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The Three Kingdoms三国Battle of Red Cliffs赤壁之战In 208, Zhou Yu and Liu Bei led their forces to fight Cao Cao.208年,周瑜和刘备领导他们的军队抗击曹操。Cao Cao led a force of 300 000 to attack Wu.曹操带领300000兵力攻击吴国。Zhou Yu led the Wu forces (30 000) with Liu Bei’s forces (20 000).周瑜带领吴国的30000人马和刘备的20000人马。Cao Cao had previously linked his ships together because his men were mainly composed of Northerners who were not accustomed to fighting on water;they were also sick after an epidemic.曹操在开战前就将他的船只都拴在了一起因为他的军队中大多是北方人,不习惯于水上作战,而且将士们还感染了风寒。In the mean time, Huang Gai faked himself a turncoat, seeking giving top secret of Wu’s army to Cao Cao.同时,黄盖装作吴国的叛徒,企图将吴军的顶级机密告诉曹操。At the night of the battle, Huang Gai fabricated his escape from the South side of the Yangtse River where Wu’s camp is to the North side where Wei’s base is.作战之夜,黄盖假装从扬子江南边的吴军营地溜到了北边的魏军营地。Near the Northern bank, Huang Gai set his tail boat on fire.他在北岸附近点燃了自己的长尾船。The Cao Cao’s armada, connected together, was caught fired in the bay and nearly totally destroyed.曹操联接在一起的舰队在河湾上着了火,几乎全军覆没。Zhou Yu, at this time, sent his whole army against Cao Cao’s army which lost all its morale.这时周瑜派出所有士兵袭击丧失斗志的曹操军队。Cao Cao decided it would be best to retreat.曹操决定最好先撤退。The result of the Battle of Red Clifk greatly hindered Cao Cao’s expension across Yangtse River into the Southern China.赤壁之战的结果极大地阻止了曹操跨过扬子江向中国南部的扩张。 /201510/398244

The Spring and Autumn Period and the Warring States Period春秋战国时期Warring States Period战国时期After long-term wars, seven kingdoms, namely Qi, Chu, Yan, Han, Zhao, Wei and Qin, appeared as the most powerful states in this period, known as the “Seven Overlords” in history.经过长期的战争,齐,楚,燕,韩,赵,魏、秦,战国时期内最强大的国家,史称“战国七雄”。To expand their forces and territories, the seven overlords, on the one hand, carried out reforms in their own states to strengthen themselves and,为了扩大自己的势力范围和领土,这七大国一方面对内实行改革,使自己更大强大,on the other, were warring against each other and scheming to annex other states, which gave rise to the situation of seven powerful states existing side by side and struggling against each other.另一方面对外交战,意图兼并他国,这导致了战国七雄相互歌剧混战的局面。Qin, situated in the remote west, used to be a vassal state enfeoffed by King Ping for Qin Xianggong’s contribution of escorting the king on his move east.秦,位于西部偏远,曾经是周平王因秦襄公护送东迁有功而册封给他的诸侯国。During the Spring and Autumn Period, Qin Mugong annexed twelve states, largely expanding his territory, making himself an overlord.在春秋战国时期,秦穆公吞并十二个国家,极大地扩大了自己的领土,使其成为一代霸主。During the Warring States Period, Qin, because of its outlying position, was more backward than the states in the Central Plains.在战国时期,由于秦国偏远的地形,其相较于中原诸国落后的多。When Qin Xiaogong was in power, Shangyang, an aristocratic descendant of the Wei kingdom, was entrusted by the monarch to carry out a series of reforms in 359 and 350 to strengthen the power of Qin.秦孝公当政时,商鞅,卫国的贵族后裔,在公元前359年至公元前350年奉命开展了一系列的改革,以加强秦国的实力。Shangyang’s reforms include abolishing the outdated well-field system, legalizing the private ownership of land, canceling the hereditary system of rank and initiating a county system.商鞅变法包括废除过时的井田制,使土地私有制合法化,取消职级的世袭制,改用县制。In addition, Qin also paid attention to the development of agriculture.此外,秦还重视农业的发展。Around 250 , Libing, a governor of Shu prefecture (present Sichuan Province), together with his son, directed the construction of Dujiangyan Irrigation Project, which not only controlled flooding but also irrigated the whole Chengdu Plain.大约在公元前250年,李冰,蜀地的省长(现四川省),与其儿子一道,领导了都江堰水利工程的建造,它不仅控制了洪水的泛滥,同时还灌溉了整个成都平原。Qin, based on the reforms and improvements, quickly became a powerful state, laying a solid foundation for the future unification of China by Emperor Qin Shi Huang.秦在改革进步的基础上迅速成为一个实力强大的国家,为日后秦始皇统一中国奠定了坚实的基础。At the end of Warring States, the royal house of Eastern Zhou existed in name only. In 256 , Qin dispatched army and defeated the Eastern Zhou Dynasty.在战国末期,东周王室名存实亡。公元前256年,秦出动军队,打败东周。Before long, after King Yingzheng succeeded to the throne, he expedited his project of annexation and finally in 221 united China and established a unified, multinational, autocratic and power-centralized state, putting an end to the Waning States Period.没过多久,嬴政继承王位后,他加快吞的步伐并最终在公元前221年统一中国,建立起一个统一的多民族的专制集权的国家,结束了战国时期。At the end of Western Han Dynasty (206 —24 AD), Liu Xiang, based on the information about this period, compiled a book and named it the History of Warring States according to the character of this period. Later generations then named this chaotic era the Warring States Period.在西汉末期(公元前206年至公元24年),刘向在有关这一时期的资料的基础上,根据这一时期的特点,将史料编撰成书《战国策叙录》。后人遂将这个混乱的时代命名为战国时期。 /201509/395429

Doctors are less likely to die in hospital, have surgery or be admitted to intensive care, than the general public, new research has revealed.一项新研究表明,比起普罗大众,医生死于医院、接受手术,或接受重症监护的几率更低。While most people report a wish to die at home rather than in a medical facility, the majority of deaths do occur in a hospital or nursing home setting.多数人都希望能在家安详地离开人世,但他们往往最终死于医院,或在养老院离世。However, a recent study suggests doctors are more likely to die in a manner more consistent with end-of-life wishes, than the general population.不过,近来一项研究表明,比起普罗大众,医生更有机会如自己所愿的那样安然离世。Experts suggest one of the reasons doctors may receive less intensive end-of-life care is because they are all too aware of the burden it places on both the patient and their loved ones.专家指出,医生较少接受临终陪护的原因之一,是他们在有生之年阅尽了病人和他们的家人在这方面所受的负担和苦楚。Another reason, they put forward, is that doctors know better than most the benefits of palliative care in the home—and are able to afford to pay for the often expensive nursing.另外,家庭安宁护理具有何种优势,医生也更心知肚明。而且,他们往往负担得起高额陪护费。The study examined whether doctors receive higher or lower intensity end-of-life treatments compared with non-physicians.研究人员收集了医生与非医护人员的数据样本,旨在比对两者在临终时接受的陪护情况。They examined the medical records of people aged 66 or older who died between 2004 and 2011 in Massachusetts, Michigan, Utah and Vermont.他们收集了马萨诸塞、密歇根、犹他与佛蒙特四州2004至2011年66岁(含)以上人口的医疗记录。Researchers concluded doctors were less likely to die in a hospital compared with the general population - 28 percent versus 32 percent.研究结论是,与普罗大众相比,医生死于医院病榻的几率较小。前者达32%,后者为28%。They were also less likely to have surgery—25 percent versus 27 percent—and were less likely to be admitted to intensive care—26 percent versus 28 percent.另外,医生接受手术,或需接受重症监护的几率也更低,分别为25%与26%。相较之下,普罗大众的几率则达27%与28%。The authors wrote: #39;The possible reasons physicians received less intense end-of-life care than others could be knowledge of its burdens and futility, as well as the benefits and the financial resources to pay for other treatment options, such as palliative care or skilled nursing required for death at home.#39;研究人员写道:“医生较少接受临终重症监护,或许因为他们明白此举徒劳无功,也可能因为他们更偏爱,且负担得起安宁护理、家庭陪护等其他方式。”Addressing the issue, Dr Jacquelyn Corley said: #39;There comes a time for every person when his or her identity is gone, and the quality of life should be valued more than the mere presence of it.#39;谈到临终陪护问题,杰奎琳·科利士总结道:“人到晚年,还谈什么身份不身份的。如何走得安详宁静,才是最值得关心的。”That, she said is a view shared by many healthcare professionals.她说,这一点,许多医护人员都心知肚明。 /201602/427443


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