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四川看鼻息肉多少钱高新区妇幼保健院成人鼾症好吗Science and technology科学技术Academic publishing学术出版Free-for-all自由竞争Open-access scientific publishing is gaining ground科学出版的开放存取已逐渐被人们所接受AT THE beginning of April, Research Councils UK, a conduit through which the government transmits taxpayers money to academic researchers, changed the rules on how the results of studies it pays for are made public.四月初,英国研究理事会—一个由政府向学术研究者提供资金机构-改变了它的一项规则:即该机构提供资助的一些研究成果是否可以自由出版。From now on they will have to be published in journals that make them available free—preferably immediately, but certainly within a year.从今后,这些成果将必须在期刊上自由,免费发表—最好是结果出来后立即出版,但是出版时间最迟不能超过一年。In February the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy told federal agencies to make similar plans.今年二月,白宫科学和技术政策办公室也要求联邦机构做出与之相类似的计划。A week before that, a bill which would require free access to government-financed research after six months had begun to wend its way through Congress.在此前一周,国会也通过了一项法案—即政府资助研究产生成果六个月后,可以自由出版,虽然投票通过的过程有些曲折。The European Union is moving in the same direction.同时,欧盟也正在同样方向的指导下做着类似的工作。So are charities.慈善机构同样如此。And SCOAP3, a consortium of particle-physics laboratories, libraries and funding agencies, is pressing all 12 of the fields leading journals to make the 7,000 articles they publish each year free to .而且,一个由众多粒子物理实验室,图书馆和资助机构组成的联合体-SCOAP3已经向该领域的12个先锋期刊提出如下要求:即他们每年出版的7,000篇文章都能免费阅读。For scientific publishers, it seems, the party may soon be over.对科学出版社们来说,这似乎预示着独享的快乐聚会可能就快结束了。It has, they would have to admit, been a good bash.不过,他们将不得不承认,这是一个很好的尝试。The current enterprise—selling the results of other peoples work, submitted free of charge and vetted for nothing by third parties in a process called peer review, has been immensely profitable.现在的企业—销售他人的工作成果,不要承认任何费用,而且不要接受被称为同行检查的第三方审查,已经是极有利润可图了。Elsevier, a Dutch firm that is the worlds biggest journal publisher, had a margin last year of 38% on revenues of 2.1 billion.荷兰的爱思唯尔是全球最大的杂志出版商,去年在这个方面的利润达到了总收入的38%。Springer, a German firm that is the second-biggest journal publisher, made 36% on sales of 875m in 2011.而第二大出版商—德国的施普林格,就其最近一年—2011年可查的数据来看,出版研究成果的收入达到了当年销售收入—8.75亿欧元的36%。Such firms are now, though, faced with competitors set up explicitly to cover only their costs.但是,现在这些公司也面临着仅为赚取投资成本而起家的竞争对手的挑战。Some rely on charity, but many have a proper business model: academics pay a fee to be published.有些企业倚重的却是慈善出版物,但是,它们大多都有一个合适的商业模式:学者都要付一定的费用才能出版他们的研究成果。So, on the principle of if you cant beat em, join em, commercial publishers, too, are setting up open-access subsidiaries.因此,本着如果你不能打败他们,那就加入他们的原则,商业出版社也开始设立可以开放存取的子公司。Open for business开业了The biggest is BioMed Central, part of Springer.影响最大的是生物医学中心,它隶属于斯林普格,创建于2000年。It was founded in 2000 and in February it published its 150,000th paper and also launched its 250th periodical, catchily entitled theJournal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases.今年二月,它出版了它的十五万篇文章,也出版了它的第250期期刊,它的题目很吸引人—有毒动物,及包含热带疾病的毒素。Days later Nature Publishing Group, which owns Nature and 81 other journals, and which itself belongs to the Georg von Holtzbrinck Publishing Group, another German firm, bought a majority stake in Frontiers, a Swiss open-access platform with 30 titles in 14 scientific fields.几天以后,拥有自然杂志和其它81种杂志的自然出版集团-它本身隶属于另一家德国公司:格奥尔格-冯-霍尔茨布林克出版集团,购买了前锋—一家拥有14个科研领域30种期刊的瑞士开放存取平台—的多数股权。In combination, NPG and Frontiers publish 46 open-access journals, and 7,300 free papers a year.联姻后,自然集团和前锋每年能够出版46个开放存取期刊,及7,300篇文章。In the past year Elsevier has more than doubled the number of open-access journals it publishes, to 39.去年,艾思维尔把它出版的开放存取期刊的数量增加了一倍以上,达到了39个。And even in those that usually charge ers, paying a publication fee makes a paper available free immediately.甚至那些通常收费的出版商,在付出版费用后,也能够立刻免费读到这些文章。Outsell, a Californian consultancy, estimates that open-access journals generated 172m in 2012.据一家加州咨询公司—奥特舒尔估计,去年开放存取杂志产生了1.72亿美元的收入。That was just 2.8% of the total revenue journals brought their publishers, but it was up by 34% from 2011 and is expected to reach 336m in 2015. The number of open-access papers is forecast to grow from 194,000 to 352,000 in the same period.而这仅仅占了出版商全部杂志收入的2.8%,但是相比于2011年,已经增加了34%,估计到2015年,全部开放存取杂志的收入会达到3.36亿美元。届时,开放存取文章的数量将会从19.4万篇增加到35.2万篇。Open-access publishers are also looking at new ways of doing business.开放存取出版商也在探索这方面的新方式。Frontiers, for example, does not try to judge a papers significance during peer review, only its accuracy—an approach also adopted by the Public Library of Science, a non-commercial organisation based in San Francisco that was one of the pioneers of open-access publishing. It thus accepts 80-90% of submissions.比如,前锋并不注重一篇文章在同行眼光中的重要性,而只专注于它的准确性—这也是公共科学图书馆所采取的方法,因此,前锋获得了所提交研究论文中80-90%的出版权。Instead, a Frontiers papers merit is gauged after publication, using measures like the number of downloads.相反,前锋文章的一个优点是,在出版后,通过类似下载数量的衡量方式来对文章进行评判。Frontiers also doubles as a social network for researchers to share news, job offers and information about conferences and events.作为一个为研究者提供新闻,工作计划和有关会议和事件信息分享的社交网站,前锋杂志的下载量也增加了一倍。This network currently has around 70,000 members.这个网站现在已经有约七万左右的会员。PeerJ, founded last year, makes an even more dramatic departure from tradition.而去年创建的皮尔杰则开发了一个更加异于传统的运作模式。Rather than being charged publication fees, authors pay a one-off membership fee, which ranges from 99 to 298, depending on how many papers they want to publish each year.文章的作者并不需要付出版费用,而只要付一次性会员费用,从99美元到298美元不等,这取决于每年他们打算出版的文章数量。All co-authors must be members. The firm also deals neatly with the question of peer review. Members must review at least one paper a year.所有的合作者必须都是会员。这家公司也很好地处理了同行评审的问题。它规定,会员每年必须评审一篇文章。Non-commercial open-access publishers, though, are fighting back.但是,非商业性的开放存取出版商们也开始了反击。The Wellcome Trust, the Max Planck Society and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute have set up eLife, a peer-reviewed journal that does not charge publication fees.一家名叫威康信托基金会英国的医疗慈善机构,运作多家德国研究机构的马普学会及一家称为霍华德休斯医学研究所的美国慈善机构共同设立了开放存取期刊—网络生活,这个期刊不收取出版费用,但是还能进行同行评审。And in January Jean-Pierre Demailly, of the University of Grenoble, in France, and a handful of fellow mathematicians launched the Episciences Project.今年一月,法国格勒诺布尔大学的皮埃尔-德马里和少数几个屈指可数的数学家们创建了科学至上期刊。This aims to show that researchers themselves can turn out refereed papers cheaply, bypassing traditional purveyors.这旨在表明,不需要传统意义上的传播者,研究者自己能够出版经过评审的文章,而且成本低廉。Episciences will piggyback on ArXiv, an online repository beloved of physicists and mathematicians—who often post work there as preprints before submitting it to journals.科学至上将与数学预印本网库在线网络资料库合作,这是一个物理学家和数学家们衷爱的网络平台,他们在向期刊投稿前往往会把预印本提前上传到这里。ArXiv is hosted by Cornell University at a cost of 0,000 a year.ArXiv的运营商是美国康奈尔大学,每年的运营成本为83万美元。Tacking on an epijournal, so that refereed papers would sit alongside the preprints, should not add much to that.连接到一个预印杂志上,这样就会同时看到经过评审的论文和它的预印本,这样也无法在论文上增加太多了。Matthew Cockerill, BioMed Centrals boss, though, points out that Episciencess publishing model may have its drawbacks.但是,斯林普格生物医学中心的老板马修-科克尔指出,科学至上期刊的出版模式可能也有不足之处。Academics who bypass publishers become publishers themselves.绕过出版商的学者们自己成为了出版者,And that will be harder to do as the operation grows.当业务越来越多时,他们也会越来越难做。Who pays for lunch?谁来买单?Other aspects of open-access publishing also draw polite scepticism from incumbents.开放存取其它方面的影响也遭到了在职人员理性的怀疑。The promiscuous approach of Frontiers and PLoS, for example, is at odds with the rejection by publications like Nature and its American counterpart, Science, of over 90% of submitted manuscripts.比如,前锋和科学公共图书馆方式的混杂操作受到了类似《自然》和它的美国同仁《科学》的质疑,而且拒绝了它们90%以上的文稿,It is this selectivity that gives these journals their prestige.也正是这种专一性树立起了《自然》们的权威性。At the moment, publication in Nature, Science and a handful of similar journals is like a sprinkling of fairy dust.现在,在自然,科学和少数几个类似的杂志上可以发表文章,就好比点点星尘那么稀少而珍贵。Everyone knows how tough it is to get in, so papers that do so are assumed to be special.每个人都知道它们的门槛有多高,所以能够被刊印的文章被认为是非常特别的。This will be hard for open-access publications to emulate.而这一点是开放存取出版很难效仿的。The rejected papers all have to be scrutinised, though—and even though peer review is free, this involves staff time and other costs.被退稿的文章都必须经过审查,尽管,即使同行审查是免费的,而工作人员的时间和其它成本也是非常高昂的。According to Nature, the cost per published paper is 40,000.根据自然杂志的数据,每篇发表文章的成本为四万美元。If Nature is to stay in business in anything like its current form, someone will have to pay that.如果自然杂志处在类似它现在形式的任何产业里,总是会有人不得不买单的。Whether anyone will want to, remains to be seen.无论是否有人愿意,这还有待观察。Budgets are tight, and pressure for access to be open is growing.预算紧张,加上要求开放的压力越来越大。Intangible blessings of the sort bestowed by prestigious journals can vanish rapidly.这种著名杂志赋予的无形的资产会很快消失。Where the game will end is anybodys guess.游戏什么时候结束,谁也说不准。 /201311/266496万州妇幼保健院咽喉炎要多少钱 Dear Annie:亲爱的安妮:Ever since I asked my sister, ;Vera,; to drive me to an upcoming surgery appointment,自从我要求我“维拉”开车载我来到即将到来的手术预约后,shes been pestering me for access to my doctor so she can question him about my health and stop him from doing the surgery.她就一直缠着我找我的医生,这样她就可以问他关于我的健康状况并且阻止他做手术。I told Vera that my doctor refuses to talk to her.我告诉维拉我的医生拒绝同她讲话。She doesnt believe me, but its the truth.她不相信我,但这是事实。He cant talk to anyone about my medical status.他不能对任何人说出我的医疗状况。Now she wont speak to me.现在她都不跟我说话了。I have begged her to forgive me, but havent heard a word either by phone or e-mail.我恳求她原谅我,但通过电话或电子邮件没有听到过只言片语。She means a lot to me.她对我意味着很多。I need her in my life, and Ive told her that several times.我的生命中需要她,我已经好几次这样告诉过她。Please advise. Bereft Sister.请给出你们的建议。贝拉福特。Dear Sister:亲爱的贝拉福特:It sounds as if Vera has been bossing you around for a long time and doesnt like being denied the opportunity to keep doing it.听起来好像维拉很长时间以来一直指挥你并且不喜欢被拒绝继续这样做的机会。If you want Vera to consult your doctor, you can give him permission to discuss your status with her.如果你希望维拉咨询一下你的医生,你可以允许他和她讨论你的医疗状况。If you think her concern is intrusive, say nothing more.如果你认为她的担忧是侵入性的,就什么也别说。We suspect Vera will eventually come around, although she wants to punish you a bit first.虽然她首先想着怎样教训你,但我们怀疑维拉最终会过来的。201309/256164泸州市人民医院耳膜穿孔治疗的价格

成都市妇幼保健院鼻窦炎看怎么样好不好In the process, the culture and politics of Brithish isles were transformed.在这个过程中,英国群岛的文化和政治发生了很大的变化。Englands distinctive system of justice was established.英格兰建立起了独一无二的司法系统。Parliament was born and great Gothic cathedrals transformed the landscape.议会应运而生而且伟大的哥特式教堂发生了改变。The Plantagenets developed a new type of warfare in their attempt to claim Scotland.金雀花家族在对苏格兰的觊觎中发展出一种新型的战争。They conquered Wales and half of Island.他们征了威尔士的一半。And their great royal castles harmed their own power.而他们伟大的皇家城堡影响到了自己的权力。When the Plantagenets won the kingdom of England, its shattered and lawless.当金雀花家族在英格兰王国获得胜利,它变得离破碎而且无法可依。Under their rule,its transformed into one of the best governed states in precedent.在他们的统治下,变成了一个最好的治理国家的先例。But their story is one of intrigue,conflicts and violence.但他们的故事充满阴谋,冲突和暴力。They fought their enemies,but also turned on each other,sons made wars on fathers, brothers betrayed brothers,powerful queens conspired.他们同敌人战斗,但彼此也兵戎相向,儿子对父亲发起战争,兄弟背叛兄弟,强大的皇后密谋挑起事端。 201407/310878江北沙坪坝区治疗声带息肉多少钱 Business商业报道Tablet computers平板电脑Overdose太多啦The market for tablets has aly split into two平板市场已经一分为二了NOKIA is going out with a flourish.诺基亚带着一个惊人消息出现了。In Abu Dhabi on October 22nd, at its last launch party before the sale of its mobile-phone division to Microsoft, the Finnish company showed off its first tablet.10月22日,在阿布扎比,在诺基亚将其移动业务卖给微软之前的最后一次发布会上,这个芬兰公司发布了其首款平板。Like Nokias smartphones, the Lumia 2520 uses a version of the American firms Windows operating system.和诺基亚智能机一样,Lumia 2520使用了美国公司的Windows操作系统。New models of Microsofts own Surface tablets, announced last month, went on sale the same day.微软上个月发布的自己研发的新款Surface平板在同一天发售。Microsoft and Nokia are aiming at the dearer end of the tablet market, which is dominated by Apples iPad.微软和诺基亚力都争平板市场高端客户群,而这个市场目前是由苹果的iPad主导的。Microsoft has aly had a false start. In July it wrote off 900m to reflect poor sales of the Surface RT.微软已经有了一个错误的开端。六月,微软亏损了9亿美元明了其Surface RT的惨淡销售。As if to remind Microsoft of what it is up against, a few hours after Nokias launch Apple unveiled the iPad Air, which is thinner and lighter than its predecessors, and an upgraded iPad mini.好像是为了提醒微软它遇到了什么问题,诺基亚发布平板后几小时,苹果就发布了比旧机型更薄更轻的iPad Air,以及升级的iPad mini。Just as remarkable as the iPads success, however, is the proliferation of cheaper imitators.和iPad的成功一样显著的是廉价的仿冒品的激增。A mere three-and-a-half years after the first iPad was sold, the market for tablets aly has a premium and a budget end, like that for cars.首款iPad推出后短短三年,就像汽车市场一样,平板市场也已经出现了质优的和价优的分化。The cheap models, most of which have seven- or eight-inch screens against the standard iPads ten, use Googles Android operating system and are sold for as little as 100 or less.廉价机型,大多数是7英寸或8英寸屏幕而非苹果标准10英寸的屏幕,使用谷歌的安卓系统,售价只有100美元左右。The least expensive iPad Air and the Lumia 2520 will be sold for 499 and Microsofts Surface 2 for 449.iPad Air和Lumia 2520最低售价为499美元,微软Surface 2最少为449美元。In the second quarter of this year, according to IHS, a research firm, 43.6m tablets were shipped.根据调查公司IHS公司的报告,今年第二季度,已有4360万台平板上市。Of those, 14.6m were iPads, which use Apples operating system for mobile devices, iOS.其中,1460万台是使用苹果移动设备操作系统ios的iPad。Only 1.7m ran Windows.只有170万台使用Windows系统。Almost all the others were Android machines.剩下几乎都是使用Android系统的设备。Some bear well-known brands.有一些是著名的品牌。South Koreas Samsung had the biggest single share.韩国的三星独家占有最大市场份额。Amazon, a giant online retailer whose tablets use a customised version of Android, Taiwans Acer and ASUS, and Chinas Lenovo also had fair slices.使用定制安卓系统的网上零售商巨头亚马逊的平板,台湾的宏基和华硕,还有中国的联想也拥有相同的份额。But 13.9m out of the 27.2m Android tablets shipped were made by dozens upon dozens of others.但是上市的2720万台安卓系统的平板中,有1390万台是由许多制造商制造的。Entry at the bottom is as easy as it is hard at the top, with margins that reflect perfect competition rather than near-monopoly.利润显示了当前完全竞争而非近乎垄断的状态,到达市场的顶端是困难的从市场底端进入市场是很容易的。Rhoda Alexander of IHS reckons that smaller manufacturers will feel really flush if they scrape a margin of 4 a unit.公司IHS的Rhoda Alexander认为如果小型制造商勉强获得每个4美元的利润会觉得很有钱。Some sellers of cheap Androids in any case expect to make their money in other ways.一些廉价的安卓系统的平板不管怎么样都希望通过其他途径来获利。Amazon makes little if anything from its tablets.如果一定要说它获利了的话,亚马逊在其平板上获利很少。Its aim is to sell stuff online.它的目标是推销线上产品。The same will surely apply to Tesco, Britains largest supermarket chain, which recently started selling its own tablet, the Hudl, for £119 (193)—or less if you use loyalty points.这个方式当然也适用于英国最大连锁超市乐购,乐购最近开始销售其自主开发的平板Hudl,这款平板售价为119英镑-如果你使用忠诚积分的话更便宜。The Hudl is preloaded with Tescos shopping apps and with blinkbox, its pay-as-you-go film-and-TV service.它内置了乐购的购物软件以及其现购现付电影电视务blinkbox。Ben Wood of CCS Insight, another research firm, reckons that North America aly has two tablets for every five people.另一家调查公司CCS Insight的Ben Wood认为在北美每五个人拥有两台平板。Cheap devices, he thinks, are often bought for children who covet a parents iPad.他认为廉价的设备通常都是买来给觊觎父母的iPad的孩子的。The two-car family took decades to arrive.一家两辆车的时代经历了数十年才来临。The two-tablet family has taken three years.一个家庭两台平板的时代只用了三年的时间就实现了。 /201310/262455四川中西医结合医院成人鼾症好吗

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