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楼主:飞度咨询三甲医院 时间:2017年10月17日 13:50:08 点击:0 回复:0
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Imagine a therapy that supposedly cures most ailments and for which almost 100 per cent of all the published studies conclude is effective — in other words, a panacea which has been tested but never faulted by science. This can only mean that the treatment in question is a miracle cure which is useful for every single condition and in every single setting. Would we not all love to know such a therapy?想象下一种可以治愈大多数疾病的疗法,几乎所有发表的研究中得出的结论都是有效的,换句话说,这是一种久经检验但从未被科学质疑过的灵丹妙药。这只能意味着我们提到的这个治疗是一种奇迹,它对不同情况下的每一种病症都有效。我们不是都会喜欢这种疗法吗?Simple common sense tells us, however, that such miracle cures cannot exist — unless, of course, we consider the wide range of treatments that fall under the umbrella of Traditional Chinese Medicine.然而,常识告诉我们,这种奇迹是不可能存在的——除非,当然啦,我们认为中医治疗覆盖的范围是很广泛的。Take acupuncture, for instance. Most traditional acupuncturists will try to convince you that acupuncture is a veritable panacea, a treatment that works for anything and everything ranging from acne to zoster. In case you find this hard to believe, go on the internet and try to find a single condition for which acupuncture is not claimed to be effective.以针灸为例。大部分传统针灸师会试图说你,针灸是一个名副其实的万能药,治疗的范围,从痤疮到带状疱疹。如果你不信,上网去搜搜病例看看针灸是不是声称很有效。What is more, acupuncture trials hardly ever generate negative findings — at least those that originate from China. We and others have shown that Chinese trials of acupuncture as good as never suggest that acupuncture does not work. This has led to the bizarre situation where one does no longer need to the paper reporting a new Chinese study because one aly knows what it shows, namely that acupuncture is effective. If that is so, one does not even need to conduct the study, since one aly knows the outcome before the research has started.更妙的是,针灸试验没有产生任何负面的结果——至少那些源自中国的信息是这么说的。我们和其他一些人于是明白了中国的针灸实验是从来不会认为无效的。如果这样的话,你何必还要进行研究呢,在研究之前已经知道结果了啊。Perhaps you think the ‘Western’ scientists who disclosed this baffling phenomenon are chauvinists who, for one reason or another, want to discredit Chinese science. In this case, you would probably want to wait for a team of Chinese researchers repeating our investigations.也许你认为西方科学家质疑这一令人困惑的现象是因为沙文主义或其他啥原因好抹黑中国。在这种情况下,你可能想等待一队中国研究人员复核下我们的调查。Wait no more.不用在等了。Chinese researchers identified all randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of acupuncture published in Chinese journals. A total of 840 RCTs were included in their assessment, and 838 of them (99.8 per cent) reported positive results. Only two trials (0.2 per cent) reported negative results. The authors concluded: ‘Publication bias might be a major issue in RCTs on acupuncture published in Chinese journals … which is related to high risk of bias. We suggest that all trials should be prospectively registered in international trial registry in future.’中国研究人员确认了中国期刊上发布的有关针灸的所有随机对照试验。共有840个随机对照试验及评价,其中838例(99.8个百分点)报道结果有效。只有两个试验(百分之0.2)报告结果无效。作者得出的结论是:在中国期刊发表关于针灸随机对照试验结果的主要问题是太偏颇了……很明显的先入为主(认为有效)。我们建议,以后所有实验都应该提前在国际实验注册备案。For many years I, too, had been inclined to give my Chinese colleagues the benefit of the doubt and assumed that publication bias — the phenomenon where negative results tend to remain unpublished — might be the explanation. If so, trial registration would indeed be the answer. But think of it: publication bias might provide a reason for a preponderance of positive findings but it cannot truly explain that close to zero per cent of negative results see the light of day. There must be other factors involved.多年来我一直致力于给我的中国同事灌输质疑的好处,以及发表的文章一边倒——也可能是负面的情况根本没有被报道出来。如果是这样的话,实验前在国际实验注册备案是个不错的办法。再回过头来看看,公布的实验结果一边倒的表示有效,负面效果几乎为零,对此没有个清楚明了的解释。肯定还有其他因素。One obvious explanation could be that many or most of the Chinese studies are — dare I say it? — dodgy to the point of being fraudulent. This allegation seems so outlandish that I would never have voiced it, unless there is some pretty solid evidence to back it up.一个明显的解释是中国的很多研究或者说绝大部分研究——我为啥这么说呢?——他们(的实验)不可靠且不诚实。如果没有确凿的据,我绝对不会发出这样粗鲁的指控。A recent survey of Chinese clinical trials has revealed fraudulent practice on a massive scale. China’s food and drug regulator carried out a year-long review and concluded that more than 80 per cent of clinical studies are ‘fabricated’. The investigators uated data from 1,622 clinical trial programmes of drugs awaiting approval by the regulator. Much of the data were found to be incomplete, failed to meet analysis requirements or were untraceable. Some institutions were suspected of deliberately hiding or deleting records of adverse effects, and tampering with evidence that did not meet expectations. ‘Clinical data fabrication was an open secret even before the inspection,’ an unnamed Chinese hospital director was ed as saying. Contract research organisations seem to have become ‘accomplices in data fabrication due to cutthroat competition and economic motivation’.最近对中国临床实验的调查显示了他们有大规模的欺诈行为。中国食品药物监管部门进行了长达一年的回顾总结,百分之80以上的临床研究数据为“捏造”的。研究人员评估了1622个等待监管机构批准的临床试验方案的数据。大亮的数据被认为是不完整的,不符合要求或无法进行追踪分析的。甚至一些机构涉嫌故意隐瞒或删除不利影响的记录,并篡改据以符合预期结果。一位不愿透露姓名的中国医院主任说:“在审核前,“制做”临床数据已经就是个公开的秘密了”。合同研究组织,由于激烈的竞争以及经济利益,成为了数据造假的共犯。CRO----合同研究组织,20世纪80年代初起源于美国,它是通过合同形式为制药企业、医疗机构、中小医药医疗器械研发企业、甚至各种政府基金等机构在基础医学和临床医学研发过程中提供专业化务的一种学术性或商业性的科学机构。The human rights activist Mai Ke went one step further, claiming that there is an ‘all-pervasive culture of fakery’ across all products made in the country. ‘It’s not just the medicines,’ he told Radio Free Asia. ‘In China, everything is fake, and if there’s a profit in pharmaceuticals, then someone’s going to fake them too.’人权专家Mai Ke进一步补充道“在这个国家的产品制造业中有一种无处不在的造假文化,不仅是药物,”他告诉自由亚洲电台“在中国,啥都有假货,如果药品有利可图,就有人会去造假。”Crucially, he stressed that the problem also extends to Traditional Chinese Medicines: ‘It’s just harder to regulate the fakes with traditional medicines than it is with Western pharmaceuticals, which have strict manufacturing guidelines.’最重要的是,他强调,这种现象也蔓延到了中医药:“比起西医传统的中医药监管起来难度要高的多,因为西药有严格的生产标准。”Academic ethics is an underdeveloped field in China; this leads to a culture that is accepting of academics manipulating data. ‘I don’t think that the 80 per cent figure is overstated,’ another Chinese insider commented.学术道德是中国一个欠发达的领域;这导致了一种文化,对学者操纵数据比较宽容。另一位中国内部人士说,我认为80%的数字没有夸大。Considering data fabrication on such an epidemic scale, it seems much easier to understand the above-mentioned phenomenon, where nearly 100 per cent of Chinese acupuncture studies generate positive findings. Such trials heavily pollute the worldwide evidence, particularly because the Chinese trials constitute a major chunk of the current evidence base in this area.考虑到这样大规模的数据造假,上述针灸实验近乎百分百有效的现象就不难理解了。这些实验数据严重污染了世界范围内的数据库,尤其是现有的这类大部分由中国实验数据构成的数据库。If we agree that data fabrication has seriously detrimental effects, we must ask what we can do about it. I feel we have little choice but to distrust the evidence that originates from China. At the very minimum, we must scrutinise it thoroughly and sceptically. Whenever it looks too good to be true, we ought to discard it as unreliable.如果我们都赞同数据库造假会导致严重的影响,我们必须思考下能做些什么。我们的选择不多,除了质疑中国的实验数据。至少,我们要详细的深入检查和质疑。无论何时,什么东西看起来好得不像话了,我们就应该把它当做不靠谱的东西抛弃掉。 /201702/494399Onions may be one of the healthiest, most flavorful vegetables on the face of the Earth, but they’re definitely no fun to chop. However, your days of getting teary-eyed in the kitchen may be coming to an end as Japanese company House Foods Group prepares to launch the world’s first tear-free onion to the market.洋葱也许是世界上最健康可口的蔬菜了,但是切洋葱可不是什么好玩的活。然而,切洋葱“催人泪下”的历史终于要结束啦!因为日本House食品集团株式会社即将推出世界上首个“无泪洋葱”。Aptly named “Smile Ball”, because it puts a smile on your face rather than make you cry, this new type of onion is the result of two decades of research. In 2002, House Foods Group scientists published a paper in which they hypothesized that tear-inducing enzymes in onions could be weakened while retaining their full flavor and nutritional value. Their research actually won an Ig Nobel Prize – an award handed out to honor achievements organizers consider unintentionally funny – but last year the company announced that their theory had finally become reality. Although the announcement mentioned that House Foods Group had no intention of producing Smile Ball onions commercially anytime soon, it appears the wonder vegetables will hit Japanese stores this fall.这种名叫“微笑洋葱”的新洋葱可谓名副其实,因为它不会让你流泪,反而能令你微笑。研究者们花了二十多年才使其问世。2002年,House食品集团株式会社的科学家们发表了一篇文章,文章中提出一个假设,洋葱中催泪酶的功效可以被减弱,但其原有的口感和营养价值能被保留。这项研究获得了“搞笑诺贝尔奖”——这个奖是为了选出那些“无意之中达到搞笑效果”的研究。去年该食品集团宣布他们的理论已变成了现实。尽管当时该集团称不会在短期内商业化生产“微笑洋葱”,但是这种奇异洋葱有望在今年秋季进入日本商店。It has long been known that chopping onions induces tears due to a volatile gas released by onion cells when damaged by the knife. Chilling an onion reduces the movement of its atoms, resulting in less syn-propanethial-S-oxide – the tear-inducing lachrymatory agent – being released when cut, but that only reduces the number of tears you shed. Chopping the Smile Ball onion in any conditions is reportedly a tear-free experience.人们很早以前就知道,切洋葱时会熏到眼睛流泪,是因为被刀切到时洋葱细胞会释放出一种易挥发气体。将洋葱冷冻能减少洋葱原子的运动,从而减少顺式-丙硫醛-硫化物的释放,这种气体就是“催泪弹”——洋葱被切时就会释放。但是切冷冻洋葱只能减少流泪,切“微笑洋葱”,不管是冷冻还是常温,都能给你带来“无泪”体验。Last year, when it made its big announcement, House Foods Group revealed that it managed to suppress the production of syn-propanethial-S-oxide by bombarding onion bulbs with irradiating ions, which also made the vegetables less pungent. Full-grown Smile Ball onions release almost no tear-inducing compounds when chopped or eaten raw. Unlike regular onions, they are said to have a sweet taste reminiscent of apples or Asian nashi pears.去年,House食品集团隆重宣布,他们用辐射离子照射洋葱,已经成功抑制了顺式-丙硫醛-硫化物的生成,还能减少洋葱的刺鼻气味。不管是在切洋葱时还是生吃时,成熟的“微笑洋葱”几乎不会产生催泪成分。与普通洋葱不同的是,它们据说还带一点苹果和亚洲沙梨的甜味。About five tons of Smile Ball onions were sold in trial runs at Tokyo department stores and online shops this year, but come fall, they will be available at supermarkets nationwide, at a price of 450 yen (.30) for a pack of two. That’s twice as expensive as regular onions.今年已有约五吨“微笑洋葱”在东京百货商店和网店试销,等到秋季时将会进入日本各地超市,一包两个的售价是450日元(合4.3美元),比普通洋葱贵了一倍的价钱。The rate at which the trial batch of 5-6 tons of Smile Ball onions sold out signals that they will be a huge hit when they hit the market, but skeptics worry that they will have the same fate as apples, which many say have lost most of their original flavor after years of selective breeding.这批五六吨的“微笑洋葱”被抢购一空的速度,预示着它未来在市场的巨大成功,但是有怀疑论者担心新型洋葱会步苹果的后尘——苹果曾经经历了数年的选择性培育,以至于丧失了原有的风味。 /201608/458125Zheng Jiajia, 31, decided to marry with a robot after failing to find a human spouse, his friend told Qianjiang Evening News.在找不到一个人性配偶后,31岁的郑佳佳决定与一个机器人结婚,这是他的朋友向《钱江晚报》透露的。Zheng had also become tired of the constant nagging from his family and pressure to get married, so he turned to a robot he built late last year and named Yingying.郑某也厌倦了家人的唠唠叨叨和被催婚的压力,于是在去年底开发了一个机器人,并将其命名为莹莹。After two months of ;dating;, he donned a black suit to ;marry; her at a ceremony attended by his mother and friends last weekend in the eastern city of Hangzhou.在经过两个月的“约会”后,他身着黑色西装,于上周末在杭州东部的一个城市和莹莹举行了婚礼,他的母亲和朋友出席了仪式。While not officially recognised by the authorities, the union had all the trappings of a typical Chinese wedding, with Yingying#39;s head covered with a red cloth in accordance with local tradition.虽然没有得到当局的正式认可,但这个联姻完全按照典型中国婚礼的规矩来进行,莹莹的头部按照当地的传统用红布覆盖。China has one of the worst gender gaps in the world, mainly due to sex-selective abortions after the introduction of the country#39;s widely criticised one-child policy, which for decades controlled how many children each family could have.中国是世界上性别差距最大的国家之一,这主要是由于几十年来广受批评的独生子女政策,该政策控制了每个家庭可以拥有的孩子数量,并导致了性别选择性堕胎。There are 113.5 men for every 100 women in China, according to the latest figures published by the World Economic Forum. The gender imbalance, coupled with changing attitudes towards marriage among the country#39;s middle class, means many men will never find wives.根据世界经济论坛发布的最新数据显示,中国每100名女性对应了113.5名男性。性别不平衡,加上中产阶级对婚姻态度的改变,意味着许多男人将永远找不到妻子。For now Yingying can only some Chinese characters and images and speak a few simple words, but Zheng plans to upgrade his ;bride; to be able to walk and do household chores. Until then he has to carry the 30kg robot to move her.现在莹莹只能阅读一些汉字和图片,并且说几句简单的话,但郑先生计划要升级他的“新娘”,令她能够走路和做家务。在此之前,这个30公斤的机器人妻子必须靠他来移动。 /201704/503701

;W; means wide connection.W代表广联互通。Wuzhen is located in Zhejiang province, an economic powerhouse in East China. 乌镇位于中国经济强省浙江。More than 80 percent of the country’s e-retailers, 70 percent of exports, and 60 percent of e-commerce relies on platforms based in Zhejiang. 我国80%以上的电子零售商、70%的出口以及60%的电子商务都是依托浙江省内的平台开展业务。Tongxiang itself, which Wuzhen is a part of, is home to 560 Internet enterprises, over 30,000 registered retailers and 48 Taobao service stations.仅桐乡市就有560家互联网企业,3万多家登记在册的零售商和48个淘宝网务站点。The essence of Internet is connection, the value of information lies in interflow. 互联网的精髓在于互联,而信息的价值在于互通。The World Internet Conference brings opportunities and vigor to Wuzhen, a city which perfectly reflects nature, tradition, development and modernity.世界互联网大会为乌镇带来了机遇和活力,而这个城镇本身就完美体现了自然、传统、发展与现代。;U; means universal vision.U代表全球视野。With a theme of ;Innovation-driven Internet Development for the Benefit of All – Building a Community of Common Future in Cyberspace;, the conference will be composed of forums, an expo, and a release event in addition to the opening and closing ceremonies. 在创新驱动,造福人类——携手共建网络空间命运共同体的主题下,本届互联网大会将举办论坛、览会、发布活动以及开闭幕式等活动。The conference will host 16 forums covering 20 hot issues, such as Internet economy, Internet innovation, Internet culture, governance in cyberspace and international cooperation on Internet.大会将举办16场论坛涵盖20个热门话题,包括:互联网经济,互联网创新,互联网文化,网络空间治理以及互联网国际合作,等等。World leading Internet achievements will be on display at the Light of the Internet Expo.全球领先的互联网成果将在互联网之光览会上展出。;Z; means zealous ideas.Z代表充满的想法。Wuzhen’s Xizha scenic spot and Wucun county have been selected to host brainstorming activities for Internet and tech giants, such as Alibaba, Foxconn, Jinritoutiao, 58.com.乌镇西栅景区和乌村会举办互联网和科技界大咖头脑风暴活动,大咖们来自阿里巴巴、富士康、今日头条以及58同城等。;H; means humanitarian care.H代表人道主义关怀。Industry experts and insiders from across the globe have been invited to attend. 全球的行业专家和内部人士都受邀出席本次大会。It is the first time that the Light of the Internet Expo will be open to the public. 互联网之光览会也首次对公众开放。Microsoft, IBM, SAP, Alibaba, Tencent, Baidu and over 310 well-known enterprises will attend the expo. 微软、IBM、SAP、阿里巴巴、腾讯、百度以及310多家知名企业都将现身览会。A total of 6,300 multilingual students from 15 universities in Zhejiang province will serve as volunteers in reception centers, main venues, news centers, airports and hotels.来自浙江15所高校的6300名多语种学生在接待中心、主场馆、新闻中心、机场和酒店提供志愿务。;E; means economic benefits.E代表经济收益。Cross-border and rural electricity suppliers, sharing economy, big data, cloud computing, Internet finance and intelligent equipment have become common place in daily life, not to mention information economy is now an important contributor to Chinese GDP.跨境和农村电力供应、分享经济、大数据、云计算、互联网金融以及智能设备已经在日常生活中普及,更不用说,信息经济如今已经是我国国内生产总值的重要组成部分。Innovation-driven development is key to succeeding in the international economy, and innovative Internet development will bring prosperity to the whole world. 创新驱动发展是在全球经济中取得成功的关键,而创新的互联网发展将为整个世界带来繁荣。The Chinese Internet Plus initiative lays the foundation for digital China construction, boosting Internet innovation and bringing untold benefits. 中国的互联网+战略为数字中国建设奠定了基础,促进了互联网创新,还带来了无数利好。The rapid development of the Chinese Internet is set to bring more opportunities to international enterprises and entrepreneurs.中国互联网的快速发展必将为全球的企业和企业家们带来更多机遇。;N; means new future.N代表新的未来。The Wuzhen International Internet Convention Center, a permanent home for the World Internet Conference, was designed by Wang Shu, a professor at the China Academy of Art, winning a Pritzker Architecture Award. 世界互联网大会的永久场馆——乌镇互联网国际会展中心由中国首位普利兹克建筑奖得主、中国美院教授王澍领衔设计。Covering 81,000 square meters and consisting of three functional areas (a conference center, a reception center, and an exhibition center), the venue will meet the needs of the event, including hosting meetings, forums, and exhibitions. 会展中心占地8.1万平方米,由三个功能区组成(会议中心、接待中心以及展览中心),将满足世界互联网大会的所有需求,包括举办会议、论坛和展览。The conference center is composed of a main venue and 18 meeting rooms, while the exhibition center has eight pavilions. 会议中心由一个主场馆和18个会议室组成,展览中心有8个展馆。The interior decoration of the venue meets the standards of most large international conferences with a complete set of facilities, plus fast and reliable Internet services.会展中心的内部装饰达到了举办大型国际会议的标准,设备齐全,网络务快捷稳定。 /201611/478980

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