lacquer Feng had previously used was no longer available, and the sculpture wouldn#39;t be finished in all the same color if he used another lacquer. Feng was therefore forced to refinish the parts he had aly lacquered in order to achieve unity in his sculpture#39;s overall aesthetic.冯树元之前使用过的漆已经买不到了,如果他使用另一种漆,完成的雕刻就会有不同的颜色。因此,冯树元只得返工已经上漆的部分,以实现雕刻整体审美的统一。For his next project, Feng plans to sculpt a three-dimensional version of Yuanmingyuan, a resort for the imperial families of the Qing Dynasty, which was pillaged and burned by British and French troops in 1860. He hopes that his works will remind future generations of the importance of history.至于他的下一个项目,冯树元计划雕刻一个3D版的圆明园。圆明园是清朝皇室的度假胜地,却在1860年被英国和法国军队掠夺和烧毁。他希望他的作品能警示后人历史的重要性。 /201611/476172We all know sleep matters for job performance. 众所周知,睡眠会影响工作表现。After a week of vacation, you may find your work better than ever. 休假一周后,你会发现自己工作表现前所未有的好。But rack up a week of sleepless nights - say, following a polarizing presidential election - and you may find yourself struggling.假如你因为两极分化的总统大选而持续失眠一周,那可能会非常痛苦。It wouldn#39;t surprise anyone that sleep affects attention, memory and cognition - important factors in the workplace. 睡眠会影响注意力、和认知力等影响工作的关键因素,这并不让人意外。But striking new research suggests the effect of additional sleep has a high monetary value. 但是一项引人注目的新研究发现,睡眠还有更值钱的作用。A paper - from Matthew Gibson of Williams College and Jeffrey Shrader of the University of California at San Diego, based on data from Jawbone, the fitness- and sleep-tracker company - says that additional time sleeping can translate into thousands of dollars in wages.威廉姆斯学院的马修.吉普森和加州大学圣地亚哥分校的杰夫瑞.施莱德基于健身睡眠记录仪公司Jawbone的数据撰写了一份研究报告,称额外的睡眠时间可以转变为数千美元的薪水。In fact, they calculate that a one-hour increase in weekly sleep raises wages by about half as much as an additional year of education.事实上,他们计算出每周睡眠增加1小时,薪水涨幅相当于多受一年教育的一半。Now, the story is not so simple. 事情没那么简单。Don#39;t think you can start to sleep more and you will instantly make more money. 不要以为你开始多睡觉就能立刻赚得更多。It#39;s more about the subtle interplay between how people schedule their lives, how much time they have available to sleep and how that affects worker performance and, ultimately, earnings.关键是人们如何安排自己的生活、有多少时间可以睡觉以及这是如何影响员工表现并最终影响薪资,这些问题间微妙的关系才是重点。To investigate how sleep affects worker wages, the researchers took advantage of a kind of natural experiment - sunset times across American time zones. 为了研究睡眠究竟怎样影响员工工资,研究人进行了一项自然试验——利用美国时区日落时间。Past research shows that people naturally end up sleeping longer when the sun sets earlier, for example in the winter, even if the person goes to bed well after dark. 过去的研究显示,当日落较早时,人们的睡眠会自然而然变长,即使是天黑很久后才睡觉也一样,比如冬季时。When the sun sets an hour later, it reduces nighttime sleep by roughly 20 minutes per week.当日落较晚时,人们平均每周的睡眠时间大约减少20分钟。Within a single time zone, the time of sunset varies substantially, as the map below shows. 如下图所示,在一个时区里日落时间相差很大。For example, the sun sets about an hour and a half earlier in Mars Hill, Maine, than in Ontonagon, Mich., even though both are in the Eastern time zone. 比如,虽然同在东部时区,缅因州马斯希尔的日落时间比密歇根州昂托纳贡的早一个半小时。Because there shouldn#39;t be any significant differences in workers on the eastern or western edge of a time zone beyond the amount of time they sleep, researchers use this variation to calculate how much sleep influences wages.因为不论在一个时区的东边还是西边,员工的睡眠时间应该没有显著差别,研究人员决定用日落时间的差异来计算睡眠对工资的影响。They find that a one-hour increase in average weekly sleep in a location increases wages by 1.3 percent in the short run, which include changes of less than a year, and 5 percent in the long run. 他们发现,在一个地区,平均每周增加1小时睡眠,工资一年以内增长1.3%,而从长期来看增长5%。By moving to a location where a sunset is one hour earlier, a worker will make an additional ,570 a year.如果搬到日落早一小时的地区,员工的工资一年将增加1570美元。Those differences in wages end up being incorporated into the local economy. 这些工资差异也体现在当地经济上。The researchers find that higher wages actually translate into higher home values as well. 研究人员发现,较高的工资实际上也转化为更高的房价。A county that experiences a sunset one hour earlier has on average a 6 percent higher median home value, about ,900 to ,800 dollars, they say.他们称,在一个提前1小时日落的镇子里,住宅均价一般会高出6%,约7900-8800美元。Not all of these wage differences are due directly to sleep, the researchers caution. 研究人员提醒道,并非所有的工资差异都由睡眠直接导致。Some could be due to the cumulative influence of other people. 有些是由于他人的累积影响。If the workers around you are made slightly more productive by sleeping better, that could make your work more productive, too.如果你周围的员工因为睡眠更佳而工作效率稍高的话,也可以使你的工作更有效率。The findings suggest that sleep is a crucial determinant of productivity and wages, ;rivaling ability and human capital in importance,; the researchers write.研究结果显示,睡眠是工作效率和薪资水平的重要决定因素,可以与能力和人力资本相提并论。Given the huge benefit that more sleep can bring, we should certainly pay more attention to ensuring that workers sleep more, they say.研究人员称,鉴于多睡觉对人大有裨益,我们应该更加注意确保员工多多睡觉。 /201612/482638

It#39;s cliche for a reason … men aren#39;t always best at showing how they feel, even when they#39;re crazy about you. But here are 10 ways to know for sure:人们总是认为,即使男人为你痴狂,他们也不善于说出自己的感受。但要是他有下面这10种行为,那就能确定他真的爱你了。1. He opens up.1. 吐露心声。Emotional intimacy isn#39;t easy for anyone, so if he#39;s baring his soul to you, it#39;s not because he likes hearing himself talk … alright, not just because he likes hearing himself talk.不是每个人都能做到情感亲密。如果他向你敞开心扉,这不仅仅是因为他喜欢听自己讲话而已哦。2. He does the dirty work.2. 承担家务。Taking out the garbage and scrubbing the bathroom floor may not seem romantic, but it can be his way of showing you he cares: by helping you out and trying to make your life easier. He#39;s not ironing your work pants because he likes to; he#39;s doing it because he wants to make you happy.清理垃圾或擦洗浴室地板,这些事情看起来也许不那么浪漫,但帮助你减轻负担,是他关心你的方式。他为你熨西装裤,不是因为喜欢做这些事,他是想让你快乐。3. He asks for your help.3. 寻求帮助。Whether he wants your input on a blowout with his boss or asks you to tag along and help him pick out a birthday present for his mom, he#39;s asking for your opinion because he respects you and cares what you think, a sure sign he#39;s smitten.不论是邀请你参加与他老板的应酬,或是帮他挑选给妈妈的生日礼物,都是在征求你的意见,因为他尊重你、在意你的想法。他肯定很爱你哦。4. He loves PDA.4. 公开秀恩爱。Alright, sometimes you can do without his groping in the cereal aisle at the supermarket, but take it as a compliment that he can#39;t keep his hands off you. He#39;s proud to call you his and to show you off, and sometimes there#39;s no better way to show his appreciation than to give you a little squeeze!没有他,你也能在超市的麦片区找到自己想要的食品。但他好像永远离不开你似的,把这当做是种赞美吧。因为他很骄傲你是他的爱人,想要到处向人炫耀。有时候,抱紧你是他表达爱的最好方式。5. He chooses the perfect gift.5. 用心挑选礼物。Don#39;t worry if his gifts are duds but if he consistently hits it out of the park with his present shopping skills, take it as a compliment: he#39;s not only a good listener, he#39;s also thoughtful … and willing to spend hours searching for exactly the right thing.如果他已经尽自己最大的购物能力挑选了一件完美礼物,但却不如你所愿,不要太多虑,高兴地接受吧。他不仅是一个好的倾听者,又如此体贴,又愿意花时间寻找能让你开心的东西。6. He introduces you to his family.6. 介绍家人。You can bet that as soon as he introduces a girlfriend to his mother, she#39;ll be on his case about grandchildren. So if he#39;s getting the two of you together, he knows what he#39;s getting himself into and that there might be a future with you.只要他把你介绍给他的妈妈,那他妈妈一定会督促你关于孙子的事。所以,如果他介绍你们认识,他明白自己会面对什么问题。那他肯定是想和你一起创造未来。7. He makes you part of his inner circle.7. 融入他的生活圈。Folding you into his circle is more than just introducing you to his friends. A man who#39;s gaga over you and can see a future will make an effort to make you part of his life. If he#39;s scheduling standing double dates with his coupled friends and inviting you to his weekly drinking night with his friends, he wants you to stick around for a while.让你融入到他的圈子里,不仅是把你介绍给朋友。一个能和你看见未来、为你痴迷的男人,定会努力让你成为他生活的一部分。若他想要邀请你和他的朋友进行四人约会,或是参加每周和朋友的喝酒小聚,表明他希望有你在身边。8. He makes himself a part of your life.8. 融入你的生活圈。If he#39;s joining you for your boring Sunday morning errands and cuddling up on the couch with you with your and your roomies for Gossip Girl every week, he#39;s in it for the long haul.如果他自愿加入你每周日的例行琐事,或是每周缩在沙发上陪你,听你和室友聊八卦,说明他真的想和你一直走下去。9. He compromises.9. 愿做让步。It#39;s simple: when he loves you, he wants to keep you happy. This doesn#39;t mean always letting you get your way, but it does mean he#39;ll be eager to reach a middle ground with you where you#39;re both happy. Whether it#39;s where you spend the holidays or who gets the remote, he#39;ll show his love by insisting that you call the shots sometimes. How To Be Romantic一个很简单的道理,他爱你,就会让你快乐。但这并不意味着他会一直惯着你。但他肯定会努力找到一个方法,让双方都满意,不论是在哪度假或谁掌控遥控器。有时,他会让你做决定,来向你表明他的爱。10. He tells you.10. 向你倾诉。Sure, there#39;s a lot to be said for showing, not telling— but if he#39;s telling you how crazy he is about you, listen up!的确,倾诉这一点没有太多可说。但是,如果他向你表达爱意,一定要仔细听哦! /201705/508945Hong Kong may have the world#39;s most expensive strawberry.香港可能拥有全球最贵的草莓。Reported by The Times, a single strawberry from the Kotoka Strawberry Gift Box costs 168 HKD, which is roughly .60.据英国《泰晤士报》报道,仅有一颗草莓的科托卡草莓礼盒售价达到了168港币,约合21.6美元。The gift box can be found at CitySuper, described as an ;haunt bourgeois Hong Kong supermarket chain; by The Times. The supermarket#39; advertises itself as a ;mega lifestyle speciality store;.该礼盒可以在被《泰晤士报》称作是“中产阶级出没的香港连锁超市”--Citysuper的货架上找到。该超市的广告宣传中也称自己是一家“务百万富豪的精品超市”。The extremely expensive strawberry comes in an off-white cardboard box filled with synthetic straw. The fruit itself is ;Fresh by Air From Japan; according to a sticker on the box.据悉,该天价草莓装在一个米白色的纸箱里,周围填充着人造稻草。盒子上的标签写着,该水果是“从日本新鲜空运而来”。The Kotoka strawberry is grown in Nara, a Japanese city near Osaka. The rare fruit has ;a good acidity and rich sweetness; according to Nara.科托卡草莓生长在日本奈良--一个离大阪很近的城市。据奈良市的相关介绍,这种稀有的水果“酸甜度完美”。A picture of the Kotoka Strawberry Gift Box was shared in a Facebook group called Hong Kong Moms, sparking a number of concerned comments.脸书上一个名为“香港妈妈”的团体上传了这个科托卡草莓礼盒的照片,引起了许多人的热议。;And what is the difference between this wasteful splurge or spending ,000 on a designer handbag?!? Same self indulgence…;, Miriam Kamhin wrote.米丽娅姆·卡明写道:“这种挥霍无度和花3万美元买一款设计师的手袋有什么区别吗?都是自我恣纵!”;Absolutely criminal! By everyone involved, the producer, the retailer, the customer! All should be fined and jailed…really disgusted!!!; said Facebook user Sarah Maria.脸书用户莎拉·玛丽亚说道:“这简直就是犯罪!从生产商、零售商到消费者,每个人都有份!每个人都应当被罚款,去坐牢……真让人讨厌!”Whatsmore, CitySuper#39;s high prices aren#39;t limited to just strawberries. Hong Kong Free Press reported that the supermarket also stocked a HK,488 watermelon, a HK peach and an HK8 bundle of grapes.此外,CitySuper超市可不是只有天价草莓。据香港自由出版社报道,该超市里还有一个售价1488港币的西瓜、一个售价78港币的桃子,一串售价888港币的葡萄。 /201702/493577What are the best places in China for food? If you just came to China to sample the best of its authentic food in authentic settings, where should you go?中国哪个地方的食物最棒?如果你是来中国品尝最原汁原味的中国菜,那你应该去哪儿?Of course food is usually only ever part of the Chinese experience that visitors are looking for, and if you go to the following cities, you can also experience a wide range of the best sights China has to offer when you#39;re not eating.当然食物只是游客们寻找的“中国经历”中的一部分,但是如果你前往下列这些城市的话,当不再吃饭的时候,你还能领略许多中国最好的景色。1.Hong Kong1.香港Cantonese food is enjoyed the world over and is closest to the flavor of Chinese takeaway food. It is the sweetest of China#39;s Eight Culinary Styles, and is the most similar to the Western palate.粤菜在世界各地都很受欢迎,和中国外卖的味道也最接近。粤菜是中国八大菜系里最甜的,最符合外国人的口味。Hong Kong offers this style, along with good seafood, and dim sum (tea and a light meal, peculiar to HK).香港有粤菜,还有味道很棒的海鲜和点心(香港特产茶和轻食)。Hong Kong, being a wealthy international city, has restaurants selling high-quality food from many countries of the world, most notably Japanese, Korean, and British food.作为一个富裕的国际大都市,香港一些饭店还销售一些来自其他国家的高品质食物,包括来自日本、韩国和英国的食品。2.Beijing2.北京Peking duck or simply roast duck is a delicious classic among Chinese foods. It is prepared no better anywhere than in Beijing, where it originated as an imperial food. Quanjude Restaurant serves the duck feast in lavish and studied style. Beijing food is in a class of its own, called Jing cuisine.北京烤鸭(或者就是普通的烤鸭)是中国美食中的一道经典佳肴。北京的烤鸭在中国首屈一指,曾经是进献给皇室的美食。全聚德提供品种丰富的鸭宴。北京美食有它自己的称呼,叫京菜。In the north of China wheat is the staple, more than rice, so many wheaten foods are eaten, like pancakes, noodles, steamed buns, and dumplings.中国北方主食是小麦而不是大米,因此人们就会吃很多面食,例如煎饼、面条、包子、饺子等等。3.Chengdu3.成都Chengdu is the capital of Sichuan Province, which gives its name to the spiciest, and also a very popular, Chinese culinary style.成都是四川省会,想到四川就会想到川菜,川菜又辣又好吃,是中国很受欢迎的一个菜系。China#39;s Sichuan food should be braved. It is too hot for most in all but small quantities, but if you love chilies this is heaven.吃川菜你胆子可得放大点儿!对大多数人来说川菜都太辣了,但是如果你嗜辣,成都简直就是天堂。Classic dishes that should be eaten here are the Sichuan hotpot, kungpao chicken and mapo tofu. Chongqing is also a great city to eat Chuan food.在成都有一些必吃的经典菜肴,像四川火锅、宫保鸡丁、麻婆豆腐。重庆也是一个吃川菜的好地方。4.Turpan4.吐鲁番Anywhere in the Muslim Northwest of China would be a great place to eat whole roast lamb and hand-pulled noodles, as this is where these dishes originate. Also do not miss the Xinjiang #39;large flatbs#39;, known locally as nang (/nung/).西北任何一个城市都是吃烤全羊和拉面的好地方,因为这些菜就是起源于西北地区。也不要错过了新疆“大饼”,当地人称之为馕。5.Xiamen5.厦门For great seafood and authentic sweet and sour dishes go to Xiamen.想要吃极品海鲜和正宗糖醋菜?那你就该去厦门!Fujian cuisine, developed in Fujian Province on the Pacific, is known for its spices and soups. Xiamen#39;s attractions make it the most interesting city in Fujian.闽菜是一个在福建和南洋发展起来的菜系,以其对香料的精湛运用和美味的汤菜而闻名。厦门的美景也使得这座城市成为福建最有趣的一个地方。6.Guangzhou6.广州Guangzhou (once known as Canton) and other Pearl River Delta cities, like Shenzhen, are good places to go for original Cantonese food.广州和深圳等其他珠三角城市都是品尝正宗粤菜的好地方。Guangzhou#39;s specialties include white cut chicken and roast suckling pig, as well as spring rolls and sweet and sour dishes.广州的特色菜肴包括白切鸡和烤乳猪,还有春卷和糖醋菜。7.Macau7.For an interesting mix of Portuguese and Chinese style food journey to Macau. This small former colony has a different enough and tasty enough to merit a place on the list.如果你想体验一场混合葡式和中式美食的奇妙之旅,那么你就应该去。这个小城市以前是殖民地,其美味佳肴与众不同,但是又非常好吃,因此值得我们在名单上写上一笔。8.Xi#39;an8.西安Xi#39;an should be on the list for its imperial feasts, including many exotic meat platters, like camel and donkey that can be eaten while viewing a Tang Dynasty show.凭借国宴这一名号,西安理应上榜。唐代人们在观看表演时可以吃到骆驼和驴等充满异域风情的肉食。Xi#39;an is a representative place for the Northwest food style, which is actually quite similar to the Northeast style, but more noodles, with less buns and dumplings. Lanzhou is famous for its pulled noodles.西安是西北菜系的一个代表城市,西北菜其实和东北菜类似,但是吃的面条更多,不太吃包子和饺子。兰州最有名的是拉面。 /201703/500135

A pregnant model was killed by a freight train after she became stuck between two railroad tracks while posing for a photo shoot.日前,一名怀的模特在两条铁轨之间拍照时不幸被一辆载货火车撞死。Fredzania Thompson, 19, died after being struck near the intersection of Hollister and Lee Street in downtown Navasota, police said.警方表示,这位19岁的女孩名叫芙莱德赞尼·汤普森,在纳瓦索塔市区霍利斯特和李街的交叉口附近被撞身亡。The teen had been standing between two sets of tracks when a Burlington Northern Santa Fe Railway (BNSF) train approached and she moved out of the way onto another track.这名女孩当时站在两条铁轨中间,而一辆北圣达菲铁路公司的火车驶来,于是她就离开原来的地方站到了另一条铁轨上。Thompson was not aware there was a Union Pacific train approaching in the opposite direction and ended up stuck. The photographer was not hurt in the accident.但是汤普森没有意识到一辆联合太平洋铁路公司的火车正从相反的方向驶来,所以悲剧就酿成了。给她拍照的人并没有在事故中受伤。Union Pacific spokesman Jeff De Graff said that the train crew had alerted them with the horn as they approached them and began the emergency stop process.联合太平洋铁路公司的发言人杰夫·德格拉夫表示,在火车靠近时,列车员们已经鸣笛提醒她们了,并已经开始采取紧急制动措施。#39;Basically, you have two railroad tracks there, one is Burlington Northern to the west and one is Union Pacific to the east, and she was in between the two tracks,#39; Navasota Assistant City Manager Shawn Myatt said.纳瓦索塔市助理市长肖恩·米亚特表示:“大体上来说,这里有两条铁路,一条是北圣达菲公司西向铁路,一条是联合太平洋公司东向铁路,她当时就站在两条铁路之间。”Thompson was engaged to her 25-year-old boyfriend, Darnell Chatman. Chatman said the couple had just recently found out they were expecting a child together and was four weeks pregnant at the time of the tragedy.据悉,汤普森已经和自己25岁的男友达内尔·查特曼订了婚。查特曼称,他们两个不久前才刚发现汤普森已经怀上了宝宝,悲剧发生时她怀才四周。 /201703/5000903.Stop Signs3.停车标志In the early days of automobiles in the US, there was precious little signage on the roads, and there was anarchic competition between cars, horses, and bicycles.美国刚有汽车时,街道上标志难得一见,路上汽车、马车和自行车争相奔驰。The first stop sign appeared in Detroit, Michigan, in 1915, the same year that the first electric traffic signal appeared in Cleveland.1915年,在密歇根州的底特律市出现了第一个停车标志;同年,第一个电子交通讯号灯现身克利夫兰市。The first stop sign was a simple 0.6-meter square sheet of metal with black lettering on a white background.第一个停车标志是一个0.6m大小的方形金属片,黑字写在白色背景上。In 1923, the Mississippi Valley Association of State Highway Departments developed a set of guidelines for signage design based on levels of danger.1923年,州公路部的密西西比河谷协会根据危险程度设计了一系列标识指导方案。The logic was that the more sides there were on a sign, the more potentially hazardous the situation was.其原理为标志边越多,潜在危险越大。The circle, with infinite sides, was used for railway crossings, and the octagon was designated for the second-highest level of danger.圆形,因其边无数,用于公路和铁路的交叉口,八边形预示着危险程度为乙等。Diamonds, meanwhile, were for warning signs, with rectangles used for purely information signs.而菱形用于警告,矩形用于信息公告。According to Texas Aamp;M University Civil Engineering Professor Gene Hawkins, ;You have to realize this was done by engineers, and engineers can be overly analytical.;德克萨斯农工大学土木工程教授吉恩·霍金说:;这些图案是工程师设计的,他们会分析过度。;The first octagonal stop signs still had a white background, which was later changed to yellow.第一个八角形的停车标志背景为白色,后来换为黄色。In 1935, the Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices for Streets and Highways defined the stop sign as a 0.6-meter octagon with a yellow background and red or black letters.1935年,《街道和高速公路交通控制设备标准手册》规定停车标志为边长0.6米的八边形,背景为黄色,字为黑色或红色。This was changed in a 1954 revision that was developing a color code system for both railways and roads.1954年,修订铁路公路标志色标法时改变了这种规则。Hawkins explains, ;Red has always been associated with stop. The problem was they could not produce a reflective material in red that would last. It just was not durable until companies came up with a product in the late #39;40s, early #39;50s.;霍金解释说:;红色意味着停止。问题是,那时他们生产不出永不退色的红色反光材料。直到20世纪40年代末、50年代初,才有公司生产出一种耐用的材料。;Further revisions of the Manual in 1978, 1988, and 2000 retained the iconic shape, which is now commonly recognized worldwide.1978年、1988年和2000年的修订都保留了这个图标,即今天世界各地可见的停车标志。2.Male And Female Symbols2.性别标志The standard explanation for the male and female symbols is that they were derived from Greek mythology, namely the Shield of Mars and the Mirror of Venus, items traditionally associated with the male and female genders, respectively.对性别标志最权威的解说认为,他们来源于希腊神话,即《战神之盾》和《维纳斯之镜》,这两样东西分别代表男性和女性。However, there is little evidence linking those particular objects to the current symbols, and the actual history is far more complex than that.然而,说性别符号与这两样东西有关,据不足,而真实历史比神话更为复杂。In ancient astrology and alchemy, various celestial objects were associated with different Earth metals. The Sun, the Moon, Mars, Mercury, Venus, Jupiter, and Saturn respectively corresponded with gold, silver, iron, mercury or quicksilver, copper, tin, and lead.古星相学和炼金术中有很多天体和地球上的物质有关,如太阳、月亮、水星、金星、木星、土星分别和金、银、铁、水银、铜、锡、铅有关。This was the system learned by 18th-century botanist Carl Linnaeus, who was born before the development of the modern system of chemical notation using a letter or letters taken from the Greek or Latin names of the elements, which was developed in 1814.这是18世纪瑞典植物学家卡尔·林奈发现的,他出生时,人们还没发明出化学符号法。化学符号法发明于1814年,是从物质的希腊或拉丁名中选一个或几个字母表示物质。Before this, chemists often used the same symbols that medieval alchemists had used.而在化学符号法发明前,化学家和中世纪的炼金师用的符号一样。Linnaeus decided to borrow the chemical system for his botanical notation as a crude form of shorthand. He first used the symbols formally in a 1756 dissertation on hybrid plants and then later in his work Species Plantarum.林奈借用化学符号系统形成了生物学符号速记的雏形。他在1756年写杂交植物论文时正式使用了这种符号,后来,他也在著作《植物种志》使用了这些符号。He used the old astrological and alchemical symbols for Saturn, Jupiter, Mars, and the Sun to represent woody, herbaceous perennial, biennial, and annual plants and the symbols for Mars, Venus, and Mercury to represent male, female, and hermaphroditic conditions.他用标记土星、木星、火星和太阳的古占星术和炼金术符号来表示木本植物、草本植物、多年生植物、两年生植物和一年生植物,并用火星、进行和水星符号代表阳性、阴性和两性畸形的情况。Soon, other botanists and zoologists adopted the use of these symbols, as they were convenient and easy to remember.由于这些符号方便易记,其他动植物学家很快便接受了这套符号。Various attempts to link the symbols to pictographs, runes, and Babylonian astrological symbols have not panned out, and they are largely believed to be truncated forms of works in the early Greek script.人们试图将这些符号和象形符号、北欧符文及巴比伦占星符号结合,但各种尝试都以失败告终,且人们认为这些符号是从早期希腊文中截取而来的。The female symbol is derived from the goddess Phosphorus (associated with the planet Venus but not the Roman goddess) and the male symbol from the planet Thouros (the planet Mars but not the Roman god).阴性符号源于金星(金星星球而非罗马女神),阳性符号来源于火星(火星星球而非罗马的神)。1.Question Mark1.问号There are a number of contending explanations for the question mark, which was once called the interrogation point.对于问号(曾叫the interrogation point)的解释,有很多争论。The most popular explanation is that it derived from the Latin word quaestio, or ;inquiry,; which was written in shorthand as ;qo; and eventually became the mark we use today.最常见的解释说,问号来源于拉丁词;quaestio;,即;询问;,可缩略写作;qo;,最终成为我们今天使用的问号。Others believe the question mark could have derived from a neume used in medieval musical notation called the punctus interruptus, which indicated the intonation at the end of a question.还有些人认为问号可能来源于中世纪教堂音乐中一种叫做;punctus interruptus;的乐谱符号,这种符号表示问句的结尾。Some even believe that it came from Egypt and was derived from the appearance of a cat#39;s tail.还有人认为问号来源于埃及,是仿照猫尾巴创造而成。Others believe that the English scholar Alcuin of York developed the first question mark while he was working at Charlemagne#39;s court and developing a new system of punctuation. His question mark resembled a point with a tilde above it and became widely accepted by the ninth century.还有一派观点认为,问号是约克的阿尔昆在查理曼大帝宫廷供职时发明的标点符号。他发明的问号形如;上方有波浪符的点;,此符号在九世纪时广泛使用。The most recent theory was proposed in 2011 based on fifth-century Syriac manuscripts of the Bible, which are known for their liberal use of dots with unclear meaning.2011年,根据古叙利亚手书的《圣经》,出现了问号来源的最新说法,书里出现大量点号,但意义不明。Cambridge University#39;s Dr. Chip Coakley believes that one of these, the zagwa elaya, or ;vertical double dot,; is placed above certain questions that are not immediately obvious as questions.剑桥大学的契普·克利士认为其中的一种符号——;zagwa elaya;——;垂直双点;,用于一些问句性质不太明显的问题。For example, ;What are you doing?; is still obviously a question with a mark, but ;You#39;re leaving?; would become a statement without it.例如;你在做什么?;,如果没有问号,仍被当做问句,但;你要走了?;这句话没有问号的话,会变成一个陈述句。While it is likely that the question marks used in later Greek and Latin script were an independent invention, if Coakley is correct, the zagwa elaya is the earliest known question mark in history.然而,后来在希腊和拉丁文中使用的问号,是新发明,与此无关。如果克利士观点正确的话,zagwa elaya是史上已知最早使用的问号。 /201612/486344

She was the first female kung fu star — name above title, said J. Hoberman, a longtime movie critic who now writes about for The New York Times. 她是第一位女性功夫明星——想当初,她可是相当大牌,资深影评人、目前在为《纽约时报》(The New York Times)撰写DVD影评的J#8226;霍伯曼(J. Hoberman)说。He has fond memories of seeing Ms Mao’s movies on triple bills at Times Square grindhouse theaters in the 1970s. 他还保留着上世纪70年代的美好记忆:他猫在时代广场(Times Square)的磨坊戏院里,观看三场连放的由茅瑛主演的影片。She basically had one act, which was going from an obedient character to a machine-like avenger, he added. 她基本上总是演这样的角色:从一个逆来顺受的人,变成冷酷无情的复仇者,他补充道。A lot of people saw her films as feminist statements the same way as Pam Grier films.很多人都觉得她的电影和帕姆#8226;格利尔(Pam Grier)的电影一样,是女性主义者的宣言。Ms Mao’s career coincided with the over-the-top, often impolitic exploitation era in film. 茅瑛的职业生涯恰好与电影史上那个毫无节制且常常不顾政治正确的剥削片时代重合。The narrator for an American trailer of her 1972 film Hapkido declares: Watch out for the pigtail that whips you up and wipes you out. 在她1972年主演的电影《合气道》的美国版预告片中,旁白宣称:小心那条大辫子,它会让你心荡神摇,也会把你彻底摧毁…… Lady Kung Fu: the unbreakable China Doll who gives you the licking of your life.…功夫女王:坚不可摧的‘中国娃娃’给你好看。She was born Mao Ching Ying in 1950 and grew up in Taiwan, the third of eight children, to a family of entertainers for the Peking Opera House. 茅瑛原名茅复静,1950年生人,在台湾长大,出身于京剧院的艺人家庭,在家中八个孩子中排行老三。Like her siblings, she started training for the opera at a young age, taking voice lessons when she was 5. 和兄弟们一样,她很小的时候就学起了京戏,从5岁开始吊嗓子。She also studied martial arts, specifically hapkido, rising to the level of black belt — a prowess that later distinguished her from other action stars, who merely choreographed their fight scenes.她还学习了武术,尤其是合气道,练到了黑带水平——这方面的造诣后来让她从众多动作明星中脱颖而出。其他人在打斗场景中通常只是耍耍花架子。In her 20s, she moved to Hong Kong, where a thriving film industry was based, but she was hardly romantic about it. 二十几岁的时候,她搬到了电影产业蓬勃发展的香港,但她对电影几乎没有任何浪漫幻想。To be honest, the money was just better in movies, she said. 说实话,拍电影收入更高一些,她说。I had to support my family. 我必须养家。Most of the money I made I gave to them. 我把大部分收入都给了家里。This is the Chinese tradition.这是中国人的传统。Leading female roles were rare in Hong Kong at the time. 想当年在香港,女性主角还很罕见。Mr Meyers, the fan who met with Ms Mao at Lincoln Center, is the author of Films of Fury, a comprehensive history of the kung fu movie genre. 在林肯中心见到了茅瑛本人的影迷迈尔斯,是《狂怒电影》(Films of Fury)一书的作者,该书全面记录了功夫类电影的发展史。Ms Mao, he said, was the first woman to star in her own action films without having to defer to a male star.他说,茅瑛是第一位身为动作片主演且在片中不必屈居男影星之后的女性。Men ran things, he explained. 男性曾掌管一切,他解释道。Hong Kong had lots of machismo then. 当时的香港盛行大男子主义。Women were considered ‘jade vases.’ They didn’t speak on screen. 女性被视为‘玉花瓶’。They were considered decoration.她们在电影里通常不出声,被当成摆设。When asked about this epithet, Ms Mao snapped, I was never anybody’s ‘jade vase.’ 当被问及对这个词的看法时,茅瑛厉声说道,我从来都不是任何人的‘玉花瓶’。She shifted in her seat. 她在座位里挪动了一下身子。Moments later, she dispatched her son to tend to a customer she noticed from the corner of her eye.片刻过后,她打发儿子去招呼她用眼角余光瞥见的一位客人。 /201611/479241

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