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2018年07月16日 08:39:55    日报  参与评论()人

花都做不孕检查去哪好广州做复扎费用多少Science and technology科学技术The first case of ursine tool use第一只会用工具的熊Ready for my close-up, Dr DeeckeDeecke士,准备给我来张特写吧PRIMATES apart, few mammals employ tools.除了灵长类动物,会使用工具的哺乳类动物屈指可数。Sea otters use rocks to smash clams open,海獭会在石头上砸开蛤蜊;dolphins wrap sponges around their noses to protect themselves while they forage on the seabed,海豚在海床上觅食时,会将海绵绑在鼻子上以保护自身;elephants swat insects with branches and humpback whales exhale curtains of bubbles to trap schools of fish.大象会用树枝拍打昆虫;驼背鲸会呼出阵阵气泡来困住鱼群。Until now, these four examples had been thought the extent of the non-primate mammalian tool-users club.至今,人们仍认为非灵长类动物中只有这四种会使用工具。But a study just published in Animal Cognition, by Volker Deecke of the University of St Andrews, in Britain, has added a fifth and rather surprising one.但英国圣安德鲁大学的Volker Deecke在《动物认知》上刚发表的研究指出了第五种会用工具的动物,而且是令人相当意外的一种。That epitome of rugged wildness, the grizzly bear, seems to be the only species other than humans to have invented the comb.粗犷野性的象征—灰熊,看来是除了人类以外唯一一种发明了梳子的动物。Dr Deecke made this discovery while studying grizzly-bear behaviour from a small boat in Glacier Bay National Park, Alaska, on July 22nd 2010.这一点是Deecke士于2010年7月22日在阿拉斯加冰河湾国家公园一艘小船上研究灰熊习性时发现的。After a period of play-fighting with another bear and a short bout of feeding on a beached whale carcass, a bear of between three and five years of age, sex unknown, waded into the shallows of the bay.一只灰熊在与另一只熊打闹了一阵并吃了一点被冲到沙滩上的鲸鱼尸体后,涉水来到了海湾的浅滩中。Once there, it picked up a fist-sized rock and carefully rotated it for about a minute before dropping it back into the water.在那,它捡起了一块拳头大的石头,小心翼翼地旋转了约一分钟后,将其扔回水中。Moments later, it picked up another, of similar size, and again rotated it.片刻之后,它又捡起了另一块差不多大小的石头旋转起来。This time, rather than discarding the stone, it held it against its muzzle and started to rub.但这次它没扔掉石头,反而把石头放到口鼻处开始来回磨蹭。Using its left paw to press the rock against its skin and its right paw to support the rocks weight, the bear rubbed away at its muzzle and face for roughly a minute before dropping the stone back into the water.那只熊用左掌将石头按在皮肤上,用右掌托着石头,将石头在口鼻和脸上蹭了大约一分钟后才将石头扔回水里。Then it grabbed a third stone of the same size, rotated it and rubbed its face, muzzle and neck for a further two minutes before discarding it.然后,它捡起第三块同样大小的石头并在旋转后用来磨蹭脸、口鼻和脖子将近两分钟后将其扔掉。This done, it spent two minutes grooming its right paw with its teeth before returning to the whale carcass.做完这些后,它又花了两分钟用牙齿来梳理右掌的毛,之后便回到鲸鱼尸体处。Dr Deecke found, upon close examination of his photographs, that all three rocks were encrusted with barnacles and he reckons these were acting as the functional equivalent of the teeth of a comb.士Deecke在仔细研究所拍照片后发现,那三块石头上都粘有藤壶,而他认为这些藤壶的功能梳齿一样。He thinks the bear was probably using its makeshift combs for comfort, rather than vanity.Deecke士认为,那只熊自制梳子可能是想让自己舒,而不是为了美观。But crucially for the concept of tool-use, the animals rejection of the first rock it picked up shows a discriminating understanding of what was required to get the right amount of scratching from a comb;但是,那只熊没有用它捡到的第一块石头,这说明它有能力判断子什么样的梳子才好用;which rock, in other words, was the tool for the job.换言之,就是哪块石头可以拿来当梳子。这一点对判断动物是否会使用工具至关重要。An important question from a biological point of view is whether this animals behaviour is unique.在此,有一个很重要的生物学问题:是不是只有这一只熊会使用工具?Other tool-using mammals are social species.其他会使用工具的哺乳类动物都是群居动物,That means one individuals chance invention is easily copied by others of its group, resulting in a primitive culture.也就是说个体偶然的发明很容易被群体里的其他成员模仿,从而形成原始的文化。Grizzly bears have not been considered particularly sociable in the past, but if others in Glacier Bay are seen combing themselves in this way that view might have to change.过去,人们并不认为灰熊具有明显的群居特征,但如果冰河湾有其他灰熊被发现使用这种方法梳理毛发,那上述观点就可能会被推翻。It might, though, be that Dr Deeckes preening animal is unique.不过,也有可能只是Deecke士看到的那只梳理毛发的熊比较特别罢了。That would suggest it came up with the idea of using rocks as combs by itself, rather than copying someone else—truly smarter than the average bear.那就意味着这只熊拿石头当梳子是自己的原创,并非模仿——果然是只特别聪明的熊。 /201307/246985广州白云无痛流产手术 Business商业报道Advertising to the super-rich掘金超级富豪Posters for plutocrats为财阀们量身打造的海报How to sell more stuff to those who want for nothing如何向什么都不缺的人销售更多的东西If you doubt that the rich are different from you and me, try visiting a private-jet terminal.如果你怀疑有钱人不同于你我,你可以去一个私人飞机候机厅看看。One group waiting to board at Farnborough airport near London recently was a family of three generations and five dogs,最近一家祖孙三代人和五只宠物在伦敦附近的范堡罗机场等待登机,who would enjoy more in-flight pampering than any economy-class passenger could hope for.他们在飞机上享受到的务超越了任何一个经济舱旅客的想象。Passengers do not linger long:他们等待登机的时间并不长:15 minutes or so before boarding.大概也就15分钟。There are no duty-free shops.机场里没有任何免税商店。But it would be a pity not to tap into these travellersdeep pockets as they pause between limo and aircraft:但是没能在这些富豪走出轿车和登上飞机的间隙时间中,好好利用这段商机,还是挺可惜的:if you cannot sell, at least you can market.如果你卖不出去东西,至少你可以进行营销嘛。That is the ambition of Adlux, a Swiss firm that runs ads in private-jet terminals,这也正是瑞士公司Adlux的志趣所在。Adlux在私人飞机起始站做广告,perhaps the most rarefied form of out-of-home advertising, a category that includes billboards and bus-shelter posters.可能这是户外广告中最少见的一种形式,相比较而言,户外广告牌和公车站的海报倒是比较常见。The richest 0.5% of the world population owns half the wealth, its brochure cheerfully notes, and 1m people fly by private jet each month.公司的宣传册上写道:世界上最富裕的人只占总人口的0.5%,但是却拥有世界一半的财富,而且每个月乘坐私人飞机的人达到100万。Before boarding they are in a completely captive environment with few distractions, says Lisa Rokny, an Adlux executive.公司经理Lisa Rokny说,这些人在登机之前都是绝佳的买主,并且这种时候他们往往都无事可做。Mounted above the coffee station in Farnborough, a screen shows a silent .范堡罗机场一家咖啡店上方有一个大屏幕,一直播放着一段消声视频。Pastimes that the rich are presumed to enjoy are interspersed with ads for things they might buy.富豪们可能喜欢的消遣活动中不时穿插着一些广告,宣传的都是一些他们可能会买的东西,比如奢侈手表和私人务等。Adluxs loops, illuminated posters and product placements appear in 83 terminals worldwide.世界上83个私人飞机航站楼都有Adlux的循环视频、霓虹展板和植入式广告。Clients pay 60,000-70,000 for a four-week campaign at ten fixed-base operators,facilities that handle non-scheduled flights.一场在十个固定运营商举办的为期四周的广告,就收入了6-7万欧元。Business-jet travel in the rich world took a knock in the recession and has yet to recover.在富人世界里,商务飞行在经济危机中遭受打击,至今仍未恢复。But emerging economies are minting new jet-setters.不过新兴经济体正在打造新一代的富豪阶级。Indias business-jet fleet has grown from about 25 in 2005 to over 150 last year.印度的商务客机数量已经从2005年的25架上升到去年的150多架。Moscows Vnukovo airport is Europes busiest for international flights by larger private planes.莫斯科的伏努科沃机场是欧洲范围内大型私人飞机国际航班最繁忙的机场。The pitchmanship adjusts to plutocratsmigration patterns.销售模式随着富豪们的出行模式而进行调整。The middle-aged men who flock to Davos in January are receptive to cars and banking services.那些在一月份搭乘苏黎世基地航班而群聚达沃斯的中年男子们,对汽车和务都乐于接受。Ads for yachts ran in Nice during the Monaco motor-racing Grand Prix.在纳哥托车锦标赛期间,有关游艇的广告在尼斯持续播出。Passengers watch the s for 12 minutes on average, claims Ms Rokny, though the dog-owners did not seem quite so riveted.Rokny表示,乘客们平均观看视频的时间在12分钟左右,虽然那些富豪看得并不认真。This is a slightly old-fashioned approach to seducing the super-rich; experiences are a newer way.这种吸引超级富豪的方式稍稍有点老套了,顾客体验则是一种更加新式的方法。Samsung launched its Bluehouse Club for gadget-loving moneybags with a dinner for 60 at Annabels, a London club.三星推出的青瓦台俱乐部就是针对那些有钱的小电子迷,在伦敦Annabel俱乐部组织60个人的晚餐。A dancer performed on a new high-definition television, then in person.在一台高清电视上表演的舞者,一会就真人出现了。But there is more gold to be mined as the revellers fly home.但是当这些挥霍享乐的有钱人往回飞时,仍然是商机无限。Adlux is thinking of installing vending machines at FBOs which dispense Swiss watches.Adlux现在正在考虑在固定运营基地安置自动贩卖机,销售瑞士手表。 /201308/252650广州哪里可以做人授手术最好

从化市人民医院电话号码Lets say youre an 18 year old male who runs every other day, logging 12 miles a week.假设你是一个18岁的男性,每隔一天就会跑步,算下来每周会跑12英里。Now fast-forward to your late 40s.现在,把你的年龄快速往后推到40多近50岁。Your eating habits are the same.你的饮食习惯不变。To maintain your high school weight, how many miles a week would you need to run?为了保持你高中时的体重,你一周需要跑多少英里呢?Believe it or not, youd have to multiply your weekly mileage 4 and 1/2 times, increasing it from 12 to 54 miles a week!信不信由你,你得把每周的英里数乘以4.5,也就是从每周的12英里增加到54英里!Unless you take up weekly double marathons in middle-age, its impossible simply to “out run”middle-age sp.除非你在人到中年时,每周进行两次马拉松长跑,否则绝不可能轻易逃脱中年发福。Thats because metabolism decreases with age.这是因为,新陈代谢的过程随年龄而逐渐放缓。At 50 you just dont burn as many calories as you did at 18.到了50岁,你就不能像18岁时一样燃烧同样多的卡路里。Luckily, there are other factors in this equation.幸运的是,在这个等式中还有其他的影响因素。Gradually eatingless is one way to make up the difference, since metabolism slows by about 100 calories every ten years.减少食量是一种弥补差额的方法。因为新陈代谢的过程每隔十年就会降低100卡路里的消耗。Thats equivalent to a tablespoon of butter.这个数字相当于一大匙黄油的热量。To keep pace with metabolic changes, your daily at 40 could include everything you ate at 30, minus that tablespoon of butter!为了跟上新陈代谢过程的不断变化,你在40岁时的每日菜单必须在30岁时的食谱里减少一大匙黄油。However, cutting more calories every ten years gets trickier, and limiting food intake alone isnt the healthiest approach, anyway.然而,每隔十年减少更多的热量摄入越来越棘手,并且,不管怎样,仅仅限制食物摄取并不是一条健康的途径。Between our 20th and 70th birthdays, most of us lose about 30%of our muscle cells.在我们20岁生日和70岁的生日之间,我们中大多数人丧失了大约30%的肌肉细胞。Loss of muscle mass is the main reason metabolism slows down in the first place, since resting metabolic rate is directly related to lean body mass thats mostly muscle.本来,肌肉数量的减少是新陈代谢减缓的主要原因。这是由于停滞的新陈代谢率与大部分为肌肉的“瘦肉组织”直接相关。Maintaining or increasing muscle mass through strength training ups your metabolism and burn smore calories, even while youre sitting on the couch!通过体能训练来维持或增加瘦肉组织,能提高你的新陈代谢和增加更多热量消耗,甚至当你坐在沙发上时也可以做到!Two or three sessions a week, using free weights or equipment at a gym, will do the trick.一周花上两到三次时间,利用好健身房里的力量训 练器材或装备,你就能获得理想的效果。201404/287829广东长安医院造影检查 广州长安不孕不育医院做孕前检查

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