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Su Shi (1037~1101) was born in Meishan, Meizhou (now part of Sichuan Province). His courtesy name was Zidan and his literary name Dongpo Jushi.苏轼(1037~1101),字子瞻,号东坡居士, 眉州眉山(今属四川)人。An erudite and foresighted scholar, he was twice banished for political persecutions. At the age of 45, he was banished to Huangzhou where he stayed for four years; When he was 59, he was exiled again to Huizhou for three years and then Danzhou, where he stayed for another three years before he was finally pardoned.他学识渊,思想通达,一生中受到两次严重的政治迫害:第一次是45岁时因“乌台诗案”被贬至黄州4年;第二次是在59岁时被贬往惠州,62岁时又贬至儋州,65岁才遇赦北归,前后经过6年。Combining the perseverance advocated by the Confucians with the Taoists#39; practice of the ignorance of time and space and the Zenists#39; philosophy of treating the caprice of the world with a peaceful mind, Su Shi developed an aloof, unwavering yet positive attitude toward the misfortunes in his life.他把儒家“君子固穷”的坚毅精神、老庄轻视有限时空和物质环境的超越态度以及禅宗以平常心对待一切变故的观念有机地结合起来,以一种超然物外的坚定沉着、乐观旷达的人生态度面对接踵而至的不幸,在逆境中依然保持浓郁的生活情趣和旺盛的创作活力。Deeply engrossed in his extensive interests, he kept a prolific art capacity.苏轼的文学思想是文道并重。Su Shi believed that one#39;s literary works should serve as a vehicle to carry his cause and they should further function as an advanced form revealing the spiritual activities of human beings.他认为文章不仅仅是载道的工具,其自身的表现功能便是人类精神活动的一种高级形态。No longer restricted to the Confucian ideal, Su Shi#39;s cause was extended to refer to the general rule of the development of all things.他心目中的“道”也不限于儒家之道,而是泛指事物的规律。Therefore, he suggested that literary works should reflect the objective world, natural and diverse rather than stagnant and monotonous.所以苏轼主张文章应像客观世界一样,文理自然,姿态横生,提倡艺术风格的多样化和生动性,反对千篇一律。Holding fast to this principle, he wrote his prose in plain language and care-free styles. For his achievements in prose-writing, he was ranked as one of the ;Eight Famous Scholars in the Tang and Song Dynasties;.他的文章风格多姿多,语言平易自然,气势雄放,为“唐宋八大家”之一。His poems, care-free and well-crafted, are critical of the social ills and reflective to life. 他的诗歌批判现实,思考人生,超越技巧,挥洒自如。He expanded the scope of ci, a traditional Chinese lyrical form, and extended its expressiveness by channeling masculinity into a once more feminine form. He helped to promote ci from a minor lyrical genre to a position equally important as shi.他的词“自成一家”,突破了词为“艳科”的传统格局,扩大了词的表现功能,开拓了词境,将传统的表现女性化的柔情之词扩展为表现男性化的豪情之词,使词与诗一样充分表现作者的性情怀抱和人格个性,把词从“小道”提升为与诗具有同等地位的抒情文体。Excellent in prose, shi and ci, Su Shi is often regarded as the representative of the literature in the Song Dynasty.总之,苏轼在文、诗、词三个方面都达到了极高的造诣,堪称宋代文学最高成就的代表。Furthermore, Su Shi#39;s calligraphy and paintings were no lesser accomplishments than his poems. His father Su Xun and brother Su Zhe were also renowned literati at that time.另外,苏轼在书法、绘画方面也颇有造诣。其父亲苏询、弟弟苏辙在当时也是著名的文人。 /201601/423357。

Melting of glaciers near the Earth#39;s poles and the resulting rise in sea level is slowing down the Earth#39;s rotation, thereby increasing the length of our days, a new study suggests.最新的研究称,地球两极附近的冰川融化以及由此引起的海平面上升,减缓了地球自转的速度,进而增加了一天的时长。Scientists are studying past changes in sea level in order to make accurate future predictions of the consequence of climate change, and they are looking down to Earth#39;s core to do so.为了准确预测未来气候变化的结果,科学家正在研究过去海平面的变化,他们准备通过观察地核来进行这项研究。;In order to understand the sea-level change that has occurred in the past century, we need to understand the dynamics of the flow in Earth#39;s core,; said Mathieu Dumberry, a professor in physics. The connection is through the change in the speed of Earth#39;s rotation.物理学教授马修·大木瑞说:“为了弄清楚过去一个世纪海平面发生的变化,我们需要了解地核中的流动力学。”我们发现了地球自转速度的改变,它们之间存在关联。Melting water from glaciers not only causes sea-level rise, but also shifts mass from the pole to the equator. The gravity pull from the Moon also contributes to the slow down. As a consequence, the length of our days is slowly increasing. In fact, a century from now, the length of a day will increase by 1.7 milliseconds, researchers said.冰川融化不仅引起了海平面上升,而且把地球质量从极点转移到了赤道。来自月球的引力同样促成了地球自转速度的降低。因此,我们一天的长度正在逐渐变长。研究者称,事实上,一个世纪以后,一天的长度将增加1.7微秒。 /201512/416147。

The intermingling of different religions and the position of Lamaism : Like the Tang Dynasty, when many religions came to China from the West and from the inland of Asia, Yuan China as open to the merchants coming from the West, who had different religious beliefs.各类宗教的兼蓄并容与喇嘛教的地位:和唐朝时期一样,当来自西方和亚洲内陆的各种宗教传人中国的时候,元朝总是敞开大门,欢迎这些来自西方的、具有不同宗教信仰的商人。Muslims were special allies of the Mongols and had therefore access to many positions prohibited from Chinese.穆斯林是蒙古人的特别盟友,因此其中的很多职位对于汉人来说受到限制。A special place in the Mongol empire was reserved for Lamaism. Lamaism enjoyed state protection.喇嘛教在蒙古帝国有其特殊地位,享有蒙古人的国家保护。As Buddhism in China had aly reached and even surpassed the summit, the history of Chinese Buddhism was y to be written down, like in the book F〇zu Lidai Tongshi.佛教在中国已经达到甚至已过了高峰期,因此,当时中国的佛教史已经可以著书立传了,即《佛祖历代通史》。Religion was also a tool for the masses to rebell against the harsh Mongol rule, the exploitation by the exclusive class of Mongols and the rich Chinese gentry.但是,宗教也是群众反对蒙古人残暴统治、反对蒙古阶级的剥削和汉人贵族的工具。The secret societies rebelling against Mongol rule with the protection of religions were the White Lotus Society (Bailianjiao), the White Cloud Society (Baiyun-jiao) and the Red Turbans (Hongjin).在反对蒙古人统治的历史上,曾经利用宗教做掩护的组织有白莲教、白云教和红巾军。Yuan songs and main writers: Yuan songs are as important as Tang poetry and Song ci, which represents the important achievement in the literature in Yuan Dynasty.元曲及其代表作家:元曲与唐诗、宋词并称,它代表了元代文学的主要成就。Yuan songs include Sanqu was and Zaju. Sanqu was the new style verses in the Yuan Dynasty, and zaju(Yuan dramas) was a kind of comprehensive drama.元曲包含散曲和杂剧两个部分,散曲是元代的新体诗,杂剧是一种综合性的戏剧艺术。The famous writers and their masterpieces in the Yuan Dynasty are: Guan Hanqing and his u Dou E Yuan 11, Wang Shipu and his u Xixiang Ji, Ma Zhiyuan and his Han Qiugong and Bai Pu and his M Wutong Yu yy and so on.元代著名的杂剧作家及其作品有:关汉卿的《窦娥冤》,王实甫的《西厢记》,马致远的《汉宫秋》,白朴的《梧桐雨》等。Of all the writers, Guan Hanqing had the greatest influence. He had written more than 60 plays, and more than ten of them have been handed down so far.其中关汉卿的影响最大,他写过60多个剧本,流传到现在的尚有10多个。In 1958, Guan Hanqing was listed as the world literary celebrity.1958年,关汉卿被列为世界文化名人。The science of history and Wen Xian Tong Kaoby Ma Duanlin : The science of history in the Yuan Dynasty has made achievements in many ways.史学及马端临的《文献通考》:元朝的史学成就是多力面的。The representatives of the historical works are the privately compiled w Wen Xian Tong Kao ty and the official revision of u The History of Song 11 , u The History of Liao and The History of Jin ry and so on.较有代表性的史学著作有私家编撰的《文献通考》等和官修的《宋史》、《辽史》、和《金史》等。Wen Xian Tong Kao was compiled by the historian Ma Duanlin in the early years of the Yuan Dynasty. It covers more than twenty-four fields such as tax, monetary, registered permanent residence and the positions etc. The book has three hundred and forty-eight volumes.《文献通考》是宋末元初史学家马端临编撰,分田赋、钱币、户口、职役等24门类,共348卷。Scientific achievements and uThe Official Calendar^ by Guo Shoujing: It had its development in science and technology in the Yuan Dynasty.科学成就与郭守敬的《授时历》:元朝科学技术也有所发展。Great achievements were made in mathematics, astronomy, calendar, geography, agriculture and medicine etc.在数学、天文历5法、地理学、农业科学、医药学等方面都有许多成就。A Book of Agriculture ty by Wang Zhen in the Yuan Dynasty is the most perfect encyclopedia about agriculture since the u Qi Min Yao Shu ty.元朝王祯的《农书》,是《齐民要术》以来最完备的农业知识百科全书。The scientist Guo Shoujing in the Yuan Dynasty was good at astronomy, calendar, mathematics and water conservancy, who stressed on the on-spot observation.元朝科学家郭守敬,精于天文历法、数学和水利,并重视实地观侧。He had made thirteen kinds of astronomic equipments and observed, measured the celestial phenomena.他制作了13种天文仪器,并对天象进行实侧。On the basis of his observation and research, Guo Shoujing made the u Imperial Calendar.郭守敬根据观侧和研究,制定了《授时历》。The Imperial Calendar 11 took 365. 2425 days as a year and which only missed 26 seconds compared with the real time needed that the sun goes around the earth once. It is same to the Geliego Calendar in use today, but it was three hundred years earlier than the Geliego Calendar.《授时历》以365. 2425天为一岁,和地球绕太阳一周的实际时间只差26秒,与和现行的公历(《格列高利历》)一年周期相同,但比现行公历的确立早300年。The communication of the Eastern and Western cultures: In the era of Song and Yuan, esp. in the Yuan Dynasty, the culture between China and the west got obvious development.元朝东西文化的交流:宋元时期,特别在元代,中国和西方的文化交流有了显著发展。The four great inventions of China (printing, compass, gunpowder and papermaking) were introduced to Europe by the Arabians and they played an important part in the development of economy and science in Europe.中国的四大发明(印刷术,指南针、火药和造纸术)先后经过阿拉伯人传人欧洲,对欧州的经济文化发展起了重要作用。The three west expeditions of the Mongols promoted the communication between China and Europe.蒙古贵族三次西征,客观上促进了中国同欧洲的联系。The ambassadors, merchants, travelers and priests from the west came to China continuously. The most famous one of them was Marco. Poro.西方各国的使臣、商人、旅行家、传教士络绎不绝来到中国,其中最著名的是意大利人马可?波罗。He came to China in 1271 and had stayed in China for seventeen years. He had been an official in the Yuan government and had traveled to many big cities in China then.马可?波罗于1271年来到中国,留居中国17年,曾在元朝做官,游历过中国许多大城市。He described vividly about China then in his u Journey of Marco. Poroy,, which stimulated the Westerners9 desire for the Chinese civilizations.他在《马可?波罗行记》中对当时的中国作了生动具休的描写,激起了西方人对中国文明的向往。 /201602/426235。

Each year as Christmas rolls around, there always seems to be one toy that appears on every child#39;s list to Santa.每年圣诞节来临的时候,总有那么一款每个孩子都想要的圣诞礼物。But this year, that toy is quickly becoming the cause of despair amongst parents - many sick of spending hours removing the small spiky balls from their child#39;s long hair.但今年的这款“热门”玩具可谓是家长们的噩梦,这种缠在孩子长发上的扎人小球让很多家长都崩溃了。Social media has been flooded with images of tangled tresses and warnings from parents about the popular Bunchems pack, which is made up of over 400 sticky, squishy marble-sized building balls - each adorned with tiny hooks.社交媒体上铺天盖地的都是各种缠瞎了的头发照片和家长们建议不要购买这款玩具的热心忠告。这款火爆的拼装玩具名叫“Bunchems”,内含400多个又黏又软的小球,每个只有弹珠那么大,上面带着小小的“倒刺”。The description alone was a red flag for many, but those who didn#39;t foresee the potential of the colourful balls to become wedged in hair found out the hard way.虽然只看玩具描述就能让很多家长望而却步,但有些人完全没料到这些色小球缠头发的功力,因此吃了不少苦头。#39;A toy spawned from the darkest depths of hell,#39; one disgruntled customer wrote.一位顾客愤愤地写道:“这个玩具是从地狱最黑暗的底层蹦出来的!”#39;Horrible, horrible, horrible toy for kids. I just spent the last TWO AND A HALF hours (absolutely, 100 percent not an exaggeration) attempting to remove 14 of these b*****d balls out of my daughter#39;s hair.#39;“真是个特别特别特别可怕的儿童玩具。我刚花了两个半小时(绝对毫无夸张)从我闺女的头发上解下来14个该死的小球。”#39;Buy this toy for someone if you hate them or their child. They are the most incredible choking hazards on the planet. They bring pain and misery, tears, fighting, broken and ripped hair, and questions of one#39;s sanity in handling life in general.#39;“恨谁就给谁家孩子买这个玩具吧!它们是这个世界上最不可思议、最令人窒息的祸害。它带来的只有痛苦、悲哀、眼泪、纠结以及断掉的、撕扯下来的头发,再也无法理智地面对生活了。”#39;Great if you want to pay 0 to have them professionally removed from the hair,#39; another wrote.还有人写道:“你最好花上200美元找专业人士帮你把这些球解下来。”#39;I am a hairstylist and spent a total of 4 hours removing these from a little girls hair today! She had 45 of them matted into her hair! 4 hours of pain and 0 later ..... Not really worth it.#39;“我是个发型师,今天我花了整整四个小时从一个小姑娘头上解这些球!她头发上居然缠了45个球!她遭了整整四个小时的罪还得给我200美元……只能说真的不值!”But considering Target Australia has aly sold out of the Bunchems Mega Pack, the reviews appear to be making little impact on parents shopping for Christmas and many stand by the controversial toy.虽然这款玩具引发这么多争议,但在澳大利亚的“塔吉特”百货商场,就连超大包的“Bunchems”都卖光了。看来上面这些评价对圣诞采购的父母以及这款玩具的持者来说几乎没任何影响。#39;These are awesome. Reading these reviews are ridiculous. These are such a good toy,#39; a frustrated Dad wrote.一位没买到玩具的沮丧父亲写道:“这玩具多好啊!大家的评价都太可笑了。这款玩具真的不错。”#39;Hair tangles? The warnings are both on the instructions and box. How do these possibly get SO ENTANGLED in hair, when they are ;brushed against;? No, your kids are obviously doing something they shouldn#39;t be doing.#39;“缠头发上了?玩具说明书和包装盒上都有注意事项啊,怎么可能碰一下头发就缠得这么死?肯定是你家孩子瞎玩弄的。”#39;Let#39;s say you have a Honda, and got into an accident. Would you call the dealership or manufacturer? No. Blame yourself, or the at-fault person...this infuriates me. This is such a creative toy. Builds motor skills, and enhances creativity.#39;“这么说吧,比如你开着辆本田撞车了,你会给经销商或者制造商打电话投诉吗?肯定不会啊!只能怪自己或责任方……这些瞎的人真是气死我了。这款玩具多有创意啊,培养动手能力,还提高了孩子的创造力。” /201511/412587。

“Sving til venstre.” Jurgen issued instructions in his pleasingly Nordic voice, firm but encouraging. From behind the wheel, David nodded his head, and turned the car to the left. We were only a mile outside Edinburgh, but thanks to David, my Norwegian-American boyfriend, and Jurgen, the Norwegian speaker on David’s GPS, I aly felt deep into Viking territory.“Sving til venstre.”(挪威语“左转”——译注)于尔根(Jurgen)用他悦耳的北欧嗓音发出一句指示。握着方向盘的戴维点了点头,将车向左转。我们离开爱丁堡才一英里,但因为有戴维——我的挪威裔美国男友,还有于尔根——戴维的GPS里那个说挪威语的男人,我感觉自己已经深入到维京腹地。Scotland is perhaps not the most obvious place to look for traces of Nordic culture. But in the months leading up to the nation’s vote on independence from England last September, there was talk of it everywhere. Although it had been six centuries since any part of Scotland was in Norse hands, many nationalists were suggesting that Viking heritage formed part of the separate identity that lay behind an independence bid, which, although it failed at the polls, has grown stronger since the referendum.一般人大概不会想来到苏格兰寻找北欧文化的痕迹。但在去年9月独立公投前的几个月里,举国上下都在谈论这个话题。斯堪的纳维亚人占领苏格兰的历史,最近的也要追溯到六个世纪前,然而许多民族主义者提出,维京文化的血脉是苏格兰身份认同的一部分,进而成为独立的依据,公投以失败告终,但这种认同在公投后却变得越来越强烈。And it wasn’t all historic either: The Scottish Nationalist Party assured voters that Scotland’s similarities to its Scandinavian neighbors — its small size, its environmental awareness and its Norwegian-style oil reserves — would guarantee prosperity. And perhaps even justify membership in the Nordic Council, an intergovernmental body that fosters political, economic and cultural cooperation among the five Nordic nations and three autonomous regions.历史并非唯一因素:苏格兰民族党(Scottish National Party)还希望选民们放心,苏格兰和斯堪的纳维亚邻国的相似之处——较小的规模,环保意识以及挪威式的石油储备——足以保障它的繁荣。甚至有资格进入北欧理事会(Nordic Council),这个跨政府组织的职责是促进五个北欧国家和三个自治领的政治、经济和文化合作。As a recent transplant to Denmark, I was still trying to figure out Scandinavian identity myself, so this claim intrigued me. What did it take, besides a penchant for bicycles, brooding television series and salted licorice, to become Nordic? To find out, David and I would start in the capital, then drive as far into Scotland’s formerly Viking lands as we could.作为一个丹麦新移民,我还在努力寻找自己的斯堪的纳维亚认同,因此这样的主张对我很是吸引。要想成为北欧人,除了热爱自行车、郁郁寡欢的电视剧和咸甘草糖,还需要做什么?为了寻找,戴维和我将从首府开始,驱车一直深入当年维京人的土地,走得越远越好。We began at the National Museum of Scotland in Edinburgh. The first Viking invasions into the British Isles were recorded in the late eighth century; monks’ chronicles make frequent, terrified references to northerly marauders who raped and pillaged their way through the Highlands. But at the museum, the image of those rampaging Norsemen was changing: Not only were they not all raiding, bloodthirsty warriors, but they also weren’t even all men. Tools, jewelry and a reconstructed burial site on display all testified to the gentler side of Viking life, and proved that the Norse (male and female) set down roots in Scotland, engaging in agriculture, trade and family life. “Relations with local people,” the optimistic text on one case, “weren’t always hostile.”我们的起点是在爱丁堡的苏格兰国立物馆(National Museum of Scotland)。据史料记载,维京人最早入侵不列颠群岛是在八世纪末;心惊胆战的修士们时常在编年史中提起这些北方强盗,他们一路奸淫掳掠,杀向苏格兰高地。然而在物馆里,北欧人的残暴形象正在发生改变:他们并非全都是嗜血尚武的匪徒,甚至不全是男人。馆中展出的工具、珠宝和一座重建的墓葬都在明,维京生活也有祥和的一面,还表明斯堪的纳维亚(的男人和女人)曾在苏格兰扎根,开展农耕、贸易和家庭生活。“和当地人的关系并非总是敌对的,”在某个陈列柜上可以看到这样充满正能量的文字。On that day last August, they were rather the opposite. Near a barbershop full of men whose lumberjack beards marked them as either Scandinavian or Brooklynite, we found Timberyard. With its rough wooden floors and jars of fermenting vegetables on display, the restaurant would have fit as easily onto a lonely, windswept expanse of the Stockholm peninsula as it did in the Scottish capital. The food, too, was identifiably Nordic, from the chewy sourdough served with house-made butter and lovage salt that started the meal, to the foraged woodruff tea that ended it. In between came delicate dishes strewn with local herbs and flowers: nearly raw scallops shaved thin and adorned with wild garlic petals; mackerel grilled so that the char cut through the fish’s oiliness, served with yogurt and juicy nasturtium leaves.而在8月底的那一天,我看到的根本是敌对的反面。一间理发店里满是蓄着伐木工大胡子的男人,这说明他们要么来自斯堪的纳维亚,要么是布鲁克林人士。在理发店的附近,我们找到了林场餐厅(Timberyard)。粗犷的木地板,一罐罐正在发酵的蔬菜,让人很容易把这里想象成风声鹤唳、满目寂寥的斯德哥尔半岛,而不是苏格兰首府。至于菜式,从餐前嚼劲十足的酸面包配自制黄油和欧当归盐,到餐后的野生车叶草茶,都是明显的北欧风味。中间是洒满当地花草调味料的精致菜肴:几乎全生的扇贝薄片,装点着野葱花瓣;鲭鱼的表面炙烤成焦黑,瓦解了鱼肉的肥腻,再佐以酸奶和多汁的旱金莲叶。“It’s hard not to be influenced by it,” Ben Radford, the chef, said of the northerly elements in what he calls his “modern Scottish” cuisine. “Culturally, we’re very similar. And we’re working with the same ingredients, letting them shine through, so that each flavor is apparent, crisp and clean.”“很难不被影响,”本·拉德福德(Ben Radford)大厨这样评价本餐厅的北方元素,他称之为“现代苏格兰”菜。“文化上我们很相近。我们用一样的食材,让它们发挥自己的本色,这样一来,每一道调味都是鲜明、清脆、干净的。”In Glasgow, two recent graduates take the affinity even further. Through their consulting firm Lateral North, Graham Hogg and Alex Hobday help towns in the upper reaches of Scotland develop their Nordic potential as transportation and green energy hubs. “We have the same climate, the same landscape, even the same dark sense of humor, so we can take the Nordic countries as a model for economic development,” Mr. Hogg said. “We’re trying to get people to think of Scotland not as the end of Europe, but as the gateway to the North.”在格拉斯哥,两个刚刚大学毕业的年轻人将这种文化亲缘又往前推进了一步。格雷恩·霍格(Graham Hogg)和阿历克斯·霍布戴(Alex Hobday)创办的咨询公司Lateral North正在帮助苏格兰北部地区的城镇开发自己的北欧潜能——成为一个运输和绿色能源枢纽。“我们有一样的气候,一样的地貌,连黑色幽默都一样,”霍格说。“我们希望大家不要把苏格兰当作欧洲的尽头,它应该是北欧的入口。”It was time to head toward that gate. There are a number of Viking-related spots in the Western Highlands. But Mr. Hogg had said we would find the most striking examples of Scandinavian-style Scotland in Orkney and Shetland, so we fired up the GPS and headed north. “Rett frem,” Jurgen said, directing us straight ahead with what I interpreted as approval.那么,该去门口瞧瞧了。在西高地有一些维京文化相关的去处。但是霍格说,要在苏格兰寻找最强烈的斯堪的纳维亚风,得去奥克尼(Orkeny)和设得兰(Shetland),于是我们打开GPS向北行进。“Rett frem,”于尔根指示我们向正前方行驶,在我看来这是在认可我们的决定。Several hours later, Norway appeared on the horizon. In truth, it wasn’t really Norway, just a series of Nordic-style houses — pointy, clean-lined and painted in bright, saturated colors that stood out against the churning North Sea — that wouldn’t have been out of place in Bergen. We had reached John O’Groats, the purportedly northernmost (there is some contention) point of mainland Scotland. It consists of little more than a few souvenir shops and a parking lot big enough for all those tour buses to turn around in.几个小时后,挪威出现在地平线上。事实上并不是挪威,只是一些北欧风格的房子——尖顶、线条清晰、粉刷了明亮、鲜艳的颜色,跟涌动着的北海形成巨大反差——这一派景色,放到卑尔根也没人会觉得有什么异样。我们抵达了约翰欧格罗兹村,号称苏格兰大陆最北端(尚存争议)。除了几爿纪念品商店和一片大小够旅游大巴掉个头的停车场,这里什么都没有。But Natural Retreats, a hotel development company, has made the place much more appealing by taking a Gothic-style inn and adding several Nordic-style wooden houses onto the side. Each building is called a toft, a Norse-derived word for farmhouse or homestead. The tofts are painted different colors and contain apartments, which comprise the accommodations. The rooms are spare and tasteful, with the streaming light and clean lines that are the hallmarks of Scandinavian design. “It’s quite straightforward,” said Adam Gough, Natural Retreats’ head of technical services, when asked about Nordic style. “There is a lot of history and strong links with Scandinavia.”然而,从事酒店开发的自然疗养(Natural Retreats)公司给这里增添了不少吸引力,他们建了一座哥特式旅馆,在旁边又加了几座北欧式木屋。这些小屋叫做toft,一个自北欧的“农舍”或“家宅”变化而来的词。所有toft都刷了不同的颜色,里面有提供食宿务的公寓。这些房间既宽敞又有品味,良好的采光和清晰的线条彰显着斯堪的纳维亚设计的特质。“很直截了当,”自然疗养公司技术务主管亚当·高夫(Adam Gough)这样评价北欧风格。“有很悠久的历史,跟斯堪的纳维亚有着紧密的联系。”But neither Scandi chic, nor the newer, kinder version of the Vikings had made it to the nearby town of Wick, which gets its name from the Old Norse word for bay. Asked why the hotel where she worked was called the Norseman, the receptionist admitted that she wasn’t sure. “Because they came here raping and rampaging through the hills?” she asked. “You know, doing Viking things.”然而,无论是斯堪的纳维亚流还是更新潮、柔和的维京风,都没有影响到附近的威克(Wick),这个地名取自古诺尔斯语“海湾”一词。在一个叫Norseman(北人)的酒店,我们问前台为什么叫这么个名字,她说她也不太清楚。“因为他们曾经到这些山里来奸淫掳掠?”她说。“就是维京人常干的那些事。”It wasn’t hard to see why she persisted in that image. Wick, which Robert Louis Stevenson once referred to as “the meanest of mean towns,” has little in the way of tourist attractions except for a ruined castle that was probably built in the 12th century, presumably by the Norse earl, Harald Maddadson. One of the oldest and best preserved in Scotland, the castle’s tower still reaches four stories up, and its defensive ditches and perilous cliffs keep it cut off from the mainland. It is a stirring place, desolate and imposing, and not at all hard to imagine as the kind of stronghold from which one might have set out marauding.不难看出为什么她会保持这种印象。在曾被罗伯特·路易斯·史蒂文森(Robert Louis Stevenson)称为“世上最破的破镇子”的威克,唯一值得游客驻足的是一座古堡废墟,可能是在12世纪由诺尔斯伯爵哈拉尔德·马达逊(Harald Maddadson)所建。这是苏格兰最古老、保存最完好的城堡之一,至今仍有四层楼高,防御壕沟和险峻的峭壁将城堡和大陆隔开。这是个让人心潮澎湃的地方,荒凉而威严,不难想象它作为劫掠者的据点的样子。Did people in this part of Scotland feel Viking? As we stood on the ferry to the Orkney Islands, watching mainland Britain disappear, we pondered the question. “What I can’t tell,” David said, “is whether they actually identify with their Nordic past, or if it’s just a marketing ploy.” We had our first answer of a sort after landing at St. Margaret’s Hope, a pretty, stone-clad town that was a welcoming entry to Orkney’s main island. Rebooting Jurgen after his stay in the ship’s hold, we drove to Highland Park distillery in the market town of Kirkwall, the Orcadian capital. The northernmost whiskey distillery in Britain (there would be many claims to the northernmost on this trip), Highland Park makes a line of high-end Scotch whiskies named after Vikings real and imagined: Eibar, Thor, Loki.生活在这一带的苏格兰人,会觉得自己是维京人吗?当我们站在前往奥克尼岛的渡轮上,望着渐渐消失的不列颠大陆,心里想着的就是这个问题。“我说不好的是,”戴维说,“他们究竟是真的对自己的北欧历史有认同,还是只是一个营销伎俩。”在圣玛格丽茨霍普登陆后,我们算是找到了第一个,作为奥克尼主岛的入口,这个满是石壁房屋的漂亮小镇十分招人喜欢。我们重新启动了刚从船上下来的于尔根,向集市城镇、奥克尼群岛首府柯克沃尔的“高原骑士”酒厂(Highland Park)进发。那是不列颠最北的威士忌酒厂(我们此行会经过很多号称“最北”的地方),出品顶级的苏格兰威士忌,皆以真实或虚构的维京人物为名:Eibar、Thor、Loki。 /201512/414127。

Liao Dynasty辽朝Social Economy社会经济The Liao went through different stages of economic development.辽朝经历了不同阶段的经济发展。In its early years, it mainly depended on outward expansion, slavery and thievery, so its development remained slow and disrupted.辽初期,国家主要依赖于向外扩张、奴隶、掠夺,因此它的发展缓慢而不连续。It was not until the reign of Emperor Shengzong when the Liao managed to institute feudal reform, its economy attained some distinct progress.一直到神宗时期进行封建改革后,辽的经济取得了明显的进步。The Liao rulers also adopted a differential economic management system, similar to its political one.辽朝的统治者还采取了一套特别的与其政治体系相似的经济管理体系。This system promoted the economic development throughout the whole northern area.这个体系加强了整个北部地区的经济发展。The Liao economy was based on horse and sheep raising and agriculture.辽朝的经济养马、养羊以及农业为基础。Fishing also played an important complementary role.渔业同样扮演着一个重要的补充者的角色。Those engaged in agriculture were mostly the Han people who lived in the southern area and the Bohai people who lived in the eastern area.从事农业的大多是南部的汉人和东部的渤海人。The nomadic zone consisted of various northern grassland nationalities and the fishing-hunting zone covered the Khitan area between the Xar Moron and Tuhe rivers, and the Jurchen people#39;s area in the northeast.游牧地区由不同的几个草原民族构成,打渔-打猎的地区涵盖了位于希拉木伦河和图河之间的契丹以及东北部的女真。The integration of the three economic zones into a political system sped up communication between differ?ent nationalities and promoted a higher level economic development.三个经济区域的融合加快了不同民族之间的交流并使经济发展到了一个更高的层次。The southern economy, which had been feudal for a long time, dominated the whole economy.南部地区的封建经济已经持续多年,这种经济占据了整个经济的主导地位。Besides, the supply of salt was controlled by government monopoly and provided an important source of revenue.除此之外,盐的经营权由政府垄断,是国家收入的重要来源。Iron smelting was also an important industrial contribution to the wealth of the dynasty.炼铁术也是让这个朝代富足的重要工业贡献。 /201511/406482。

Now caffeine addicts are up in arms over Starbucks allegedly under filling its lattes.最近,一群咖啡爱好者们准备联合控告星巴克,原因是拿铁咖啡的分量明显不足。A class-action lawsuit filed last Wednesday in the U.S. district court of Northern California, claims that the coffee chain knowingly and systematically serves customers lattes that are 25 percent smaller than the claims.上周三,美国加利福尼亚州的地方法院受理了一起集体诉讼,原告声称星巴克咖啡连锁店蓄意、且多次出售分量比菜单标识上写的少了25%的拿铁咖啡。The plaintiffs allege that Starbucks not only uses too little liquid in its standard latte recipe but that its cups are not adequately large enough to contain the amount of beverage stated on their size . So if you ordered a grande (16 ounce), it#39;s really more like drinking a tall (12 ounce).原告还声称,星巴克不仅在配置标准拿铁咖啡时加入的咖啡量不够,而且该店盛咖啡的杯子体积太小,和菜单上面标注的饮品容量完全不能匹配。就好比你本来点的是大杯装(16盎司),但是实际呈上来也就只有中杯的分量(12盎司)。The ;fill to; lines etched on the pitchers used by baristas to heat milk result in drinks don#39;t measure up to the tall (12 ounce), grande (16 ounce), and venti (20 ounce) sizes listed on the . ;By underfilling its lattes, thereby shortchanging its customers, Starbucks has saved countless millions of dollars in the cost of goods sold and was unjustly enriched by taking payment for more product than it delivers.;所谓“量满”的刻度线一般被刻在咖啡调配师平时加热牛奶的瓦罐上,但是这一标准和现如今星巴克菜单中所推出的中杯(12盎司),大杯(16盎司)以及超大杯(20盎司)等标准并不相同。咖啡量不足,这从一定程度上已经欺骗了消费者。这样看来,星巴克在降低商品成本这一方面就节省了数百万美元,与此同时,星巴克向消费者提供的商品分量不足,但销售价格未减,属于不正当收益行为。If the lawsuit#39;s class action status is approved, it would be “open to all U.S. Class Members who purchased a Starbucks Latte;—potentially of millions of customers.据悉,如果这起集体诉讼案件得到法院的持,那么这次的原告集体将无比庞大,美国所有曾经买过星巴克不足量拿铁咖啡的消费者大概有百万人之多,都将会成为其中一员。A Starbucks company spokesperson told Eater that ;We are aware of the plaintiffs#39; claims, which we fully believe to be without merit. We are proud to serve our customers high-quality, handcrafted and customized beverages, and we inform customers of the likelihood of variations.;星巴克公司发言人在Eater网站上表示,“我们已经意识到了顾客对我们的控告和不满,但我们认为这些投诉缺乏法律依据。我们一直以向顾客提供优质美味、手工调制以及独家定制的饮品为荣,希望广大消费者能够考虑到出售过程中可能出现的变数和误差。” /201603/433467。