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2019年02月23日 22:58:06|来源:国际在线|编辑:飞排名免费问
Business商业报道Myanmar gets y for business缅甸努力为外国投资做好准备Opening soon正在开放Big opportunities and big problems for firms in Myanmar对于投资缅甸的企业来说,巨大的机遇与巨大的风险并存IT DOESNT happen every day that a country of 60m people in the most dynamic region of the world is suddenly open for business,在世界上最有活力的地区内,具有六千万人口的国家一夜之间就放开了商业上的限制,这种事儿可不常见。argues Hans Vriens, a consultant in Singapore.新加坡国顾问汉森威尔森如此说道。He is describing the prospects in Myanmar, as the once isolated country moves from a military dictatorship to something less ghastly.他所描述的正是缅甸国内发生的变化,一个曾经封闭的国家从军官独裁之恐怖局势中解脱出来的过程。Rich in teak, minerals, oil, gas and much else, half a century ago Myanmar was one of the more prosperous countries in the region.凭借着丰富的柚树、石油、天然气和其他资源,缅甸半个世纪以前曾是东南亚区域内相对富有的国家之一。Decades of state socialism, oppression and sanctions put paid to that.但是国内数十年不成功的社会主义化进程,以及来做国外的压迫、制裁却使得这些优势消耗殆尽。But now Myanmar seems to be rejoining the real world. The army has relaxed its grip somewhat,不过现在,缅甸看起来又要重新回到世界舞台了。and the government is angling for foreign investment. Will the economy regain its former lustre?军方已一定程度上放松了对国家的控制,政府也尽力争取国外的投资。那么,缅甸国的经济能否重新恢复往日的光呢?Myanmars reforms may win diplomatic rewards.缅甸的改革也许可以赢来外交上的回报。America and the European Union imposed sweeping economic sanctions in the 1990s to punish the regime for stealing elections and jailing opponents.美国和欧盟曾在20世纪90年代向缅甸实行全面的经济制裁以对其无视选民的选举权利并且关押反对派人士的行为做出惩罚;These may be lifted.缅甸改革以后,这些制裁都有可能被取消,That would allow foreign firms, and particularly Western ones, to pour in.进而海外的尤其是来自西方国家的企业,将大量进入缅甸市场。Some countries are moving aly.有一些国家已经开始行动。America is allowing IMF and World Bank teams to visit the country in part to help the government modernise its sclerotic financial system.现在美国正允许世界货币基金组织以及世界的工作组在一些领域内访问缅甸以帮助该国政府扭转僵化的金融系统、实现现代化。The EU has abolished visa restrictions on leading government members and is expected to announce further relaxations in April.欧盟则已经针对主要的政府成员解除了签限制,并有预测指出四月份,更多的限制会被放宽。Western firms are excited by the countrys big population, abundant natural resources and palpable demand for modern products and services.缅甸国的巨大人口,丰富的自然资源以及对现代化产品和务的明确需求都让西方企业激动不已。Myanmars clocks stopped some time in the early 1960s, after the generals took over, so its citizens are hungry for just about everything.20世纪60年代军官独占统治权后,缅甸的社会曾经一度停止发展,因而现在,缅甸人民对即将到来的一切都如饥似渴。Few people own cars and the gleaming malls and supermarkets that infest much of Asia are largely absent.目前缅甸国内几乎无人拥有汽车,大多数亚洲国家内都成批出现的豪华购物中心或豪华超市也都在缅甸国内不见踪影。Mr Vriens says investors see opportunities everywhere, from finance to hotels to food processing.威尔森先生说投资者在金融,酒店乃至食品加工等各个领域内都可以看到机会。Myanmars new government is embracing Western investors.缅甸的新政府非常欢迎西方国家的投资者。During the years of sanctions, the main large investors were Chinese firms keen to extract oil, timber and other natural resources.在多年制裁后,现在主要的大规模投资者是将目光放在石油,木材等自然资源上的中国企业。Few of these firms did much for local workers, or paid much heed to the environment. Now Myanmar has other options.但是大部分这些企业都既不关注当地环境,也没有帮助改善当地工人的生活状况。现在,缅甸国有其他选择了。To make the country more attractive to foreign investors, the government is trying to rush through broad reforms of its legal and economic system in just a year.当国政府正努力加紧在一年内完成从法律系统到经济系统的广泛改革。New land and investment laws are being drafted, special economic zones created and advice solicited from all quarters.新的国土与投资法律正在起草之中,经济特区已划好,更多的建议也从不同的地区被征集。Officials are painting the country as the strategic nexus between China, India and South-East Asia,中国、印度与东南亚是当下世界范围内增长速度最快的三大市场,with easy access to the three fastest-growing markets in the world.凭借着通向这些市场的绿色通道,缅甸官员正努力将缅甸建设为中国、印度与东南亚之间的战略纽带。However, it will still be a hard place in which to do business.但是,当下缅甸依然不是投资的理想环境。First, the exchange rate is rigged.首先,该国汇率受到操控。The official rate is 6 kyat to the dollar;官方利率是6缅元对1美元;the more realistic black-market rate is about 800.但黑市上的利率却是800:1,这一比率更真实。The country lacks a proper banking system.其次,该国也缺少真正的系统。In the new spirit of openness, officials concede that corruption is endemic.在开放的战略下,官方终于承认腐败现象在地方盛行。That is putting it mildly:如下事实以温和的方式表述了现状:Transparency International, a watchdog, ranks it 180th out of 183 countries. Building a functioning legal system could take a long time.监管机构透明国际,将该国在全部183个国家中放到了第180个位置。显然缅甸国想建立起真正发挥作用的法律系统还尚需时日。A few firms have done well in Myanmar for years, despite sanctions.尽管制裁政策的存在,依然有一些企业对在缅甸的国商业投资上表现不错。Total, a French oil firm, is used to doing business in nasty places.道达尔,一家法国石油公司,就曾经在使人不悦的土地上成功投资。DHL, a German delivery company, has profited from the absence of a reliable postal service.敦豪快运公司,一家德国物流企业,也曾经在缺少可靠邮政务的情况下顺利盈利。But these are exceptions.但是这些公司都是特例。If Myanmar wants to join the broad-based Asian boom, it will have to keep reforming for years to come.如果缅甸想要在亚洲广泛的增长局势中分一杯羹,它还需先经历多年改革才行。 /201305/242085Syria A step too far 叙利亚 偏离正轨If Bashar Assad really has used chemical weapons on his own people in a big way, America must intervene如果巴沙尔阿萨德真的对其子民大规模使用了化学武器,美国必须干涉了。Aug 24th 2013 |From the print edition“WE HAVE been very clear to the Assad regime…that a red line for us is [if] we start seeing a whole bunch of chemical weapons moving around or being utilised,” said Barack Obama a year ago this week. “That would change my calculus.” If reports from the Syrian opposition that hundreds of people have been killed by rocket-launched chemical weapons turn out to be true, then Mr Obama should keep his promise.一年前的这个星期,奥巴马表示,阿萨德政权要很清楚自己的警戒线,如果我们看到大规模的化学武器运送或者是使用的话,这会改变我的计划。如果反对党所说的数百人被火箭发射的化学武器谋杀属实,奥巴马应该遵守自己的诺言。In recent months, those who previously argued for intervention in Syria have gone quiet. That’s not because the Syrian people are suffering any less—far from it. The death toll is now reckoned to be more than 100,000, 2m people have fled the country and a quarter of the population of 23m is reckoned to be displaced within it. But failure to intervene early has had consequences which strengthen the arguments against intervention. Sectarian chaos in the country has grown, undermining hopes that toppling Mr Assad would bring peace. The more fighting there is between rebel groups, the more damage giving them weapons would do. And al-Qaeda-linked rebel groups have gained strength at the expense of the more moderate ones the West would be happy to see take power. The stronger the radicals become, the weaker the case for arming the rebels.最近几个月,之前争论干涉叙利亚的人安静了。不是因为叙利亚人民的苦难有所减少,而是更多了。死亡人数现在被认为超过了10万,200万人离开这个国家,2300万人中的四分之一被迫在国内转移。但是之前没有干涉导致的结果增强了反对干涉的声音。叙利亚教派纷争增加,破坏者希望阿萨德的下台会带了和平。反对派之间纷争越多,给他们武器带来的破坏就越大。与基地组织有关的反对派在牺牲西方乐意看到的温和派的情况下实力有所增强。激进分子越强大,武装反对派的理由就越弱。But the use of chemical weapons would tip the argument back in favour of intervention, for three reasons. First, they are banned by international agreement, and if the rules of war are to have any force, then the world must do its best to ensure that they are respected. Second, however unwilling outside powers are to intervene, the world accepts that there are limits to the atrocities that governments may perpetrate on their people: it was the massacre of 8,000 Bosnians by Serbs at Srebrenica in 1995 that provoked outside powers to intervene decisively in Yugoslavia’s civil war. Third, America’s credibility depends on intervening. Mr Obama made no response to a previous claim of chemical-weapons use. It seems likely that Mr Assad was testing the water to see if he could get away with a bigger one. If he is allowed to, nobody will take American threats seriously, at least while Mr Obama is president. Why should Iran or North Korea, for instance, listen to him hector them about their nuclear weapons programmes?但是化学武器的使用会使得争论再次回到是否应该干涉的问题上。原因有三。第一,化学武器是国际协议禁止的,如果战胜的规则有效力,世界必须尽最大努力确保规则得以遵守。第二,无论外界力量如何不想干涉,国际社会要承认国家对自己子民的暴行是有限度的。1995年在斯瑞不里尼卡,塞维利亚人杀害了8000名波斯尼亚人,此事件导致外界力量直接干预南斯拉夫的内战。第三,美国的信誉来源于对国际事务的干预。奥巴马对此前关于化学武器使用的声明没有作出回应。看起开阿萨德正在试水,看他能不能发起更大的袭击。如果被允许了,没有国家把美国的警告当回事儿,至少奥巴马任职期间。比如说,为什么伊朗或者朝鲜听从美国对他们核项目的威吓呢?T carefully but firmly一步一个脚印Nobody should act rashly in the wake of this report. The opposition’s claims need to be verified. A ed Nations inspection team, aly in the country to investigate the earlier allegations, needs to do its utmost to get to the site where the latest attacks are said to have taken place.看完这份报告,大家都不应贸然行动。反对派的发言需要实。联合国观察团已经进入叙利亚调查早期的指控,需要尽力到达最近袭击发生的现场。If the reports turn out to be correct—or the inspectors are not given a chance of verifying them—then the world needs to take action. America should not shoulder the burden alone. China and Russia, who have supported Mr Assad’s regime, must also accept their responsibility to uphold a standard of behaviour to which even they have signed up. But if they are not persuadable, then America and its allies should consider the full range of hard options, from strikes to limit Mr Assad’s fighting capacity, to destroying his air force, to imposing no-fly zones in the country.如果报告属实,或者观察员没机会实这些报告,国际社会就需要采取行动了。美国不应该自己承担这个责任,持阿萨德政府的中国和俄罗斯也应该承担起维护行为规范的责任。因为他们已经在行为规范上签上了自己的名字。但是如果他们执意不配合,美国及其盟国就只能选择限制阿萨德的战斗力,破坏其空军,在叙利亚设立禁飞区。This paper believes that America is generally a force for good in the world. If Mr Obama does not keep his promises, it will no longer be much of a force at all.这份报告相信美国一向是为世界造福的力量。如果奥巴马总统不遵守自己的诺言,那美国就称不上是一力量了。201308/254606

Science and technology科学技术Astronomy天文Throwing money into space往太空扔钱A shiny new telescope is crowding out NASAs other science missions新的望远镜正在把美国国家航空航天局其它科学任务挤出去THE Hubble space telescope, an orbiting observatory launched in 1990 by NASA, Americas space agency,哈勃太空望远镜是1990年由美国国家航空航天局发射的绕地天文台。has been one of that agencys most successful missions since the Apollo moon shots in the 1960s and 1970s.自六七十年代阿波罗登月发射以来,它一直是该局最成功的任务之一。It has produced a string of scientific achievements:它产生了一系列科学成就:confirming that most galaxies have a black hole in the middle;实大多数星系中心存在一个黑洞;providing a front-row seat for the collision, in 1994, of a comet with the planet Jupiter;为人们提供了1994年苏梅克—列维9号彗星撞击木星的最佳观测位置;and helping to uncover the strange fact that the expansion of the universe seems to be accelerating.帮助人们发现宇宙看上去正在加速扩张这一奇特事实。But beyond the science, it has also been a public-relations hit.但在科学以外,它也一直是承载科学和公众交流的桥梁。Its beautiful images have introduced a generation to the wonders of astronomy.它传回的精美图像引导一代人探索天文领域。So in 2002, when the agency considered plans for a successor that would study the universe in infra-red,因此,该局于2002年开始考虑筹划哈勃望远镜的继任者。rather than visible light, would be y to fly in 2010 and would cost just .5 billion, saying “yes” was easy.耗资25亿美元,通过红外线,而非可见光研究宇宙的望远镜将于2010年升空,计划轻松获得通过。Nine years later, NASA is regretting that decision.九年后,美国国家航空航天局对当时所作出的决定感到愧疚。The James Webb space telescope, as the new machine is called, is still in the workshop, and its launch date has been set back repeatedly.这个被称为詹姆斯·韦伯的新望远镜仍在厂房里。Its cost has gone up to .8 billion, a figure that, if history is any guide, could rise still further.其发射日期一推再推该望远镜耗资已攀升至88亿美元,历史如果有其它可能,这一数字还是会进一步攀升。Which would be embarrassing at the best of times, but with public-spending cuts looming and NASAs budget flat for the foreseeable future, it is causing real strains.这是最让人为难的时刻,但随着削减公共开初见端倪,美国国家航空航天局将在可预见的未来里保持预算不变,这正引起真正的紧张。In July, irritated by the JWSTs rising costs, the House of Representatives tried to cut .9 billion from NASAs budget for next year, in an attempt to have the project cancelled.7月,出于对詹姆斯·韦伯望远镜不断攀升的开不满,众议院试图从美国国家航空航天局下一年预算里砍掉19亿美元,以求取消这项计划。On November 1st, after lobbying from the telescopes defenders, the Senate passed a bill that restored the telescopes funding.11月1日,经为新望远镜进行辩护的人游说后,参议院通过了一项恢复望远镜资助的法案。But it is not just politicians that are restive.但并不仅仅是政治家感到不安,Astronomers have long worried that the ballooning costs of the telescope would affect NASAs other science projects.天文学家一直担心该望远镜激增的开会影响到美国国家航空航天局其它科研项目。Officially, the space agency will say only that other missions will be delayed,从官方角度看,他们只会表示其它任务将会推后,but there are fears that some could be cut completely.但人们担心其中一些会完全被砍掉。One potential sacrifice is WFIRST, an infra-red space telescope intended for launch in 2020.其中一个潜在的牺牲品就是宽视场红外巡天望远镜,一个计划在2020年发射的红外线天文望远镜。This is designed to probe the nature of “dark energy”, which is thought to be responsible for the quickening expansion of the universe that Hubble helped bring to the worlds attention.这部望远镜设计出来是为了探测自然界里的“暗能量”,A string of other, smaller projects could suffer as well.该物质被认为是经哈勃引起全世界关注的宇宙加速扩张的原因。The telescopes advocates say junking it now would be a false economy.该望远镜的持者称现在抛弃它不值当。Most of the hardware has aly been built, so cancelling it, they argue, would mean throwing all that away.他们认为,大多数硬件都已造好,就这么取消意味着将这些东西统统扔掉。And they play on fears that America is in danger of losing its pre-eminence in high-budget “big science”,继今年年初功率为世界第二的粒子加速器,设在伊利诺伊州的垓电子伏加速器关闭后,美国处于逐渐失去建立在对“大科学”following the closure earlier this year of the Illinois-based Tevatron, the second-most-powerful particle accelerator in the world.高投入的卓越地位的危险中,望远镜持者利用了这些恐慌。The JWST, if it does eventually fly, would surely do some spectacular science.如果詹姆斯·韦伯望远镜最终得以发射,它肯定会开展一些惊人的科研。The size of its mirror—25 square metres, as against Hubbles 4.5—and the location of its orbit far from the reflected light of Earth will allow it to study some of the earliest events in the universe,相对于哈勃4.5平米大的镜头,新望远镜达到25平米—它的轨道也远离地球反射光,可以让它对一些宇宙最早的事件进行研究,including the formation of the first galaxies. It will also help with the search for extrasolar planets.包括第一个星系的形成,帮助科学家寻找太阳系外的行星。Hubble, of course, was also late—and around billion over budget.不久前哈勃的预算也超过约20亿美元。It was lampooned after its launch when a wonky mirror meant that its images were blurred almost to the point of uselessness, and a mission by the Space Shuttle to fix the problem cost hundreds of millions of dollars.讽刺的是,发射升空后,其摇晃的镜头意味着图像虚到几乎没有任何用处,后经航天飞机完成的修补任务耗资上亿美元。Given its subsequent record, few now begrudge the cost.鉴于其后来的成绩,现在很少有人肉疼这笔钱。With all that in mind, NASA will press on with the JWST, at least for now.考虑到所有这些,美国国家航空航天局也许会推动詹姆斯·韦伯望远镜,至少现在是。All that remains for Americas astronomers to do is pray that their favourite mission is not one of those delayed, or even cancelled, to keep the new telescope on track.对于美国天文学家来说,他们剩下要做的就是祈求他们钟爱的任务没在那些被推迟的里面,或者即使被取消,也要让新望远镜保持运作。 /201306/243322

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