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2018年12月15日 22:25:08
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Books and Arts;Artists and photographers;Point and paint文艺;书评;艺术家和摄影师;瞬间与永恒;A long overdue study of the influence early photography had on painting;早期摄影对绘画的影响,一项迟来的研究;“I have all my subjects to hand”, Pierre Bonnard, a French post-impressionist painter, once wrote. “I go to see them. I take notes. Then I go home. And before I start painting I reflect, I dream.” At the turn of the 19th century, the “notes” Bonnard made included snapshots that he took with his flexible hand-held Kodak camera, which had first been introduced in 1888.“我手头上有全部素材”,法国后印象主义画家皮埃尔·波纳尔曾经写道。“我去采风。做记录。然后回到家。开始作画前我会在脑中回想,让思绪放飞。”在19世纪之交,柯达推出第一台相机(1888年),这里波纳尔所说的“记录”就包括用轻巧便携的柯达相机拍的快照。Unhampered by hefty equipment (the Kodak was held at waist level and had an arrow marked on top to help point the lens) or long exposures, Bonnard and his fellow painters from the Nabi group, Edouard Vuillard and Félix Vallotton, were among the first artists to use the camera to observe fine details, perspectives and light effects too fleeting to see with the naked eye. A painstakingly curated new show juxtaposes 220 mostly unpublished vintage snapshots by seven fin-de-siècle artists along with their paintings, prints and drawings in an effort to demonstrate how this new way of seeing inspired and expanded the painters creative vision.不受笨重机器的束缚(这款柯达相机可以挎在腰部,相机顶端的箭头帮助对准镜头),不用拍长曝光的照片,波纳尔和其他两位纳比派画家——爱德华·维亚尔和菲利克斯·瓦洛通,首开先河利用照相机观察景物的细枝末节、透视图像和光影效果,这些转瞬即逝的景象很难用肉眼观察。最近一个新的作品展展出了由7位“世纪末”艺术家拍摄的220幅老式照片(大部分未曾公开),同时展出的还有他们的油画、印刷品和素描作品。此次展览的举办颇费周折,目的在于向人们展示这种全新的观察方法如何激发和拓宽了画家的创作视角。Henri Rivière, a French printmaker and designer, climbed the soaring Eiffel Tower before it was completed in 1889 to photograph the exhilarating lines and angles of its iron girders set against the Paris sky for a series of 36 lithographs. Vuillard and a gifted, yet little-known, Belgian painter named Henri Evenepoel used the camera as a sketch book and aide-mémoire to capture everyday moments with family and friends. Bonnard in turn photographed his slender, round-faced mistress and muse, Marthe de Méligny, naked in a glade, as inspiration for his illustrations of “Daphnis and Chloé” by a second-century Greek novelist and romancer, Longus.亨利·里维埃,法国版画家和设计师,为了完成由36个石版画组成的一系列作品,曾爬上还未竣工的高耸的艾菲尔铁塔(铁塔于1889年落成),拍摄下了以巴黎的天空为背景,铁塔的钢筋铁架纵横交错构成的振奋人心的画面。维亚尔和另一位才华横溢但名不见经传的比利时画家亨利·埃费内普尔把照相机当作素描本和备忘录,用以扑捉和家人朋友的日常生活瞬间。而波纳尔拍摄的则是他那身材苗条脸盘很圆的情妇,以及他灵感的源泉玛莎·Méligny在树林中一丝不挂的照片。他在给公元2世纪希腊传奇小说家隆古斯的小说《达佛涅斯和克洛伊》做插图时,灵感就来自这些照片。Neither Vuillard nor Bonnard, with whom he shared a studio, actually copied photographs in their resonant, small-scale paintings of domestic interiors. Instead, both tried to replicate the immediacy of snapshots (or instantanés as they were called in France) often catching their subjects mid-gesture. Using his photographs only as an occasional reference point, or to reflect a mood, Vuillard recomposed his subjects at will. “At Table, Lunch” and “In Front of the Tapestry: Misia and Thadée Natanson” both show abbreviated figures, whether absorbed in eating a meal, or with their backs to the viewer. Vuillards figures, who are almost swallowed up by the vibrant decor, have an apparitional quality that appealed to the 20th-century French photographer, Henri Cartier-Bresson, who described Vuillard and Bonnard as among the artists he most admired.波纳尔和维亚尔共用一个画室,两人的小幅装饰画均有一定反响,但实际上这些画并非选自他们拍摄的照片。他们想要尝试的是重现快照(法语为instantanés)中被瞬间定格的运动中的人物。对于维亚尔来说照片仅是一种临时的参考或某种情感的反应,他会随心所欲地对主题进行重塑。《餐桌边的午餐》和《在挂毯前:米西亚和塔德·纳坦松》呈现的都是缩影式的人物,或是在全神贯注的用餐,或是背对着观众。维亚尔画中的人物几乎会被色鲜明的画面所淹没,有种若隐若现的效果。20世纪法国摄影师亨利·卡帝尔·布烈松对这种画风极为欣赏,他把维亚尔和波纳尔视为偶像。A Dutch painter, George Hendrik Breitner, also seizes a moment in time in a bustling Amsterdam street scene that is dominated by a veiled figure holding a fur muff up to her face, looking blurred and fugitive, as in real life. Now acknowledged as a gifted photographer in his own right, Breitner used his camera for “Girl in Red Kimono” (pictured right above with its photographic model, left). This precise yet atmospheric re-creation of his snapshot of a girl curled up on a divan, shows her intricately patterned kimono in sharp contrast with the design of the Persian carpet at her feet.与此同时,荷兰画家乔治·亨德里克·布赖特纳也抓住时机记录下来阿姆斯特丹川流不息的街景,画面突显了一位头戴面纱的女子,身上包裹着毛皮披肩,只露出脸,神情隐约难辨,整幅画作看起来非常逼真。布赖特纳凭借自己的努力被公认为天才摄影师,他利用相机绘制出《穿红色和的女子》(右上图为画作,左图为模特照片)。照片中的女孩蜷曲在沙发上,身上的和花纹精致复杂,与脚下的波斯地毯的图案对比鲜明,布赖特纳根据这张照片进行的再创作描绘精确,完美的再现了原照的氛围。Unlike their official work, none of this exhibitions seven artists ever intended their photographs to go on public display. Photography, for them, was a mechanical process rather than an art form. Some of the images come from the attics and albums of the artists families; Rivières photographs, now at the Musée dOrsay, were catalogued only in 1988. Vallotton, who left just 20 images, compared with 2,000 left by Vuillard, may even have destroyed the evidence following accusations that he copied a central figure from a photograph published in a French magazine in 1908. Snapshot studies for two of his paintings, “Beach at Etretat” and a portrait of his wife entitled “Red Room, Etretat”, show how he worked from photographs, eliminating extraneous details and grey shadows. He used this pared-down style to create powerful groups of figures or psychological portraits.此次展览涉及的7位艺术家从未打算把这些照片作为正式作品公布于众。对于他们来说摄影只是一个机械加工过程,并非艺术。许多图片是他们的家人从阁楼上或是影集里找到的。里维尔拍摄的照片现在展览于奥赛物馆,但也只是在1988年才被收入物馆。而瓦洛东仅留下20幅图片,相比维亚尔的2000幅照片,他的数量就少多了。他曾被指责抄袭了1908年出版的一本法国杂志里的照片——照片中的一个主要人物,但如今从这些少量留存的照片中已找不到任何据。瓦洛东有两幅画作,《埃特尔塔的沙滩》以及他为妻子画的题为《红色房间,埃特尔塔》的肖像画,对照相片进行研究,可以发现他如何利用照片学习去除冗余的细节和不必要的阴影。采用这种简洁的风格瓦洛东创作出很多场面宏大的画作以及心理肖像描写。Vallotton and Vuillard liked to exchange photographs. Evenepoel, a pupil of Gustave Moreau who took almost 900 photographs, including a series of searching self-portraits, in the two years before he died of typhoid aged 27, described his camera as a “real gem”. A photograph of his hesitant family about to cross the Place de la Concorde recalls Edgar Degass famous portrait of Vicomte Lepic and his daughters, while images of his cousin Louise de Mey and their son Charles embody the emotion he invested in his portraits.瓦洛东和维亚尔喜欢交换照片。另一位艺术家埃费内普尔,师从古斯塔夫·莫罗,在短短2年间拍摄了近900幅照片,包括一系列探索式的自画像,但他随后不幸死于伤寒,年仅27岁。他曾描述他的相机是“真正的宝物”。埃费内普尔有一张照片记录了他的家人踯躅着准备穿过协和广场,这张照片让人想起埃德加德加著名的肖像画《会计师和女儿们》。另一张画像描绘了他的表路易丝·梅伊和儿子查尔斯,画面体现出他作画时的情感投入。“I savour them all [my snapshots] with the slightly sad joy of reflecting that all this good time is past”, Evenepoel wrote to his father in 1897. These images, like most in the exhibition, are startlingly small. But close inspection reveals a finely detailed portrait of how this group of artists lived and worked, and it conveys the real sense of the excitement they felt as they experimented with their seemingly miraculous new gadget.“我细细地品味它们(我的照片),但一想到照片中美好的时光都已逝去,喜悦中不免略带感伤”,1897年埃费内普尔在写给父亲的信中说到。这些图片和其他展出的作品一样画幅都非常小。但经过细细观察,这些艺术家生活和工作的细节便详尽地呈现在眼前,同时艺术家们在用这个看似不可思议的新型小玩意儿做尝试时的喜悦和兴奋也流露无余。“Snapshot: Painters and Photography 1888-1915” is at the Van Gogh Museum, Amsterdam, until January 8th 2012. It will be displayed at the Phillips Collection in Washington, DC, from February 4th until May 6th and at the Indianapolis Museum of Art from June 3rd until September 2nd.“照片:画家与摄影师 1888-1915”在阿姆斯特丹梵高物馆展出,结束日期2012年1月8日。该展览还将于2月4日至5月6日在华盛顿菲利普斯陈列馆展出,6月3日至9月2日在印第安纳波利斯艺术物馆展出。 /201303/230985璧山潼南区哪家医院取环People say that seeing is believing-really? Take for example the opening ceremony of the Beijing Olympic Games.人们总说“眼见为实”,真是这样吗?举例而言,北京奥运会的开幕式……。It went beyond the pale for organizers to fake a song before a live audience of 91,000 inside the ;Birds Nest; National Stadium, with billions also watching at home.组织者们出格了——他们当着9.1万名现场观众和数十亿电视观众的面,在开幕式现场 “鸟巢”国家体育场让演唱者假唱。Lin Miaoke, a cute nine-year-old girl, sang ;Ode to the Motherland; in an angelic voice. Two days later, the Chinese media broke the news that Lin Miaoke had lip-synched the song, which was in fact sung by a different girl, who is not as cute in appearance.可爱的9岁女孩林妙可用天使般的声音唱了《歌唱祖国》这首歌。两天后,中国媒体爆料,林妙可当时是假唱——演唱者另有其人——只是那个女孩在外形上不如不如林妙可可爱。It is unthinkable that Chen Qigang, general music director of the opening ceremony, could let such a thing happen in the first place. Maybe the pressure was too strong to let him stick to his principles. ;The reason was for national interests,; Chen said. ;The child on stage should be flawless in image, internal feeling and expression,; Chen added.对开幕式音乐总监陈其钢来说,让这样的事情发生在第一时间,这是不可想象的。也许是压力太大的缘故,让他无法坚持自己的原则。 “原因就是国家利益,”陈先生说, “舞台上的孩子应在形象上、内心感情和表达上完美无瑕。”陈补充道。It is unacceptable, even immoral, to cheat an audience for whatever reason. The Olympics are about fair competition and sportsmanship. Thats why the International Olympic Committee has been strictly enforcing its anti-doping program.无论出于何种原因而欺骗观众都是不可接受的,甚至是不道德的。奥运会是公平竞争和体育道德的代名词。这就是为什么国际奥委会一直严格执行反兴奋剂计划。Doping is defined as the use of a performance-enhancing substance by athletes in competition. By extension, the use of somebody elses voice other than ones own is also an act of performance enhancing. It makes a travesty of the Olympic spirit.兴奋剂是运动员在比赛中所使用的可以增强体力的药物。广而言之,使用别人的嗓音是另一种形式的兴奋剂。它是对奥林匹克精神的嘲弄。注:本文译文属原创,,。201204/178971璧山潼南区那家医院能做复通手术There is Freundlich with his two buddies about to leave Berlin.弗雷德里奇和他的两个朋友要离开柏林。Einstein is there.而爱因斯坦就在那里。He is very, very anxious.他非常,非常的焦虑。Freundlich and two of his colleagues are lugging four astronomical cameras and cumbersome equipment on a long and treacherous journey.弗雷德里奇和他的两位同事带着四架天文相机和笨重的设备准备踏上漫长而危险的旅途。They gonna take the train and go all the way to the Crimea in Russian territory.他们会搭乘火车径直前往俄罗斯境内的克里米亚。Freundlich and Campbell hope to maximize their chances of good weather and good eclipse photographs by camping in different sites.弗雷德里奇和坎贝尔希望在不同的地点借助好天气可以最大限度地拍摄到日食的摄影照片。Freundlichs party sets up in southeastern Crimea.弗雷德里奇的队伍在克里米亚东南部集结。Campbell locates near Kiew.坎贝尔位于基辅附近。They are both determined despite the frightening and sping rumors of a world war.尽管令人害怕的世界大战谣言正在散布,但他们仍然作此决定。Then the worst happens.然而最坏的事情还是发生了。On June 28th, 1914, the Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria is assassinated.1914年6月28日,奥地利大公弗朗茨·费迪南德遭行刺。The German Kaiser declares war on Russia.德国凯撒对俄罗斯宣战。And Einsteins eclipse expeditions are suddenly in jeopardy.爱因斯坦的日食探险队突然岌岌可危。注:听力文本来源于普特201204/179218彭水苗族土家族自治县闭经痛经多少钱

荣昌万州区治疗精子异常多少钱重庆市性激素检查A little success for one of the cubs.有只幼崽获得了小成功。This mother bears experience gives her family a good chance of survival until spring arrives.这位熊妈妈的经验给了她的家庭生存到春天到来很好的机会。They will return again and again as the thaw releases more fish.他们将一次又一次地回到这里,因为解冻会释放更多的鱼。On the warmer plains and valleys that surround the plateau, grazers are on the move.在高原周围温暖的平原和山谷,食草动物都在前进。They left the high country to avoid the worst of the winter and now begin the long journey towards the heart of Yellowstone in time for summer.为了躲避最糟糕的冬天他们离开了家园,而现在则向黄石公园夏天的心脏地带开始长途旅行。These elk are led by experienced adults who have made this trip many times before.这些麋鹿是由经验丰富已经多次走过这趟旅程的成年者们带领。注:听力文本来源于普特201208/197122重庆三峡中心医院接输卵管Business商业报道Schumpeter Angst for the educated毕业生的烦恼A university degree no longer confers financial security大学学位不再提供经济担保MILLIONS of school-leavers in the rich world are about to bid a tearful goodbye to their parents and start a new life at university.成千上万的毕业生着即将泪别父母开始大学生活。Some are inspired by a pure love of learning.他们中的有些是被纯粹的求知欲驱使。But most also believe that spending three or four years at university—and accumulating huge debts in the process—will boost their chances of landing a well-paid and secure job.但是更多人相信读三四年大学将会有助于他们觅得高收入、稳定的工作。与此同时,求学期间会大量负债。Their elders have always told them that education is the best way to equip themselves to thrive in a globalised world.他们的学长总是告诉他们:接受教育是使自己在全球化的世界里立于不败之地的最好办法。Blue-collar workers will see their jobs offshored and automated, the familiar argument goes.蓝领工人将会看到他们的岗位被迁移海外以及被自动化代替,类似的论点层出不穷。School dropouts will have to cope with a life of cash-strapped insecurity.辍学者将要过着经济困难的不安定生活。But the graduate elite will have the world at its feet.但是毕业生中的佼佼者掌握着主动。There is some evidence to support this view.一些据持着这种看法。A recent study from Georgetown Universitys Centre on Education and the Workforce argues that obtaining a post-secondary credential is almost always worth it.乔治敦大学教育和劳动力中心最近的一项研究表明获得高等教育明总是物有所值。Educational qualifications are tightly correlated with earnings:学历与薪酬紧密的联系在一起:an American with a professional degree can expect to pocket .6m over a lifetime;在美国,获得专业学位的劳工职业生涯总预期薪酬为360万;one with merely a high-school diploma can expect only .3m.仅获得高中文凭的劳工职业生涯的总预期薪酬为130万。The gap between more- and less-educated earners may be widening.这种收入差距还在加大。A study in 2002 found that someone with a bachelors degree could expect to earn 75% more over a lifetime than someone with only a high-school diploma. Today the premium is even higher.2002年的一项关于劳工职业生涯中获得的总薪酬研究表明:获得学士学位的将比获得高中学历高出75%。如今,奖金甚至更高。But is the past a reliable guide to the future?但是能照搬经验吗?Or are we at the beginning of a new phase in the relationship between jobs and education?亦或说我们处于职业与学历关系的新阶段吗?There are good reasons for thinking that old patterns are about to change—and that the current recession-driven downturn in the demand for Western graduates will morph into something structural.有充足的理由让人们相信旧模式即将改变:现今经济不景气导致的对西方毕业生需求的减少将会演变为结构之变。The gale of creative destruction that has shaken so many blue-collar workers over the past few decades is beginning to shake the cognitive elite as well.过去数十年来,创造性毁灭之潮使得众多蓝领为之烦恼,如今,它开始开始席卷认知精英界。The supply of university graduates is increasing rapidly.毕业生数量逐年递增。The Chronicle of Higher Education calculates that between 1990 and 2007 the number of students going to university increased by 22% in North America, 74% in Europe, 144% in Latin America and 203% in Asia.高等教育年鉴估计1990至2007的接受大学教育的人数中:北美增加了22%,欧洲增加了74%,拉丁美洲增加了144%,亚洲增加了203%。In 2007 150m people attended university around the world, including 70m in Asia.2007年世界范围内1.5亿人接受大学教育,其中亚洲有7000万。Emerging economies—especially China—are pouring resources into building universities that can compete with the elite of America and Europe.新兴经济体正的塔形土木建设与欧美高等学府想抗衡的高校的热潮正方兴未艾,中国尤甚。They are also producing professional-services firms such as Tata Consulting Services and Infosys that take fresh graduates and turn them into world-class computer programmers and consultants.他们同时也是诸如塔塔咨询、infosys等专业务公司的缔造者。大学毕业生在此类公司里完成了化蝶蜕变。The best and the brightest of the rich world must increasingly compete with the best and the brightest from poorer countries who are willing to work harder for less money.发达国家最优秀最聪明的毕业生必须逐渐与不发达国家的卖力工作、薪酬低廉的毕业生竞争。At the same time, the demand for educated labour is being reconfigured by technology, in much the same way that the demand for agricultural labour was reconfigured in the 19th century and that for factory labour in the 20th.同时,对于受教育劳工的需求正在被重新分配,正如19世纪农业劳动力和20世纪工业劳动力的重新分配一样。Computers can not only perform repetitive mental tasks much faster than human beings.电脑不仅执行重复性工作上比人类更加快,而且电使业余者从事原本只有专家才能做的事情:They can also empower amateurs to do what professionals once did: why hire a flesh-and-blood accountant to complete your tax return when Turbotax will do the job at a fraction of the cost?当Turbotax能够花费很低做同样的工作为什么要去雇佣会计去处理税务事宜?And the variety of jobs that computers can do is multiplying as programmers teach them to deal with tone and linguistic ambiguity.通过程序员的努力,电脑能做的工作越来越多,因为他们能够处理言语歧义。Several economists, including Paul Krugman, have begun to argue that post-industrial societies will be characterised not by a relentless rise in demand for the educated but by a great hollowing out,包括Paul Krugman在内的一些经济学家开始主张后工业时代社会以对持续上升对受教育劳工的需求以及产业空洞化为特征,as mid-level jobs are destroyed by smart machines and high-level job growth slows.因为中端职位被智能机器扼杀,高端职位需求增长缓慢。David Autor, of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, points out that the main effect of automation in the computer era is not that it destroys blue-collar jobs but that it destroys any job that can be reduced to a routine.麻省理工学院的David Autor指出:电脑自动化的主要影响不仅在于他们摧毁了蓝领的岗位,还在于摧毁了能够被分解成例程的岗位。Alan Blinder, of Princeton University, argues that the jobs graduates have traditionally performed are if anything more offshorable than low-wage ones.普林斯顿大学的Alan Blinder指出:传统上毕业生所做的工作更可能与低薪酬工作相形渐远。A plumber or lorry-drivers job cannot be outsourced to India. A computer programmers can.水暖工、大车司机的岗位不能外包给印度,电脑程序的岗位可以。A university education is still a prerequisite for entering some of the great guilds,大学教育仍是进入诸如制药、法律以及学术界的先决条件,such as medicine, law and academia, that provide secure and well-paying jobs.他们提供了高收入、稳定的工作。Over the 20th century these guilds did a wonderful job of raising barriers to entry—sometimes for good reasons and sometimes for self-interested ones.20世纪这些行业使得入门门槛大为提高。有些出于好意,有些出于自身利益。But these guilds are beginning to buckle.这些行业开始联合。Newspapers are fighting a losing battle with the blogosphere.报业正在与客界的斗争中负隅顽抗。Universities are replacing tenure-track professors with non-tenured staff.大学用非终身制职员替代终身制职员。Law firms are contracting out routine work such as discovery to computerised-search specialists such as Blackstone Discovery. Even doctors are threatened,法律公司把诸如显示据的工作外包给电脑化的搜索专家,比如说Blackstone Discovery。as patients find advice online and treatment in Walmarts new health centres.医生也受到了威胁,以为病人可以上沃尔玛的新健康中心寻找意见以及治疗方案。Dreaming spires, meet pin factory Thomas Malone of MIT argues that these changes—automation, globalisation and deregulation—may be part of a bigger change:麻省理工学院的Thomas Malone主张这些变革—自动化、全球化—可能是更大变革的一部分:the application of the division of labour to brain-work.劳动力分配到脑力劳动的应用。Just as Adam Smiths factory managers broke the production of pins into 18 components, so companies are increasingly breaking the production of brain-work into ever tinier slices.正如Adam Smiths的经理把生产比别针分解成了18个步骤。因此公司逐渐地将脑力劳动工作内容分解的更为更细。TopCoder chops up IT projects into bite-sized chunks and then serves them up to a worldwide workforce of freelance coders.TopCoder公司将IT项目切割成一个个细小的模块,交由世界范围内的程序员去完成。These changes will undoubtedly improve the productivity of brain-workers.这些变化将毫无疑问地改善脑力劳动者的效率,避免了专业公司收取的高昂务费。They will allow consumers to sidestep the professional guilds that have extracted high rents for their services.而且这将使得更多的脑力工作中集中精力在他们最擅长的领域,And they will empower many brain-workers to focus on what they are best at and contract out more tedious tasks to others.而将更加低附加值的工作外包给他人。But the reconfiguration of brain-work will also make life far less cosy and predictable for the next generation of graduates.但是脑力工作的重新分配同样也使生活远不及到达舒程度, 对于下一代毕业生来说是可以预见的。 点击此处下载本期经济学人讲解PDF与音频字幕 /201303/232646北碚渝北区输卵管复通治疗医院

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