旅游  |  攻略  |  美食  |  自驾  |  团购
您的位置: 青海省旅游网 / 规划 / 新闻动态 / 青海要闻

上海医博治疗直肠疾病价格飞度养生回答上海男生便秘治疗医院要多少钱

来源:飞度咨询快答    发布时间:2017年12月16日 07:45:01    编辑:admin         

栏目简介:《趣味青春英语视频》是外语网络电台的精品节目,通过大讲堂的网络课堂形式,能够帮助英语学习者积累一些英语背景知识,并通过互动的教学形式,帮助有效记忆英语知识。本栏目是学习趣味青春英语的好材料。201605/431402。

Got to be kidding me where is this guy?这是在开玩笑吧 这家伙在哪?Hi, Im Dr. Steven Strange, master of the mystic arts.你好 我是奇异士斯蒂芬 神秘的艺术大师Sorry Im late, but the traffic.was unbelieveble.Jimmy: Its 3:30.抱歉我迟到了 但是交通太令人难以置信了 已经3:30了You were supposed to 3:00. Im not paying for the last half hour.你之前答应我3:00到 我可不买这迟来半小时的单Nice to meet you too. We just dispense with the small talk. show me the demons.那可真是高兴再次见到你 不必多说 让我看看那些小恶魔Jimmy: All right. Here they are. I dont understand. Are they possessed?好吧 他们在这 真不敢相信 他们着魔了?Basically. They ate, like, 50 cup cakes.基本上是的 他们吃了 像是 50块蛋糕Alright,alright,alright.Ill vanquish them.好吧 好吧 好吧 接下来我来教训他们Hold on holdWhats know? No vanquishing. Pull a rabbit out of somewhere do tricks.打住 你知道吗?不要用这种方式(教训) 就像变戏法一样拉出一个兔子就好A rabbit? Yeah Look I think theres been a misunderstanding. Do tricks. You dont do tricks.一个兔子?是的 我认为这有一个误会 变戏法 你确定不会戏法No Hi! This clearly says the mightiest magician in the cosmos.不 嘿老兄 这上面清楚的写着宇宙中最强的魔术师Everyone exaggerates theirprofile, dont they? Look at yours.大家都夸大了他们的资料了 不是吗?看看你的Jimmy Kimmel, Americas favorite late night host. Watch!吉米·坎莫尔 每个人最爱的深夜主持人 你瞅瞅!Thats true, is it not? Is it? Hi. Thats a cute necklace.如假包换 不是吗?你确定?嘿 那真是一个可爱的项链Is that etsy? Dont touch the eye of agomotto.这是etsy的吗?不要碰阿格多之眼Sorry,you know what,I dont think this is work out .对不起 你知道这事 我可不认为算解决了I think Im going to hire a sponge bob or something.我认为我应该雇佣一个海绵宝宝或别的什么的Thanks you coming. How much? 0. Wait. I have an idea. You suck.还是感谢你的到来 给多少钱?150美元 等会儿 我有一个主意了 你大爷的Next. Happy birthday to you--wheres Marcus? Marcu? Oh,he went home.下一个 #祝你生日快乐# Marcus哪去了?马尔库?噢 他回家了Do you want go home with Marcus? No. Be quite.你想和马尔库一起回家吗?不想 给我老实待着201707/515941。

And the Vale of York Hoard reminds us that these places were also the end-or the beginning-of a huge trade route that around 900 stretched from Scunthorpe to Samarkand.约克郡的宝藏提醒我们,在公元900年前后,这些地方也普是由斯肯索普延伸至撒马尔罕的繁华贸易之路的一端。In the next programme, well be on a different trade route, but one that also links the Middle East and northern Europe.在下一期节目中,我们将沿着一条同样连接中东和欧洲北部截然不同的贸易路线旅行。Well be in Poland, with a Christian saint and a miraculous glass... that turned water into wine.我们将前往波兰,为你带来一个基督教圣徒及一只神奇玻璃杯的故事…它能变水成酒。 译文属201605/442059。

Oh! You look good. Thank you.噢!你看起来真美。谢谢。Hey...So youre the guy taking my little girl out, huh? Yup.嘿...所以你就是要带我女儿出去的小子,是吧?对。You know what, why dont you go ahead and take my new car?你知道吗,你何不开我的新车去?Thanks, Pops! Go ahead, baby!谢啦老爹!去吧,宝贝!Watch this. Boom! Favorite spot, favorite girl.看好啰。中啦!最爱的地点、最爱的女孩。Youre messing with the wrong daddy!你惹错老爸了!Im taking you home. Why?我要带你回家了。为什么?Car Finder on the Hyundai Genesis.现代汽车Genesis搭载的寻找汽车功能。Back so soon?这么快就回来啦?Here you go, sir.给你,先生。Because a dads gotta do what a dads gotta do.因为一个爸爸必须做爸爸该做的事。Honey, whatd you guys do tonight?亲爱的,你们今晚做了什么啊?201612/481220。

Andrew?安德鲁Henry. How are you?亨利 你好吗Fine. Good.很好 那就好The board of managers met yesterday.董事会昨天开过会I was unaware.我不知情The board has decided that its best if Carnegie Steel invoked the provision of their agreement with you.董事会决定卡内基钢铁公司将激活你所签署的协议的相关条款You will have to surrender your interest in the company.你需要交还你在公司的权力You will, of course, receive full compensation at book value.当然 你会收到全部赔偿以帐面值算Carnegie! Carnegie!卡内基 卡内基As Carnegie struggles to repair his broken empire,J.P. Morgan continues to target failing companies,working alongside his legendary father.在卡内基努力修复破损帝国的同时 J·P·根继续以失败公司为目标 同他传奇般的父亲并肩作战Junius Morgan is the founder of one of the worlds first modern investment banks,a financial empire that will come to be known as the House of Morgan.朱尼厄斯·根是世界上最早一批现代投行的创始人之一 这个金融帝国后来被称作根财团201605/442365。

For me,survival is all about self-help.对我而言 荒野求生的全部含义就是独立自助Fighting a way through the environment,untill yo find a way out.与环境不断搏斗 直到找到出路Rivers provide a fast route through train,河流在训练中提供了一条捷径but also found many occasions following them to be risked,especially underground.但是依然会遇到很多状况 等着人们前去冒险 尤其是在地下世界The roof of the cave is getting lower,and the river sees to be flowing underneath the rock.这个洞穴的顶部走势越来越低 河水似乎开始流向了岩石下面See how it stands.yeah, this is... this definitely,this tunnel extends on.看看它是怎么流的 是的 这个 这个肯定 绝对有坑洞向前延伸To follow the tunnel.I gonna have to swim under this near freezing water.为了跟着这条隧道 我必须潜到这冷的快要结冰的水下Ok, just back up.Im going first to check it out brfore the crew follows.好了 往后退点 我要在摄制组跟上来之前潜下去探探路You guys just stay here,get the rope,get it’s taken,伙计们 你们待在这儿 拿着绳索 抓紧绳索Im to go alone below way under there,and if its not good,我要自己潜到下面的隧道里 要是情况不好Ill pull myself back along this, ok?我会用这绳子把自己拉上来 明白了么You just wait for me.Some dives are dangerous.你们在这等我 某些下潜 是危险的Bear we only have about twenty-five seconds to actually swim...through the sum.贝尔大概只有二十五秒 .Here we go.One, two...You can hear a pin drop when he went.准备下潜 一 二 他下水之后你能听见针掉地上的声音You can imagine how that feeling of being underneath theres no way to surface,你能想象在水下不见天日是什么感觉because its just solid rock above your head.We all held a heart in our month really.因为你脑袋上面只有坚硬的岩石 我们的心都提到嗓子眼了You might suspect, you think he goes foot caught,you think his hand caught or something.你会胡思乱想 你以为他的脚被缠住了 手被缠住了什么的Finally comes bursing back up.Theres a good size...theres a good size air pocket down there.最后他冲出水面 下面有一个很大的... 很大的气潭He says right, maybe we can get through there.他说一切正常 我们或许可以通过那里And I followed him down,but it was definitely...definitely hard, some moment我跟着他潜下去了 不过这真是难熬的时刻201606/447687。

栏目简介:《趣味科普英语视频》有着浓厚的趣味性,能够增加英语学习爱好者对英语科普知识的兴趣,从而更加开心快乐地学习英语知识,建立起英语学习的基础,为以后学习更多的英语知识奠基,快来边看视频边涨姿势吧!201604/438292。

Im here to tell you about the real search for alien life.我想告诉你们一些针对外星生命所展开的真实的探索行动。Not little green humanoids arriving in shiny UFOs, although that would be nice.不过不是那些通过UFO抵达这里的绿色小人儿,当然这样很不错。But its the search for planets orbiting stars far away.而是关于寻找外太空围绕恒星运行的行星。Every star in our sky is a sun.我们天空中的每一颗恒星都是太阳。And if our sun has planets -- Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, etc.,如果说太阳有围绕它的行星--水星,金星,地球,火星,等等,surely those other stars should have planets also, and they do.当然其他的恒星周围也应该有行星,而且它们的确有。And in the last two decades, astronomers have found thousands of exoplanets.在过去的20多年中,天文学家已经找到了数千个系外行星。Our night sky is literally teeming with exoplanets.我们的夜空的确遍布着系外行星。We know, statistically speaking, that every star has at least one planet.从统计学的角度来说,我们知道每一个恒星都拥有至少一颗行星。And in the search for planets, and in the future, planets that might be like Earth,在搜索行星的过程中,在未来搜索像地球这样的行星,were able to help address some of the most amazing and mysterious questions that have faced humankind for centuries.可以帮助我们回答一些最不可思议又充满神秘的问题,这些问题已经困扰了全人类几个世纪。Why are we here? Why does our universe exist? How did Earth form and evolve?我们为什么会存在?为什么我们的宇宙会存在?地球是如何形成和演化的?How and why did life originate and populate our planet?生命如何以及为什么会诞生并在这个星球上繁衍?The second question that we often think about is: Are we alone?我们经常思考的第二个问题是:我们是唯一存在的生命吗?Is there life out there? Who is out there?外太空中还有其他生命吗?其他生命是什么样子呢?You know, this question has been around for thousands of years, since at least the time of the Greek philosophers.这个问题已经存在了几千年,至少在古希腊哲学家的时代就已经存在了。But Im here to tell you just how close were getting to finding out the answer to this question.但是我今天想要告诉你们,我们已经非常接近这个问题的了。Its the first time in human history that this really is within reach for us.这是人类历史上第一次对这个触手可及。Now when I think about the possibilities for life out there, I think of the fact that our sun is but one of many stars.当我想到外太空存在生命的可能性,我就想到了我们的太阳只是若干恒星中的一颗。This is a photograph of a real galaxy, we think our Milky Way looks like this galaxy.这是一个真实的星系的照片,我们认为我们的系差不多就是这一个样子。Its a collection of bound stars.其中聚集了很多彼此紧密联系的恒星。But our is one of hundreds of billions of stars and our galaxy is one of upwards of hundreds of billions of galaxies.但我们的太阳只是千亿颗恒星中的一颗,我们的系也是千亿个星系中的一个。Knowing that small planets are very common, you can just do the math.小行星更是不计其数,可以做一下粗略的计算。And there are just so many stars and so many planets out there, that surely, there must be life somewhere out there.宇宙中的星球真的是太多太多了,一定还会有其他生命存在。Well, the biologists get furious with me for saying that, because we have absolutely no evidence for life beyond Earth yet.不过生物学家们极其不赞同这种说法,因为我们毕竟还没有任何相关的据。Well, if we were able to look at our galaxy from the outside and zoom in to where our sun is, we see a real map of the stars.假设能够从外太空观测我们所在的星系,并聚焦到太阳,我们就会看到一幅恒星的分布图。And the highlighted stars are those with known exoplanets. This is really just the tip of the iceberg.那些被突出标注的恒星都有已知的系外行星。这张图展现的仅仅是冰山一角而已。Here, this animation is zooming in onto our solar system.这个动画突出展示了我们的太阳系。And youll see here the planets as well as some spacecraft that are also orbiting our sun.你们可以看到一些行星和宇宙飞船,它们都在围绕着我们的太阳运行。Now if we can imagine going to the West Coast of North America,假设我们在北美洲的西海岸仰望夜空,and looking out at the night sky, heres what wed see on a spring night.这就是我们在一个春季的夜晚能够看到的景象。And you can see the constellations overlaid and again, so many stars with planets.你们可以看到星座的交替,还有很多带有行星的恒星。Theres a special patch of the sky where we have thousands of planets.天空里有一个区域密布着数千颗行星。This is where the Kepler Space Telescope focused for many years.开普勒太空望远镜在这里聚焦了很多年。Lets zoom in and look at one of the favorite exoplanets.我们再继续放大,看一下其中一个比较有名的系外行星。This star is called Kepler-186f. Its a system of about five planets.这颗行星叫开普勒-186f。这个系统中有大约5个行星。And by the way, most of these exoplanets, we dont know too much about.这里要提一下,这其中大多数的系外行星我们都不太了解。We know their size, and their orbit and things like that.我们只知道它们的大小,轨道之类的信息。But theres a very special planet here called Kepler-186f.不过开普勒-186f非常特殊。This planet is in a zone that is not too far from the star, so that the temperature may be just right for life.它处在一个距离恒星并不太远的区域内,这就意味着那里的温度可能非常适宜物种生存。Here, the artists conception is just zooming in and showing you what that planet might be like.这里我们强化了艺术效果,想要给大家展示一下这个行星可能的形貌。So, many people have this romantic notion of astronomers going to the telescope on a lonely mountaintop或许很多人都会带着一种浪漫的想象,觉得天文学家们都是在孤寂的山顶,and looking at the spectacular night sky through a big telescope.通过巨大的望远镜来观察绚丽多的夜空的。But actually, we just work on our computers like everyone else,不过事实上,我们只是在计算机上操作,跟其他人没什么两样,and we get our data by email or downloading from a database.我们通过邮件或者数据库下载数据。So instead of coming here to tell you about the somewhat tedious nature of the data and data analysis所以,与其说我是来告诉大家数据本身和数据分析有多么枯燥,and the complex computer models we make,我们的计算机模型有多么复杂,I have a different way to try to explain to you some of the things that were thinking about exoplanets.不如说我想以一种不同的方式给大家展示我们对系外行星的一些看法和思考。Heres a travel poster: ;Kepler-186f: Where the grass is always redder on the other side.;这里有一张旅行海报:“开普勒-186f:一边的草总是比另一边更红。”Thats because Kepler-186f orbits a red star, and were just speculating that perhaps the plants there,这是因为开普勒-186f围绕着一颗红色的恒星运行,我们只是猜测那上面的植物,if there is vegetation that does photosynthesis, it has different pigments and looks red.假设有可以进行光合作用的植物,那些植物就会含有不同的色素,让它们看起来是红色。;Enjoy the gravity on HD 40307g, a Super-Earth.;“享受HD 40307g上面的重力吧,这里是超级地球。”This planet is more massive than Earth and has a higher surface gravity.这颗行星比地球的质量要大,拥有更大的表面重力。;Relax on Kepler-16b, where your shadow always has company.;“来开普勒-16b上放松一下吧,你的影子永远不会孤单。”We know of a dozen planets that orbit two stars, and theres likely many more out there.据我们所知,有数十个行星都是围绕着两颗恒星运行,估计还会有更多。If we could visit one of those planets, you literally would see two sunsets and have two shadows.如果我们可以探访其中一颗行星,你确实可以看到两次日落,并同时形成两个影子。So actually, science fiction got some things right. Tatooine from Star Wars.事实上,科幻小说中的一些描述是正确的。比如《星球大战》中的塔图因。And I have a couple of other favorite exoplanets to tell you about.还有一些其他的系外星球,我也想给大家介绍一下。This one is Kepler-10b, its a hot, hot planet.这个叫做开普勒-10b,它的温度极高。It orbits over 50 times closer to its star than our Earth does to our sun.它的运行轨道距离其围绕的恒星只有地球和太阳距离的五十分之一。And actually, its so hot, we cant visit any of these planets, but if we could, we would melt long before we got there.正是因为它的温度太高,我们无法探访任何这样的行星,即便我们试图接近它,在到达那里之前也早就熔化了。We think the surface is hot enough to melt rock and has liquid lava lakes.我们认为它的地表温度足够熔化岩石,能够形成液态的岩浆湖。Gliese 1214b. This planet, we know the mass and the size and it has a fairly low density. Its somewhat warm.格利泽1214b。我们已经知道了这颗行星的质量和体积,它的密度比较低,温度也不算太高。We actually dont know really anything about this planet, but one possibility is that its a water world,但我们对它的了解也仅限于此,不过它上面可能有水存在,like a scaled-up version of one of Jupiters icy moons that might be 50 percent water by mass.有点像木星的一颗放大版的遍布冰雪的卫星,其水含量可能占据了质量的50%。And in this case, it would have a thick steam atmosphere overlaying an ocean,在这种情况下,它就有可能覆盖了一层很厚的蒸汽大气层,就在海洋的上空,not of liquid water, but of an exotic form of water, a superfluid -- not quite a gas, not quite a liquid.不过海里不是液态水,而是一种奇特状态的水,一种超流体--不算是气体,也不算是液体。And under that wouldnt be rock, but a form of high-pressure ice, like ice IX.其下遍布的也不是岩石,而是一种高压状态的冰,类似于冰IX。So out of all these planets out there, and the variety is just simply astonishing,除了这些多样性已经让我们感到惊讶的行星以外,we mostly want to find the planets that are Goldilocks planets, we call them.我们最想找到的是我们称作“古迪洛克行星”的星球。Not too big, not too small, not too hot, not too cold -- but just right for life.体积不大不小,温度不高不低--刚刚好适宜物种生存。But to do that, wed have to be able to look at the planets atmosphere,不过要做到这一点,我们需要能够检测到这个行星的大气层,because the atmosphere acts like a blanket trapping heat -- the greenhouse effect.因为大气层就像一块保温毯--具有温室效应。We have to be able to assess the greenhouse gases on other planets.我们需要监测到其他行星上的温室气体。Well, science fiction got some things wrong.从这一点来说,科幻小说就显得不那么真实了。The Star Trek Enterprise had to travel vast distances at incredible speeds to orbit other planets《进取号》 需要以极高速度旅行很长的距离到达其它行星并环绕飞行,so that First Officer Spock could analyze the atmosphere to see if the planet was habitable or if there were lifeforms there.这样史波克大副才能分析大气层的成分,从而判断该行星是否适宜居住,或者那上面是否有生命存活。Well, we dont need to travel at warp speeds to see other planet atmospheres,不过我们并不需要以极限高速行驶来获取其他行星上的大气数据,although I dont want to dissuade any budding engineers from figuring out how to do that.当然我并不想打击那些跃跃欲试想要实现这项工作的工程师们的积极性。We actually can and do study planet atmospheres from here, from Earth orbit.我们其实可以直接在地球的轨道范围内研究那些大气层。This is a picture, a photograph of the Hubble Space Telescope taken by the shuttle Atlantis这是一张由亚特兰蒂斯航天飞机拍摄的哈勃太空望远镜的照片,as it was departing after the last human space flight to Hubble.这架航天飞机出发时,最后一次前往哈勃的载人太空飞行已经完成。They installed a new camera, actually, that we use for exoplanet atmospheres.他们在飞机上安装了一个新的照相机,可以采集系外行星的大气数据。And so far, weve been able to study dozens of exoplanet atmospheres, about six of them in great detail.目前,我们已经能够研究数十个系外行星的大气层,其中有6个我们可以得到非常详细的数据。But those are not small planets like Earth. Theyre big, hot planets that are easy to see.不过那些都不是像地球这样的小行星。它们非常庞大,温度很高,很容易观测到。Were not y, we dont have the right technology yet to study small exoplanets.我们还没准备好,还不具备研究小型系外星球的技术。But nevertheless, I wanted to try to explain to you how we study exoplanet atmospheres.不过尽管如此,我还是想跟大家解释一下我们是 如何研究系外行星大气的。I want you to imagine, for a moment, a rainbow.大家可以想象一下虹。And if we could look at this rainbow closely, we would see that some dark lines are missing.如果我们可以近距离观察虹,就能发现一些暗色的线缺失了。And heres our sun, the white light of our sun split up, not by raindrops, but by a spectrograph.这是我们的太阳,白色的光被分解了,不是被雨滴,而是被光谱仪分解了。And you can see all these dark, vertical lines. Some are very narrow, some are wide, some are shaded at the edges.我们可以看到所有这些暗色的竖线。有的很窄,有的很宽,有的边缘很模糊。And this is actually how astronomers have studied objects in the heavens, literally, for over a century.这实际上就是过去的一个多世纪以来,宇航员们研究太空物质的方式。So here, each different atom and molecule has a special set of lines, a fingerprint, if you will.在这张图中,每种原子和分子都有一组特殊的谱线,你们可以把它当做一种指纹信息。And thats how we study exoplanet atmospheres.我们就是利用这些信息研究系外行星的大气成分的。And Ill just never forget when I started working on exoplanet atmospheres 20 years ago, how many people told me,我永远也忘不了在20年前刚刚开始研究系外行星大气的时候,多少人告诉我,;This will never happen. Well never be able to study them. Why are you bothering?;“这根本行不通。我们永远也不可能做到。干嘛白费功夫呢?”And thats why Im pleased to tell you about all the atmospheres studied now, and this is really a field of its own.这也是为什么我很高兴的告诉你们目前所有的关于大气的研究,已经完全自成体系了。So when it comes to other planets, other Earths, in the future when we can observe them,那么对于那些在将来我们可以观测到的其他行星,那些类地行星,what kind of gases would we be looking for?我们需要寻找哪些气体呢?Well, you know, our own Earth has oxygen in the atmosphere to 20 percent by volume. Thats a lot of oxygen.大家都知道,我们地球上的大气含有20%体积的氧气。这个含量是很高的。But without plants and photosynthetic life, there would be no oxygen, virtually no oxygen in our atmosphere.不过没有植物和其它光合生物,大气中就不会有氧气,事实上连一丁点儿都不会有。So oxygen is here because of life.所以氧气的出现是因为生命的存在。And our goal then is to look for gases in other planet atmospheres, gases that dont belong,所以我们的目标就是要找到其他行星的大气中原本并不应该存在的气体,that we might be able to attribute to life. But which molecules should we search for?或许可以归功于生命的存在。那么哪些分子是我们需要寻找的呢?I actually told you how diverse exoplanets are. We expect that to continue in the future when we find other Earths.我已经告诉过你们系外行星的种类有多么繁杂了。在我们寻找类地行星的过程中,一定还会有更多种类的外行星出现。And thats one of the main things Im working on now, I have a theory about this.这就是我目前正在从事的主要工作之一,对此我有一番自己的理论。It reminds me that nearly every day,这倒是提醒我了,几乎每天,I receive an email or emails from someone with a crazy theory about physics of gravity or cosmology or some such.我都会收到一封或者很多封电子邮件,发件人都对重力或者宇宙物理学提出了自己疯狂的理论。So, please dont email me one of your crazy theories.不过,在此还是想提醒大家,请不要再给我发这种邮件了。Well, I had my own crazy theory. But, who does the MIT professor go to?我有一套自己的疯狂理论。那么麻省理工的教授要跟谁探讨呢?Well, I emailed a Nobel Laureate in Physiology or Medicine and he said, ;Sure, come and talk to me.;我曾经给一名诺贝尔生理学或医学的获奖者发过邮件,他说,“听上去还不错,过来我们讨论一下吧。”So I brought my two biochemistry friends and we went to talk to him about our crazy theory.于是我就带上了两个生物化学领域的朋友,跟他介绍了一下我们的疯狂理论。And that theory was that life produces all small molecules, so many molecules.那个理论就是,生命制造了所有的小分子,不计其数的小分子。Like, everything I could think of, but not being a chemist.几乎是作为一个非化学领域专家,我能想到的所有分子。Think about it: carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, molecular hydrogen, molecular nitrogen, methane, methyl chloride -- so many gases.比方说:二氧化碳,一氧化碳,氢分子,氮分子,甲烷,氯甲烷--太多太多了。They also exist for other reasons, but just life even produces ozone.它们之所以存在也有很多其他的原因,不过单单是生命,甚至就可以产生臭氧。So we go to talk to him about this, and immediately, he shot down the theory. He found an example that didnt exist.于是我们去跟他讨论了这套观点,结果很快就被他否决了。他找到了一个并不存在的气体的例子。So, we went back to the drawing board and we think we have found something very interesting in another field.于是我们只好回去继续推导,我们认为我们已经找到了一些在其他领域中很有意思的东西。But back to exoplanets, the point is that life produces so many different types of gases, literally thousands of gases.回到系外行星这个话题,重点是生命制造了这么多种气体,差不多几千种。And so what were doing now is just trying to figure out on which types of exoplanets, which gases could be attributed to life.我们现在的任务就是试图找出哪些种类的系外行星上的哪些气体可能是由生命制造出来的。And so when it comes time when we find gases in exoplanet atmospheres所以当我们在系外行星的大气中找到了那些气体,that we wont know if theyre being produced by intelligent aliens or by trees,我们很难确定这些气体是怎么来的,是由外星人制造的,还是来自树木,or a swamp, or even just by simple, single-celled microbial life.或者沼泽地,或者仅仅是来源于简单的单细胞生物。So working on the models and thinking about biochemistry, its all well and good.所以建立一些模型,应用一些生物化学的知识,我们就会得到我们想要的。But a really big challenge ahead of us is: how? How are we going to find these planets?那么在实际过程中面临的最大挑战就是:要怎么做?要怎么找到这些行星?There are actually many ways to find planets, several different ways.其实可以通过很多方式来寻找,各种不同的方式。But the one that Im most focused on is how can we open a gateway so that in the future, we can find hundreds of Earths.不过我重点在研究的是要如何实现这样一个途径,在未来可以让我们找到数百个类地行星。We have a real shot at finding signs of life.我们事实上已经开始行动了。And actually, I just finished leading a two-year project in this very special phase of a concept we call the starshade.我刚刚完成了一个由我负责的两年项目,在这个特殊的项目中,我们提出了”遮星板“的概念。And the starshade is a very specially shaped screen and the goal is to fly that starshade遮星板是一个形状非常特殊的屏障,我们想要将它送入太空,遮挡恒星的光线,so it blocks out the light of a star so that the telescope can see the planets directly.这样就可以通过望远镜直接观测那些行星了。Here, you can see myself and two team members holding up one small part of the starshade.这张图上你们可以看到我和两名项目成员,正在展示遮星板的一块很小的局部。Its shaped like a giant flower, and this is one of the prototype petals.它的形状就像一个巨大的花朵,这是一片花瓣的雏形。The concept is that a starshade and telescope could launch together, with the petals unfurling from the stowed position.这个过程就是把遮星板和望远镜一同送入太空,遮星板的花瓣会从运载器上打开。The central truss would expand, with the petals snapping into place.中心的桁架会展开,花瓣也会迅速延展到位。Now, this has to be made very precisely, literally, the petals to microns and they have to deploy to millimeters.这个过程需要做到非常精准,也就是说花瓣的精度要达到微米级,定位的精准度要达到毫米级。And this whole structure would have to fly tens of thousands of kilometers away from the telescope.这一整个部件需要移动至距离望远镜数万公里的距离。Its about tens of meters in diameter.它的直径大概有几十米。And the goal is to block out the starlight to incredible precision so that wed be able to see the planets directly.它能够以难以置信的精度实现对恒星光线的遮挡,这样我们就能直接观测行星了。And it has to be a very special shape, because of the physics of defraction.它的形状必须十分特殊,这是由物理学中的衍射现象决定的。Now this is a real project that we worked on, literally, you would not believe how hard.这是我们从事的一项实际的项目,说真的,你们想象不出这有多难。Just so you believe its not just in movie format,为了明这并不只是一种假想,heres a real photograph of a second-generation starshade deployment test bed in the lab.给你们展示一个真实的照片,这是实验室中的第二代遮星板调试试验台。And in this case, I just wanted you to know that that central truss has heritage left over from large radio deployables in space.在这个项目中,我只是想让你们知道中心桁架装有太空大范围无线电部署的一部分。So after all of that hard work where we try to think of all the crazy gases that might be out there,那么,在这一系列我们试图寻找那些外行星中的神秘气体,and we build the very complicated space telescopes that might be out there, what are we going to find?以及建造了极其复杂的太空望远镜之类的艰难任务之后,我们会有什么收获呢?Well, in the best case, we will find an image of another exo-Earth. Here is Earth as a pale blue dot.最好的情况是,我们会获得另一个类地行星的图像。这张图上的地球是一个淡蓝色的小点。And this is actually a real photograph of Earth taken by the Voyager 1 spacecraft, four billion miles away.这是一张地球的真实照片,由旅行者1号航天飞机从40亿英里外的距离拍摄的。And that red light is just scattered light in the camera optics.那条红色的光线只是相机的 光学部件散射出的光。But whats so awesome to consider is that if there are intelligent aliens orbiting on a planet around a star near to us想象一下,如果存在着高智慧的外星生物,正绕着我们附近恒星的行星运转,and they build complicated space telescopes of the kind that were trying to build,它们搭建出了我们正在建造的复杂的太空望远镜,all theyll see is this pale blue dot, a pinprick of light.它们能看到的也仅仅是一个淡蓝色的小点,极其微小的光点,这该有多酷啊!And so sometimes, when I pause to think about my professional struggle and huge ambition,有时候,当我停下来思考我所面临的难题和我远大的理想,its hard to think about that in contrast to the vastness of the universe.这跟浩瀚的宇宙相比真的不算什么。But nonetheless, I am devoting the rest of my life to finding another Earth.不过尽管如此,我还是打算奉献我的一生来寻找另一个地球。And I can guarantee that in the next generation of space telescopes, in the second generation,而且我可以保,用下一代的太空望远镜,也就是第二代,we will have the capability to find and identity other Earths.我们将会有能力找到并识别出其他的类地行星。And the capability to split up the starlight so that we can look for gases我们也将能够分解恒星发出的光线,能够找到那些气体,and assess the greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, estimate the surface temperature, and look for signs of life.获得那些大气中的温室气体成分信息,估算星球表面的温度,并寻找生命的迹象。But theres more. In this case of searching for other planets like Earth,不过我们还有更长远的打算。在寻找其他类地行星的同时,we are making a new kind of map of the nearby stars and of the planets orbiting them, including that actually might be inhabitable by humans.我们还在制作一幅展示附近恒星及其行星的新太空地图,包括有可能适宜人类居住的行星。And so I envision that our descendants, hundreds of years from now, will embark on an interstellar journey to other worlds.我能够想像我们的后代,在几百年之后,能够通过星际旅行到达其他的星球。And they will look back at all of us as the generation who first found the Earth-like worlds. Thank you.他们能够回首我们这一代,第一个发现类地新世界的一代。谢谢大家。And I give you, for a question, Rosetta Mission Manager Fred Jansen.你先来提问吧,有请罗塞塔任务的负责人,Fred Jansen。You mentioned halfway through that the technology to actually look at the spectrum of an exoplanet like Earth is not there yet.你部分提到了可以分析类地行星光谱的技术还尚未实现。When do you expect this will be there, and whats needed?你认为什么时候可以实现,要如何实现呢?Actually, what we expect is what we call our next-generation Hubble telescope.事实上,我们打算依靠下一代的哈勃望远镜。And this is called the James Webb Space Telescope, and that will launch in 2018,我们叫它詹姆斯·韦伯太空望远镜,会在2018年把它送上太空,and thats what were going to do, were going to look at a special kind of planet called transient exoplanets,整个计划大概是这样的,我们会观测一种特殊的行星,叫做过渡系外行星,and that will be our first shot at studying small planets for gases that might indicate the planet is habitable.那将是我们研究小行星上可能预示着生命迹象的气体的第一次尝试。Im going to ask you one follow-up question, too, Sara, as the generalist.莎拉,我还有个大众一点的问题要问一下你。So I am really struck by the notion in your career of the opposition you faced,我真的对你的职业生涯中所面临的反对声音感到很震惊,that when you began thinking about exoplanets,也就是当你开始思考系外行星,there was extreme skepticism in the scientific community that they existed, and you proved them wrong.科学领域对它们是否存在持有极端怀疑的态度,你明了他们是错的。What did it take to take that on?你是如何承受这些的呢?Well, the thing is that as scientists, were supposed to be skeptical,作为科学家,我们理应持怀疑态度,because our job to make sure that what the other person is saying actually makes sense or not.因为我们的工作就是要确认其他人的观点是否是合理的。But being a scientist, I think youve seen it from this session, its like being an explorer.但是作为一名科学家,我觉得你们可能已经在这段演讲中看到,我的职责更像是探索者。You have this immense curiosity, this stubbornness, this sort of resolute will that you will go forward no matter what other people say.这需要极大的好奇心,固执,还需要坚定不移的意志,无论其他人说什么,都不能动摇。I love that. Thank you, Sara.说的太好了。非常感谢你,莎拉。201706/513809。

Just fifty years removed from the ashes of the Civil War, America has become a global super power.从南北战争的废墟中走出后 美国仅在五十年间已成为一个全球性的超级强国By April of nineteen seventeen, the country enters the war sending troops, supplies and weapons.一九一七年四月 美国加入战争 提供军队 物资及武器等资源Resources that will help bring peace to the world.帮助世界带来了和平But those resources would have never been possible without the contributions of a small group of visionary men.但是这些资源 离开了一小群有远见的人的贡献是不可能的Men who sparked a revolution that forever changed America.他们引发了一场革命 从而永远改变了美国America was transformed by the vision, the incredible hard work and determination, and the willingness to take big risks that these men display.美国的变化靠的是他们表现出的远见卓识 艰苦卓绝的努力 坚定的决心 以及承担巨大风险的意愿There is also no question that these men could not have done what they did anywhere else but America, because this place allows more people to dream than any other place in the world.同样毫无疑问 要不是在美国 这些人也不能取得如此成就 因为这里比世界上任何其他地方 允许更多的人去追求梦想All that matters is how big do you want to dream and how hard do you want to work关键的是你的梦想有多远大 以及愿意付出的努力From a broken country into the most powerful nation on Earth, they didnt discover this modern America, they built it.从离破碎到世界最强 现代化的美国不是他们发现的 是他们建造的201608/457598。