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2018年09月25日 14:44:13 | 作者:飞度咨询公立医院 | 来源:新华社
Do violent games trigger real-world violence? It#39;s easy to believe that they might, especially in the wake of recent tragedies like the fatal shooting of an elderly woman allegedly by an 8-year-old who had been playing ;Grand Theft Auto.;玩暴力游戏会不会在现实生活中也变得很暴力?是的,最近一个八岁的孩子因为玩“侠盗猎车手”,之后混淆了现实生活与虚幻的游戏场景,将一名老太太打死了。But despite decades of research into the possibility that the mayhem depicted in ;Grand Theft Auto,; ;Mortal Kombat,; and similar games is turning our kids into merciless killers, scientists have yet to find a smoking gun. At least they haven#39;t been able to agree which way the gun is pointing.尽管几十年以来,很多研究都指出,像《侠盗猎车手》和《真人快打》之类的暴力血腥游戏有可能会影响未成年人对真实世界的判断,以至于最后杀人,成为犯罪分子。然而,科学家还没有确凿的据明暴力游戏可以直接导致未成年人犯罪,至少说还不能对暴力游戏就是犯罪的元凶这一点上达成一致。The research has yielded conflicting results, with some studies showing a link between the games and real-world violence and others showing no such link.关于暴力游戏与现实中的暴力之间的关系的研究出现了争议。一些研究认为两者间有着必然联系,而另一些研究认为两者间没有必然联系。The American Academy of Child amp; Adolescent Psychiatry maintains that ;studies ofchildren exposed to violence have shown that they can become #39;immune#39; or numb to the horror of violence, imitate the violence they see, and show more aggressive behavior with greater exposure to violence.;美国儿童和青少年精神病协会认为“有研究表明,儿童长期接触暴力可以导致他们对暴力或恐惧免疫,或是对暴力和恐惧不敏感。他们可能会模仿他们所接触过的暴力场景,在暴力环境里成长的孩子会更好斗。”But not everyone is convinced.但是这一点不是所有的人都同意的。Research ;has really not provided much evidence for links between game violence and youth violence, at least not within general samples of kids,; Dr. Christopher Ferguson, professor of psychology at Stetson University in DeLand, Fla. and a leading expert on the psychological and behavioral effects of game playing, told The Huffington Post in an email. ;At this point the evidence has pretty well ruled out the idea that game violence causes #39;normal#39; kids to behave violently.;佛罗里达州迪兰的斯泰森大学心理学教授Christopher Ferguson是心理学领域的专家,同时也是研究行为与游戏之间的联系的专家。他在给哈芬顿邮报的邮件中讲到:“所有的相关研究没有提供足够的据来说明暴力游戏和青少年暴力行为之间的关系,至少这些研究没有针对广大的普通儿童。”“这些相关的据也排除了暴力游戏会造成普通青少年暴力行为的直接联系。 The same may also hold true for ;vulnerable; children -- those with emotional and neurodevelopmental disorders. A new study by Ferguson and a colleague showed thatkids with symptoms of depression or ADHD who played violent games were no more likely than other kids to become bullies or delinquents. In fact, playing the games seemed to have a mild calming effect on youths with attentional deficits, reducing their aggression and bullying behaviorThe study involved 377 American children from various ethnic groups, with an average age of 13. It was published online in the Journal of Youth and Adolescence暴力游戏可能对某些情绪化和神经发育障碍的孩子造成影响。费格森和他的同事的研究表明患有抑郁症和多动症的孩子相比正常的孩子更容易受暴力游戏的影响变成恶霸。其实,游戏对于正常孩子来讲有轻微的镇静作用,将暴力情绪转移到游戏中,从而减少在现实生活中的暴力行为。费格森的研究对象为377名平均年龄13岁的不同种族的美国儿童。这一项研究发表在在线杂志《青少年》上发表。Ferguson acknowledged that the new findings might not apply in extreme cases, such as those involving youths who commit mass homicides. But, he added, ;Statistically speaking it would actually be more unusual if a youth delinquent or shooter did not play violent games, given that the majority of youth and young men play such games at least occasionally.;费格森承认,他的研究不针对一些极端个案,比如说一些青少年杀人犯。但他补充道:“从数据上看,品行不端或杀人的青少年一般都玩过暴力游戏,然而大多数青少年或多或少地都玩过此类游戏。”Adam Lanza, the 20-year-old responsible for last year#39;s Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting, reportedly was obsessed with games.20岁的Adam Lanza,是近期圣地胡可小学击案主犯。根据报道,他曾沉迷于游戏。What#39;s a parent to do? ;Learn the ESRB ratings,; Ferguson said, referring to the ratings issued by the Entertainment Software Review Board. ;If parents understand the ratings systems, they may be less worried about not having control over their children#39;s media access.;父母应该怎样做呢?“要对游戏分级有意识” 费格森说道。游戏分级是指软件审核会对游戏的定级。如果父母明白游戏的分级, 父母就不用那么担心对孩子在多媒体方面的管控。That might not help a -game-obsessed child get fitter or earn better grades, but it could protect parents from what Ferguson calls the ;moral panic; that stems from the misguided assumption that shoot-#39;em-up games turn kids into shooters.这个方法可能对游戏上瘾的孩子没有太大的帮助,但是确实可以帮助父母不会那么恐慌游戏对孩子的负面影响,不会觉得射击游戏就会把孩子变成手。本译文属 /201308/254720AIRLINES are wonderful generators of profit-for everyone except themselves. Even in good times their margins are as thin as a boarding pass, and in recent years they have more often lost money (see chart). Averaged over the past four decades, the net profit margin of the world#39;s airlines, taken together, has been a measly 0.1%. By contrast, other bits of the travel business that depend on the airlines-such as aircraft-makers, travel agents, airports, caterers and maintenance firms-have done very nicely.航空公司的生意带来大量的利润,但自己却所赚无几。即使在经济繁荣的时期,他们的利润空间也少得可怜。近几年来,航空公司常常亏本(见图表)。过去的四十年中,把全球航空公司算在一起,平均的总净利润率只有极其微薄的0.1%。相比之下,其他依赖航空公司生存的旅游业务却表现突出,如飞机制造商,旅行社,机场,餐饮业和负责维修的公司等。Some of the tastiest margins in the travel business are enjoyed by the ;global distribution systems; (GDSs), a fancy name for computerised-reservations services. These were originally created by several of the largest airlines to distribute their flights through travel agencies but have since become independent firms. Most flights booked through a physical or online travel agent go through a GDS, which charges the airline a fee of about per round trip, passing a few dollars of that to the travel agent. According to Take Travel Forward, an airlines#39; lobby group, the world#39;s carriers pay billion in GDS fees a year-more than double their expected net profits this year of billion.旅游生意里最丰厚的利润被;全球分销系统;(简称GDS)所独享。全球分销系统是电脑预定务,它原本由几家大型航空公司组建以通过旅行社来销售班机票务,但现已成为独立的公司。大多数的航班是由实体或网上旅行社通过全球分销系统所预定,一次往返行程要收取航空公司12美元的费用,其中要分几美元给旅行社。据航空公司的游说团体;Take Travel Forward;表示,全球的航空公司每年要付70亿美元给GDS, 这是他们期待今年达到30亿美元纯利润的一倍多。The airlines#39; chronic unprofitability is partly the result of a wave of competition-especially from new low-cost carriers-unleashed by the steady deregulation of aviation since the 1970s. But it is also due to two moves by the airlines, from the 1990s onwards, that in retrospect were strategic errors. One was to stop paying direct commissions to travel agents. The other was to set the reservation systems free to become (as the airlines see it) profit-gobbling monsters that devour their parents.长期以来,航空公司盈利少的部分原因是自20世纪70年代起取消航空规范管理所竞争的结果,尤其是来自新成立的低成本航空公司的压力。但从20世纪90年代起,航空公司自己的两大战略错误也恶化了这一局面。其一是停止直接付佣金给旅行社,其二使预订系统免费(如航空公司认为的)使其成为攫取利润的怪兽,正要吞噬它的衣食父母。At the dawn of the internet age, airlines assumed that the middlemen who came between them and their passengers were headed for extinction. Travellers would eventually buy tickets either from the airlines#39; own websites or from price-comparison engines which hooked up directly to the airlines#39; computers over the web. So why pay commissions to agents? And why continue to own reservation systems, especially since regulators had stopped them from fiddling with travel agents#39; GDS screens to place their own flights at the top? So Lufthansa, Air France and Iberia sold most of their shares in Amadeus (the largest GDS); American Airlines sold Sabre; British Airways and KLM sold out of Galileo; and so on.在互联网时代之初,航空公司认为他们和乘客之间的中间商即将出局。旅客们会从航空公司自己的网站上或从和航空公司计算机直接相连的价格比较引擎上直接购票。那么,为什么还要付给代理商佣金呢?为什么还要继续拥有自己的预订系统,特别是由于监管机构已经禁止他们与旅行社协议将自家的航班放在GDS屏幕的最上方。因此,汉莎航空、法航和伊比利亚出售其拥有的艾玛迪斯(全球最大的分销系统)的股份;美国航空公司出售Sabre,英国航空公司和荷兰皇家航空出售Galileo等等。However, the loss of direct commission from airlines made travel agents more beholden to the GDSs, which not only slip them a share of fees but also provide their back-office computing. Many online travel agencies have come to resemble physical ones, signing up with a GDS which provides a reservations system and other computing power while handing them a commission (ultimately paid by the airlines) on every booking. Despite airlines#39; efforts to make travellers bypass agents and come to their own websites, less than half of flights are booked this way.旅行社失去了从航空公司获得的直接佣金,转而更加依赖全球分销系统,这不仅使他们失去了一部分的所得,同时还要提供后台计算。许多在线旅行社都像实体店一样,和GDS签署了协议,提供预约系统和其他电脑计算,同时每有一笔订单还要交付一部分佣金(最终由航空公司买单)。尽管航空公司努力使旅客绕过旅行社直接到他们的网站预订,但不足半数的航班票是采用这种方式预订的。Some airlines have thrown in the towel and let a GDS take over the running of all their in-house systems for handling passengers-in some cases, even their websites. Bookings on BA.com, for example, are handled by Amadeus. Some low-cost carriers, such as easyJet, which had at first refused to use GDSs have relented. This is because they want to reach high-value business flyers, who often make bookings through corporate travel agents—which, in turn, use a GDS to compile their itineraries.一些航空公司已经认输,让GDS接管其内部乘客系统的运行。在某些情况下,甚至还包括他们的网站。例如,在BA.com上的预订已由艾玛迪斯运行。一些低成本航空公司,如易捷航空,在最开始拒绝使用GDS系统,而现在已经动心了。这是因为他们想要拿到高价值的商业单,这些人往往通过企业代理旅行社预订,最为交换,易捷航空现在用GDS编写行程单。Although there are some big emerging travel markets, such as Brazil and India, where the GDSs#39; grip is weaker, in others they have been successful in signing up new agents and airlines. China#39;s government is nurturing a state-owned version, TravelSky. The middlemen the airlines wanted to do away with remain comfortably entrenched.虽然,在一些大的新兴旅游市场,如巴西和印度,全球分销系统的控制力还较弱。在其他的国家,GDS已经成功地签了新的旅行社和航空公司。中国政府正在扶持一个国有的分销系统:民航(Travelsky)。航空公司希望剔除中间商的想法根深蒂固。In recent years the main hope for restoring airline profitability has been ancillaries: all those extra charges for meals, checked bags, less-cramped seats and the like. The trouble is, carriers grumble, the GDSs#39; computer systems have struggled to cope with them, which makes it hard to flog such extras to passengers who book through agents. Like other airline chiefs, Qatar Airways#39; boss, Akbar Al Baker, complains of GDSs#39; slowness in updating their systems to cope with all these options, but he admits that they cannot do without the GDSs because they provide such a big share of their reservations.近年来,航空公司一直视附加务为盈利的最大希望:在餐点、托运行李、宽敞的座位上收取额外的费用等。航空公司抱怨道,问题是,全球分销系统的电脑系统却不能满足这些选择,这就使得想在通过旅行社订票的旅客身上收取额外的费用难上加难。和其他航空公司的老板一样,卡塔尔航空公司的老板贝克尔(Akbar Al Baker)先生抱怨全球分销系统更新缓慢,不能处理这些选项,但他也承认,他们离不了全球分销系统,因为它为公司提供的订单所占份额很大。American Airlines, Air Canada and a few other carriers have tried to do so, by setting up a ;direct connect; service, by which travel agents (physical or online) can bypass the GDSs and hook up to the airline#39;s internal system to book both the basic flight and extras. To get any traction with this, the carriers are having to revert to paying agents commission-though less than they pay the GDSs. So far agents have mostly stuck with the GDSs: rebuilding their IT systems to make direct connections to airlines is expensive, and their contracts with GDSs may make it costly too.美国航空、加拿大航空和其它一些航空公司已经尝试通过设立;直接连接;的务,通过旅行社(实体店或网店)绕过全球分销系统,和该航空公司的内部系统相连,可以预定都基本航班和附加务。为此,航空公司要重新付佣金给旅行社—虽然这笔钱比付给GDS 的数额要少。但目前为止,代理商深陷全球分销系统之中:要重建他们的IT系统,和航空公司直接连接耗价巨大,但他们与全球分销系统所定的合同也价值不菲。The search is on搜索在继续Hoping to solve these problems, the airlines#39; international association, IATA, is working on a grandly titled ;new distribution capability;. One of its main elements will be a common technical standard for direct-connect services. The GDSs could make use of such services, so as to sell the airlines#39; full range of extras as well as just flights. But perhaps of more interest to the airlines is that it would become easier for travel agents to build computer systems that deal directly with airlines. It would also become easier for search engines to scour the web for flights, assemble a list of options for travellers, then let them click through to the website of their chosen airline to complete the booking—again without a GDS#39;s involvement.为了解决这些问题,航空公司国际组织:国际航空运输协会, 正致力于一个名为;新分销能力;的宏大项目。它的主旨之一是为直接联系务建立一个共同技术标准。全球分销系统也可以利用这些务,从而为航空公司销售各类附加务,或者仅仅只是提供订票务。但,也许航空公司更感兴趣的是,它使得旅行社建立电脑系统和航空公司相连变得容易了许多。同时,也使得搜索引擎可以更加容易地搜索网页上的航班信息,形成列表提供给旅客,旅客们可以通过在网站上点击经它们筛选过的航班完成预定—在这过程中,没有GDS的参与。Such a service is aly offered by Google (which has bought ITA, an airline-software firm, and Frommer#39;s, a guidebook publisher, as part of its push into the travel business). The airlines hope that common technical standards will also encourage the creation of lots of innovative new travel-search firms. Adam Wood, an analyst at Morgan Stanley, is sceptical: it would be hugely expensive for any new entrant to replicate the existing GDSs#39; heavy spending on technology: the need for such investment makes flight distribution a business that naturally tends towards an oligopoly, he reckons.谷歌现已提供此类务(Google购买了已经购买了航空软件公司ITA和指南出版商Frommer,作为进军旅游业务的一部分)。航空公司希望共同技术标准也将促进更多的新型旅行搜索公司的诞生。根士丹利的分析师亚当#8226;伍德对此表示怀疑:任何新晋企业想要复制全球分销系统,都要在技术上投入大量资金。对投资的需求会使得航班分销生意趋于寡头垄断,他做出如上预测。IATA hopes to have its new technical standards agreed by the end of the year-though as a rule, getting airlines to agree on such things is tricky. Then there would be the problem of implementation; the industry, like every other, has seen ambitious IT projects fail disastrously. Suppose that IATA does persuade hundreds of airlines to agree on the new technical standards, and successfully build computer systems that run on them. Even then, admits Gary Doernhoefer, an IATA official, the GDSs#39; grip on the industry may not change much without regulatory action to unpick their cosy agreements with travel agents.国际航空运输协会希望今年底可以通过新的技术标准。尽管这是条规则,但想获得航空公司的同意却有些棘手。随后还要面临着实施这条规则的问题:航空行业和其他行业一样,都曾经历过大型IT项目惨败的结局。假设国际航空运输协会说了数航空公司同意新的技术标准,并成功地建立了运行的电脑系统。即使这样,如若不消除航空公司和旅行社之间联系紧密的协议, 全球分销系统对整个行业的控制可能也不会发生太大的变化,国际航空运输协会官员加里承认道。Regulators are indeed looking into the issue. An investigation into the GDSs by America#39;s Department of Justice is quietly ticking over, and the European Commission is reviewing its code of conduct for them. Meanwhile, two of America#39;s big carriers have taken GDSs to court over the tactics they use to maintain their hold over travel agents. American Airlines#39; case against Sabre is due to begin in a Texas state court in October. AA has also filed suits in federal courts against Sabre and Travelport (which owns Galileo and Worldspan and part-owns Orbitz, an online travel agency), as has US Airways against Sabre.监管机构确实在调查这方面的问题。美国司法部正在调查全球分销系统,欧洲委员会也在审查他们的行为准则。同时,美国两大航空公司已经将GDS告上法庭,控告他们使用不正当手法控制旅行社。美国航空公司对Sabre的这场官司将于10月在得克萨斯州法开庭。美国航空还在联邦法院对Sabre和Travelport(拥有Galileo和Worldspan,和部分线上旅行社Orbitz的股份)提起诉讼,The GDSs, meanwhile, are lobbying America#39;s Department of Transportation to force airlines to include ;core; extras (such as bag fees and check-in charges) in the fares they e to the GDSs, to make for fairer comparisons with carriers that offer all-inclusive fares. Cory Garner, a senior executive at AA, says that in principle his airline is more than happy to provide such information, but its main worry is that the lobbying will prompt the government to lay down overly prescriptive rules on how it is provided. IATA and other airline associations fear a worse outcome: that they may be banned from offering any exclusive fares or promotions to agents which book directly rather than through a GDS. The department is expected to announce any rule changes in November.与此同时,GDS游说美国运输部强制航空公司在给 GDS的费用中加上;核心;费用(如行李费和检查费),这可以更加公平地对比航空公司之间的完全报价。美国航空高级管理人员科里#8226;加纳表示:原则上,他所在的航空公司很乐意提供这样的信息,但仍有疑虑,游说组织将促使政府下达过于规定性的条约:规定怎么提供这些方式。国际航空运输协会和航空公司担心更坏的结果:旅客直接订票而不是通过GDS来订票,它们可能会被禁止向代理结构提供任何额外的费用或者增额。运输部预计在11月份宣布变化的条规。Both sides can claim to be the consumer#39;s champion. The airlines argue that the cost of the middlemen adds to the price of tickets (though the superficial evidence suggests that it is airline shareholders who suffer). They say they want to reform the distribution system to offer flyers a wider choice and a more individually tailored service. The GDSs argue that they provide travellers, through their agents, with impartial comparisons of all available flights, allowing them to get the best value.双方都宣称选择自己是消费者的胜利。航空公司认为,中间商的成本增加了机票的价格(虽然从表面上看吃亏的是航空公司的股东)。他们表示想要改革分配制度,给旅客提供更广泛的选择和更个性化的务。GDS表示通过他们的代理人,提供给旅客所有航班的之间公平的比较,使得旅客能够获得最好的价值。Svend Leirvaag, an executive at Amadeus, argues that it#39;s a pity the airlines fixate so much on GDS fees, which at around 2% of their revenues are much less than the money the industry could save by fighting such things as ever-increasing travel taxes and the unfair subsidies that prop up some state-owned carriers. The airlines are lobbying for these things too, but they would still like to cut the cost of the middlemen.艾玛迪斯的主管斯文拉瓦格(音译Leirvaag)表示很遗憾:航空公司总是盯着GDS费用不放,但是这些费用只占航空公司总收入的2%,它们可以通过减少不断增长的航空税和不不公平的补贴来节省钱,这都比给GDS的钱要多得多。那些不公平的补贴持了一些国有的航空公司。航空公司也在为这些而游说,但是他们仍然专注于减少在中间商身上的开销。 /201209/197585

Web Ad Sales Open Door To VirusesOn a Saturday night at the end of May, visitors to the forums section of Digital Spy, a British entertainment and media news Web site, were greeted with an ad that loaded malicious software onto their computers. The Web site's advertising system had been hacked.A number of such attacks have occurred this year, as perpetrators exploit the complex structure of business relationships in the online advertising, with its numerous middlemen and resellers. Web security experts say they have seen an uptick in the number of ads harboring malware as the economy has soured and publishers, needing to boost their ad revenues, outsource more of their ad-space sales.Viruses can be incorporated directly within an ad, so that simply clicking on the ad or visiting the site can infect a computer, or ads can be used to direct users to a nefarious Web site that aims to steal passwords or identities. In most cases, the problem becomes apparent within a matter of hours and quick fixes are put in place, but that's not fast enough for Internet surfers whose computers end up infected or compromised.'The system is only as safe as its least secure members, and some of these members can be strikingly insecure,' says Ben Edelman, an assistant professor at Harvard Business School who researches Web security issues.EWeek.com, a technology news site owned by Ziff Davis Enterprise, in February displayed an ad on its homepage masquerading as a promotion for LaCoste, the shirt maker. The retailer hadn't placed the ad -- a hacker had, to direct users to a Web site where harmful programs would be downloaded to their computers, says Stephen Wellman, director of community and content for Ziff Davis.Similar attacks occurred across a series of News Corp.-owned sites in February, including AmericanIdol.com, FoxNews.com and IGN.com. In January, clicking on an ad on Major League Baseball's MLB.com led visitors to a site with malware.Digital Spy, Ziff Davis, Fox and MLB all say that immediately after they detected the incidents, they isolated the ads and removed them from their sites.Digital Spy sells the ad space on its forums section, visited by three million unique visitors a month, through a number of other companies, called ad networks. If one ad network doesn't sell the space to a marketer directly, it often will sell it to another network. The space also can be outsourced to ad exchanges, another set of companies, which hold an electronic auction for online ads.'As that chain gets longer, it becomes more and more difficult to vet the ads to make sure there are no viruses in them,' says James Welsh, co-founder of Digital Spy, owned by Hachette Filipacchi. 'There was a lack of scrupulous checking somewhere along that line, and an attacker seized upon this and used it as a route to inject some very nasty malware onto our site.''Hackers are like any other criminal out there. They look for opportunities where there is the largest number of people gathered, because they will get the best return on their efforts,' says Hemanshu Nigam, who oversees safety, security and privacy for News Corp.'s online properties, including MySpace. News Corp. also owns Dow Jones, publisher of The Wall Street Journal.Web publishers say they have started limiting the number of companies they outsource their ad selling to and are working with security vendors, such as San Francisco-based ClickFacts, to detect malicious software on their networks and remove it as quickly as possible.Ad technology companies and Internet companies say they, too, are making efforts to boost the security of their systems. Microsoft, Google and Time Warner's AOL say they use a series of technical and manual procedures to scan for malicious code in their systems.AOL says that in addition to digital virus scans, it employs a team of people to review each of the thousands of Web sites interested in entering its ad network and each of the advertisers that want to run an ad campaign across these sites. Microsoft says it verifies the legitimacy of the companies it does business with and deploys technologies that scan ads and Web sites to mitigate attacks.'It is an issue that we take very seriously,' says Alex Gounares, corporate vice president of ads and commerce research and development at Microsoft, which operates some of the largest online ad technology systems. 'I don't know if it will ever go away. The world has evildoers.'Emily Steel /200906/74727

Gay marriage, and especially gay parenting, has been in the cross hairs in recent days.同性恋结婚,特别是同性恋双亲,近日颇受关注。On Jan. 6, Republican presidential hopeful Rick Santorum told a New Hampshire audience that children are better off with a father in prison than being raised in a home with lesbian parents and no father at all. And last Monday (Jan. 9), Pope Benedict called gay marriage a threat ;to the future of humanity itself,; citing the need for children to have heterosexual homes.1月6日,来自共和党的总统候选人里克bull;桑托姆对新罕布什尔州的观众说,比起那些被女同性恋抚养,根本就没有父亲的孩子,那些父亲身处监狱中的孩子境况更好。上周一(1月9日)教皇本笃以孩子需要异性恋的家庭为论据,将同性恋婚姻称作对;人类未来;的威胁。But research on families headed by gays and lesbians doesn#39;t back up these dire assertions. In fact, in some ways, gay parents may bring talents to the table that straight parents don#39;t.但是对同性恋家庭的调查并不持这一可怕的言论。事实上,在某些方面,同性恋父母可能会激发孩子的才能,而性取向正常的父母却不能。Gay parents ;tend to be more motivated, more committed than heterosexual parents on average, because they chose to be parents,; said Abbie Goldberg, a psychologist at Clark University in Massachusetts who researches gay and lesbian parenting. Gays and lesbians rarely become parents by accident, compared with an almost 50 percent accidental pregnancy rate among heterosexuals, Goldberg said. ;That translates to greater commitment on average and more involvement.;同性恋父母;比异性恋父母普遍更有动力、更勇于承担,因为他们做父母是出自自己的选择,; 艾比bull;高伯如是说,她是马萨诸塞州克拉克大学的心理学家,研究同性恋父母对子女的养育。异性恋夫妇约有50%的人是意外怀从而成为父母的,而同性恋很少是意外成为父母的,高伯说,;这就解释了同性恋父母为什么普遍更勇于承担,在抚养子女上投入更多。;And while research indicates that kids of gay parents show few differences in achievement, mental health, social functioning and other measures, these kids may have the advantage of open-mindedness, tolerance and role models for equitable relationships, according to some research. Not only that, but gays and lesbians are likely to provide homes for difficult-to-place children in the foster system, studies show.研究表明,同性恋父母抚养的孩子在成就、心理健康和社交及其他方面和其他孩子并没有什么不同,这些孩子可能在某些方面还具有优势,如思想开明、宽容,他们在平等关系方面也有人做榜样。研究显示,同性恋父母还可能收容那些福利系统难以安排的孩子。Research has shown that the kids of same-sex couples ; both adopted and biological kids ; fare no worse than the kids of straight couples on mental health, social functioning, school performance and a variety of other life-success measures.研究显示,同性夫妻的孩子,不管是养子还是亲生子,在心理、社交、学业还有很多其它人生成就方面都不比正常夫妻的孩子差。Children of gay parents also reported feeling less stymied by gender stereotypes than they would have been if raised in straight households. That#39;s likely because gays and lesbians tend to have more egalitarian relationships than straight couples, Goldberg said.比起正常家庭成长起来的孩子,同性恋父母抚养的孩子较少因为性别受到阻碍,高伯说,这很有可能是因为同性恋夫妻比异性恋夫妻的关系更平等。;Men and women felt like they were free to pursue a wide range of interests,; Goldberg said. ;Nobody was telling them, #39;Oh, you can#39;t do that, that#39;s a boy thing,#39; or #39;That#39;s a girl thing.#39;;高伯说,;同性恋家庭中成长起来的男性和女性都觉得他们可以自由地追求广泛的爱好。没有人会对他们说,lsquo;噢,你不能这么做,这是男孩该做的或这是女孩该做的。rsquo;;词汇点津:in the cross hairs: 受到关注role model: 榜样角色;模范 /201201/168637

Central banks in Europe and Asia attempted to stimulate the sluggish global economy yesterday by loosening monetary policy and cutting interest rates. 昨日,欧洲和亚洲各国央行纷纷放松货币政策及降低利率,以求刺激疲弱的全球经济。 The People#39;s Bank of China surprised investors by lowering its main one-year lending rate by 0.31 percentage points to 6 per cent, showing that the economic slowdown extends beyond Europe. 出乎投资者意料的是,中国人民(PBoC)将一年期基准贷款利率调低0.31个百分点,至6%,表明经济放缓已经蔓延到欧洲以外。 As expected, the European Central Bank cut its main interest rate by a quarter point to 0.75 per cent, the lowest on record, and the Bank of England restarted money-printing and pumped an extra pound;50bn into the UK economy, taking the total to pound;375bn. 正如各方所预期的,欧洲央行(ECB)将其主导利率下调25个基点,至0.75%这一历史最低点。英国央行(Bank of England)则再次启动印钞机,向英国经济再注入500亿英镑,至此英国央行已总共;印钞;3750亿英镑。 The central banks#39; moves come as global business surveys show much weaker growth than expected this year. The global composite purchasing managers#39; index of activity in services and manufacturing, compiled by JPMorgan, dropped to 50.3 in July, its lowest since 2009. 各国央行采取行动之际,全球商业调查显示,今年经济增长显著弱于预期。7月份,根大通(JPMorgan)编制的务业和制造业全球综合采购经理指数(PMI)降至50.3,为2009年以来的新低。 The action by the ECB did little to lift sentiment on European assets, which have now ended their rally after last week#39;s summit. The euro fell about 1 per cent to below .24 in late London trading, while 10-year borrowing costs for Spain jumped 0.4 percentage points to more than 6.75 per cent, reversing the past week#39;s movement away from the danger zone. 欧洲央行的举措并没有提振人们对欧洲资产的信心,上周峰会后欧洲金融资产的涨势现在已经告终。伦敦接近收盘时,欧元兑美元汇率已跌破1欧元兑1.24美元水平,当日跌幅约为1%。西班牙十年期借贷成本上升0.4个百分点,达到逾6.75%,重返上周的危险水平。 In Frankfurt, Mario Draghi, president of the ECB, said the rate cuts were taken independently by central banks and those in the eurozone reflected weak growth, ;with heightened uncertainty weighing on confidence and sentiment;.欧洲央行行长马里奥#8226;德拉吉(Mario Draghi)在法兰克福(Frankfurt)表示,各国央行和欧元区分别降息表明增长乏力,;不确定性上升,对人们的信心和情绪形成压力;。 Insisting that the rate cut was unanimous among all 17 eurozone members, the ECB also cut its deposit rate, the rate paid to banks parking money overnight at the central bank, to zero. The move will provide banks with a large deposit base a greater incentive to lend to other eurozone banks overnight. 欧洲央行坚称,欧元区17个成员国一致同意降息,欧洲央行还将面向各成员国的隔夜存款利率降到零。此举将为拥有较大存款基础的提供更大激励,推动它们为欧元区其他提供隔夜放贷。 The Danish central bank took this step one stage further, taking its deposit rate into negative territory for the first time, imposing a 0.2 per cent annual charge on certificates of deposit. 丹麦央行则更进一步,首次将其存款利率降为负值,对存款收取0.2%的年度收费。 With interest rates in London aly at their lowest in more than 300 years, the Bank of England opted for a third-wave of quantitative easing, blaming ;the increased drag from the heightened tensions within the euro area; for the recent descent of Britain#39;s economy into a double-dip recession. 英国利率早已降到300多年以来的最低点,英国央行选择了第三次量化宽松举措,并将最近英国经济陷入二次衰退归咎于;欧元区紧张加剧,造成更大拖累;。 /201207/189429

Working women get just 30 minutes of "me time" a day 职场女性每天只有30分钟“个人专属时间” Sarah Jessica Parker recently played a frantic working mother struggling to "have it all" 莎拉#8226;杰西卡#8226;帕克最近扮演了一名拼命地想多头兼顾的忙乱的职场母亲。 But it seems life is imitating art as women across the country are so busy juggling their work and home lives - they barely have any time to themselves. 然而,现实生活似乎在模仿艺术——全英国的女性都在工作和家庭生活间疲于奔命,几乎没有属于自己的时间。 It's no wonder when 75 percent of Brits work 12 hour days - with 31 percent admitting to 30 minutes "me-time" on an average day, a survey revealed. 调查发现,75%的英国女性每天工作12个小时,难怪31%的人平均每天只有30分钟的“个人专属时间”。 Their lives are so hectic 63 percent admit recording a TV show - just so they can fast forward the adverts to save time, according to the research carried out by cupcake company Green's. 根据格林杯形蛋糕公司开展的这一调查,英国女性的生活十分忙碌,63%的人承认自己把电视节目录下来,以便能够快进跳过广告来节省时间。 The survey also saw a third of women vote for "lying in" as their top activity should they be given more "me" time. 调查还发现,如果能有更多的个人专属时间,三分之一的女性将“睡懒觉”票选为自己最想做的事情。 Some 55 percent are always fighting against the clock while 60 percent never get the time for a "to do" list. 大约55%的女性一直争分夺秒,60%的女性总是找不到时间来做“该做的事情”。 A third of women often wake in the middle of the night panicking about what they need to do the next day - reminiscent of a scene in the film where Kate, played by Parker, is unable to sleep as she thinks of her schedule for the morning ahead. 三分之一的女性常在半夜醒来,想到第二天要做的一大堆事而心生恐慌。这让人想起帕克扮演的电影角色凯特,她一想起第二天早晨的日程安排就无法入眠。 Plus 47 percent rarely have time to themselves. 还有47%的女性几乎没有属于自己的时间。 They are spending considerably more time than men on daily activities such as chores and cooking with 39 percent dedicating more than two hours to household chores, compared to just 15 percent of men. 英国女性要花费比男性多得多的时间做一些日常琐事,例如家务活和做饭。39%的女性每天做家务的时间超过两小时,而只有15%的男性是如此。 A fifth of women spend more than two hours running errands, with only 11 percent of men doing the same. 五分之一的女性每天要花去两小时以上的时间给家里跑腿办事,而只有11%的男性这么做。 The survey found that 14 percent of men admitted to spending no time at all cooking, compared to a half of women who spend more than two hours in the kitchen. 调查发现,14%的男性承认自己从来不花时间做饭,相比之下,半数女性每天在厨房里的时间在两小时以上。 To cope with a lack of hours women turn to a whole host of time-saving devices with 26 percent buying y meals; 47 percent rely on a dishwasher or tumble dryer; 55 percent are tempted by any activity that could be fast tracked or sped up to give them more time to do other things. 为了应对时间不足,女性转而求助于许多节省时间的设备。26%的女性购买熟食,47%的女性依赖洗碗机或滚筒式烘干机,55%的女性只要看到任何能够有助于提速的活动都会动心,这样她们能有更多时间来做其他事情。 Brand manager at Green's Emma Calder said: "It is interesting to see just how busy we are - and how little time we have left in our day after work and life admin." 格林杯糕公司的品牌经理艾玛#8226;卡尔德说:“看看我们有多忙,我们在工作和维持生活之余所剩的时间有多可怜,这是个有趣的现象。” "It seems that many people would love to bake more but day to day life often gets in the way." “似乎很多人都愿意花更多时间烤制食物,但日常生活却总是成为我们的阻碍。” /201111/159919

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