楼主:飞度养生回答 时间:2018年07月16日 08:42:48 点击:0 回复:0
It#39;s easy to be offended when a colleague yawns while you#39;re talking. But that yawn may not mean what you think. 人们很容易会被这样一种行为惹恼:当你说话的时候,你的同事却在打着哈欠。但对于这个哈欠,也可能是你想得太多了。 A growing number of researchers believe the purpose of this little-understood behavior is to cool the brain, says a research review published earlier this year in Frontiers in Neuroscience. 今年早些时候发表在《神经科学前沿》(Frontiers in Neuroscience)上的一项研究综述称,越来越多的研究人员认为,打哈欠这种人们对其还知之甚少的行为,其目的在于为大脑降温。 Changes in climate affect how often people yawn. Researchers in an earlier study conducted outdoor interviews with two groups of people in Tucson, Ariz., one in early summer and one in the winter. People were asked to look at pictures of people yawning and talk about their own yawning behavior. 气候的变化会影响到人们打哈欠的频率。研究人员在之前的一次研究中对亚利桑那州图森市(Tucson)的两组人进行了户外采访,一次是在初夏,另一次是在冬天。研究人员让被访者看了一些人们打哈欠的照片,并谈了谈他们自己的打哈欠行为。 People were nearly twice as likely to yawn when they were surveyed during the winter, when they could inhale cool air to reduce the temperature of the brain, says the study, published in 2011 in Frontiers in Evolutionary Neuroscience. Participants yawned less when surveyed in the early summer, when temperatures outdoors were about the same as the human body. 该项研究的论文2011年发表在《进化神经科学前沿》(Frontiers in Evolutionary Neuroscience)上,文章称,这些人在冬天接受调查时打哈欠的可能性是初夏时的将近两倍,在冬季,他们打哈欠能吸入冷空气来给大脑降温。而在夏初接受调查的参与者哈欠较少,因为那个时节的室外气温跟人的体温几乎是一样的。 Other studies show yawning increases after people experience heat stress or have a heat pack placed on their foreheads. 其他一些研究则表明,在人们中暑或在前额贴上发热贴以后,哈欠就会增多。 Yawning also may build empathy within groups. Yawns are seen as contagious, but #39;catching#39; a yawn depends on a person#39;s ability to feel empathy and closeness with the yawner, says a 2013 research review in the International Journal of Applied Basic Medical Research. 2013年发表在《应用基础医学研究国际期刊》(International Journal of Applied Basic Medical Research)上的一项研究综述称,哈欠可能还会在人群中形成共鸣。哈欠被认为是具有传染性的,但是否能“接过”一个哈欠取决于个人感同身受的能力以及与打哈欠者的亲密程度。 People observed in workplaces or restaurants yawned more often in response to others#39; yawns when they were kin or close friends with the yawner, the study says. People are less likely to engage in contagious yawns when they have emotional or social disorders that prevent them from feeling empathy, the study says. 该研究称,据观察,在工作场所或餐馆里若有人打了哈欠,他们的亲朋好友会更多地也打起哈欠。但那些因患有情绪或社交障碍而无法设身处地理解他人的人则不太可能会被别人的哈欠所感染。 What yawns don#39;t accomplish, researchers say, is to re-energize the brain. 研究人员还称,打哈欠无法让大脑重新活跃起来。 For centuries, yawning was thought to remove #39;bad air#39; from the lungs and increase oxygen circulation in the brain. Recent studies have discredited this old belief. 几个世纪以来,人们都认为打哈欠是为了清除肺里的“废气”、增加大脑中的氧循环。新近的这些研究则对这一传统观念提出了质疑。 /201307/249591Video games, long maligned for promoting violence, may also have a good side: improving eyesight. Gory ;first-person shooter; games, in which players must act quickly to kill their virtual opponents, seem to have lasting effects on a key aspect of vision, a new study shows.长期以来,视频游戏由于助长暴力而声名狼藉。然而,或许视频游戏也有其积极的一面:可以提高视力。一项新研究显示:在血淋淋的“第一人称射击”类游戏中,玩家必须反应迅速才能杀死他们的虚拟对手,这似乎对于视力的一个主要方面有着持续的积极影响。In 2002, Daphne Bavelier, a cognitive neuroscientist at the University of Rochester in New York state, found that playing action games improved visual attention skills (ScienceNOW, 18 April 2002). This time she compared avid gamers with nongamers on a type of visual perception called contrast sensitivity. It allows people to make out objects in dim lighting and to distinguish objects from a busy background.2002年,纽约州罗彻斯特大学的认知神经科学专家达芙妮·贝弗利尔发现,玩视频战斗游戏可以提高视觉注意力。这次她将贪玩游戏的人和不玩游戏的人进行了对比,比较了一种被称为“对比敏感度”的视觉指标。对比敏感度可以使人们辨认出暗淡光线中的物体,还可以使人们能够从忙乱的背景中区分物体。Male gamers in their late teens and 20s, Bavelier found in a pilot study, performed significantly better than nongamers in the same demographic. To determine whether games explained this difference, she and colleagues designed a game boot camp in which 50 adult volunteers each played 50 hours of games over a 9-week period. Half of the participants played two first-person-shooter action games, Unreal Tournament and Call of Duty 2, in which players must quickly detect and kill enemies to avoid being killed themselves. Meanwhile, the control group played The Sims 2, a ;casual; simulation game that requires a great deal of observation and strategy but at a very leisurely pace. The subjects were tested for contrast sensitivity before and after the training.在一项初步研究中,贝弗利尔发现:十大几岁和20多岁的男性玩家比同一年龄段不玩游戏的男性在对比敏感度方面的表现要好得多。为了确定是否视频游戏造成了这种差别,贝弗利尔和同事设计了一个“视频游戏集中训练营”,训练营里的50个成年志愿者在9周的时间里每人玩50个小时的视频游戏。其中一半参与者玩两种“第一人称射击”类战斗游戏——“虚幻竞技场”和“使命召唤2”,在这两种游戏中,玩家必须迅速地侦查出敌人并将其杀掉,才能避免自己遭到杀害;同时另外一半参与者玩一种叫做“模拟人生2”的游戏,该游戏是一种“随意的”模拟游戏,玩时需要大量的观察,并且需要讲究策略,但是可以以缓慢的速度进行。在训练之前和之后,为参与者测试了对比敏感度。Those who played the action games showed a roughly 50% improvement in performance on the contrast-sensitivity test, whereas the control group showed no significant improvement, the team reports this week in Nature Neuroscience. Later testing of 18 of the subjects showed that the improvement had not disappeared after several months--even though these subjects said they had not changed their game habits. Bavelier chalks up the change to ;neural plasticity ;--the ability of our brains to rewire themselves to more efficiently visually process the life-or-death scenes in action games.研究小组在本周出版的《自然-神经学》(Nature Neuroscience)杂志上报道:在对比敏感度测试中,那些玩视频战斗游戏的人成绩提高了大约50%,而对照组则根本没有明显的提高。后来,对其中18个受试者的进一步测试显示:即使他们声称并没有改变自己的视频游戏习惯,但是对比敏感度的提高在几个月之后仍未消失。贝弗利尔将这种提高归因于“神经可塑性”——大脑神经本身一种重新连接的能力,这种能力可以使人们在视觉上更为高效地处理视频战斗游戏中那些生死攸关的场面。;The results are convincing, ; says Dennis Levi, dean of the School of Optometry at the University of California, Berkeley. ;While we don#39;t yet understand how playing action games enhances visual processing, the very promising aspect of this is that it may provide a new method for treating patients.; People with amblyopia --or ;lazy eye;--suffer a severe loss of contrast sensitivity, and a regimen of action games could complement other treatments, Levi says. The next step will be to test action games that do not involve guns and mayhem.“这些研究结果很令人信,”加州大学伯克利分校视光学院院长丹尼斯·利瓦伊说,“虽说我们还不明白视频战斗游戏是如何提高视觉处理能力的,但该研究非常有前途的一个方面是它可以为病人提供新的治疗方法。”利瓦伊指出:患有弱视的人们,其对比敏感度严重缺失,接受正规的视频战斗游戏训练可以作为其他治疗方案的补充。下一步将要对不涉及和严重伤害的视频打斗游戏进行测试。 /201304/236115

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