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重庆怀孕前检查得多少钱Qing Dynasty清朝Culture in the Ming Dynasty and the Qing Dynasty明清文化During the Ming and the Qing dynasties, on account of the sprouting of capitalism and the merging and developing of the urban areas, the ideology of early enlightnment, which was directed against the dark autocratic politics, started to rise.明清时期,由于资本主义的萌芽和城市地区的融合与发展,抵抗黑暗的独裁政治的早期启蒙思想开始出现了。The representative figures were Li Zhi, Huang Zongxi, Gu Yanwu, Wang Fuzhi and Dai Zhen in the end of the Ming Dynasty and the early Qing Dynasty.代表人物有明末清初时期的李志、黄宗羲、顾炎武、王夫之和戴震。They exposed the irrationality of the system of autocratic monarchy, condemned the hypocrisy and cruelty of Neo-Confucianism, advocated practical learning and proposed a notion that industry and commerce were both the foundations.他们表达了独裁统治体系的不合理性、指责了儒家正统思想的伪善与残忍、鼓励学习的实用性并提出了工业和商业都是基础的观点。But on the whole, this criticism was still in this primary stage.但是总体来说,这些批判仍然处于初期阶段。It hadn’t formed into an integrated system of thought.它并没有形成思想的完整体系。Therefore, these social critics were not able to propose new plans for social reform.因此,这些社会批评家无法为社会改革提出新方案。In the period of the Ming and the Qing dynasties, facing the mature traditional culture, the ruling class took it as their key task to systemize academic achievements.明清时期,面对着成熟的传统文化,统治阶级将系统化学术成就当做他们的主要任务。The Ming and the Qing dynasties employed plenty of manpower and abundant financial resources to collect and systemize a tremendous amount of ancient books.明朝和清朝雇佣了一大批人力和经济资源来使大量的古代著作系统化。They successively compile “Great Encyclopedia of Yongle” and “A Collection of Books Ancient and Present”.他们成功编著了《永乐大典》和《古今图书集成》。These two books were works combining to some extent the characteristics of encyclopedias and concordances.这两本书在某种程度上结合了百科全书和著作索引的特点。“Complete Library in the Four Branches of Literature” was a large-scaled collection.《四库全书》是一部大型藏书。“Complete collection of Prose in the Tang Dynasty” and “A Complete Collection of Poems in the Tang Dynasty” were general anthology of prose and verse.《全唐文》和《全唐诗》综合来说是散文和诗歌的选集。“The Kangxi Dictionary” and “Exegesis of Classical Works” were large reference books.《康熙字典》和《典籍注释》是大型的参考书。Meanwhile, there rose a study of textual criticism, forming the “Qian Jia School” which was rather infulential at that time.同时,这个时期产生了一门文学批判的学科,建立的乾家学派在那时非常有影响力。From the angel of philosophy and by means of exegesis, the scholars re-annotated Confucian classies and other classical works.通过哲学的持和解释,学者们重新为儒家经典和其他典籍作了注释。It was one of the great achievements in China’s ancient cultural history.这是中国古典文学史上最伟大的成就之一。So they made an important contribution to preserving and inheriting the traditional Chinese culture.因此,它们为保存和继承中国传统文化作出了卓著的贡献。In the literary world of the Ming and the Qing dynasties, the greatest success was attained in the creation of novels.在明清时期的文学世界中,小说获得了最大的成功。“The Romance of the Three Kingdoms”,“Water Margin”, “Pilgrimage to the West” and “A Dream of Red Mansions” were called altogether as the four greatest classical novels.《三国演义》、《水浒传》、《西游记》和《红楼梦》被称为四大名著。In science and technology, there came into being some great academic works of summa, such as Li Shizhen’s “Compendium of Materia Medica”, Pan Jixun’s “A Survey of Flood-Prevention Work on Rivers”,Xu Guangqi’s “A Complete Treatise on Agriculture”,Song Yingxing’s “Tian Gong Kai Wu” and Xu Xiake’s “Xu Xiake’s Travel Notes”, etc.科学和技术上出现了许多优秀的学术总结性论文,比如李时珍的《本草纲目》、潘季驯的《河防一览》、宋应星的《天工开物》以及徐霞客的《徐霞客游记》等等。The Brilliant academic achievements in a feeble political climate constituted a peculiar cultural landscape of the Ming and the Qing Dynasties.软弱的政治环境中灿烂的学术成就构成了明清时期一道特别的文化风景。 /201512/412285 These are the incredible works of art created by residents in a Dutch village to celebrate their greatest painter on the first Sunday of September every year。这些不可思议的作品是由荷兰一村庄的居民所创作的,在每年九月的第一个星期日,他们都以此来庆祝其最伟大的画家。Legendary artist Vincent Van Gogh was born in the village in 1853 so he has often popped up as a theme in the Netherlands#39; oldest flower festival, dating back to 1936.传奇艺术家文森特·梵高于1853年出生于这一村庄,所以他经常作为主题出现在荷兰最古老的花卉节日中,最早可以追溯到1936年。Towering beauty: The floral masterpieces, draped in dahlias, are paraded around the streets of Zundert in the south of the Netherlands on giant floats up to twenty metres long and towering 10 metres high。高耸的美景:这些由大丽花装饰的花型杰作在荷兰南部的津德尔特的大街上游行,它由长20米、高10米的巨大花车来运载,。Attracting 50,000 people this year, it also celebrates the region’s proud reputation as a global supplier of dahlias, an area now covering 33 hectares (81 acres) of 600,000 dahlia bulbs in fifty different species。今年的游行吸引了五万人,除纪念梵高之外,这场游行还庆祝了该地区引以为豪的大丽花产业(作为供应商),现在该地区覆盖了33公顷(81英亩)、60万多的大丽花球,多达50个不同品种。This huge, flowered float makes its way along the street to marvels from the crowd at the Netherlands#39; largest flower festival。在荷兰最大的花卉节日上,这辆巨大的花车绕街游行,群众发出惊叹的声音。More than 50,000 people attended the parade, a tradition dating back to 1936 which is the oldest flower parade in Europe, but only dahlias, flown in specially for the parade, are used to decorate the enormous sculptures。五万多人参加了这场游行,其传统可以追溯到1936年,是欧洲最古老的花卉游行,但是这些巨大的雕像只用特意为这场游行准备的大丽花装饰。There is a different theme every year and in 2015, locals were proud to celebrate Van Gogh, who was born in Zundert in 1853.每年游行的主题都不一样,而在2015年,当地居民们非常自豪能够为1853年出生于津德尔特的梵高庆生。But this year, to commemorate the 125th anniversary of his death, the town decided to devote the whole parade to his artistic genius, with all 19 floats dedicated to him。但是今年,为了纪念梵高逝世125周年,这座城镇决定将整场游行都献给这位艺术天才,他们把19辆花车都献给了他。The theme gave rise to a diverse range of float designs, all in the spirit of Van Gogh, with thousands lining the streets to see them go by。花样繁多的花车设计灵感都源自这次的主题,无不体现着梵高精神,供千上万的人站在街边欣赏。 /201509/399356南岸照影可以医治输卵管堵重庆妇科权威医院




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