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历下区中心医院咨询师山东第一医院预约电话Science and technology科学技术Age and wisdom年龄与智慧Older and wiser?姜是老的辣?Americans get wiser with age. Japanese are wise from the start美国人年龄越大越聪明。日本人从小就聪明ONE stereotype of wisdom is a wizened Zen-master smiling benevolently at the antics of his pupils, while referring to them as little grasshoppers or some such affectation, safe in the knowledge that one day they, too, will have been set on the path that leads to wizened masterhood.提到智慧的时候,人们脑海里总会出现这样一个老套的画面:一个削瘦的禅宗大师面容慈祥的对他的弟子微笑着,一边叫他们小不点,心中十分确定他们迟早会走上这条通往智慧的禅宗之道。But is it true that age brings wisdom?但是智慧真的与年龄有关吗?A study two years ago in North America, by Igor Grossmann of the University of Waterloo, in Canada, suggested that it is.两年前,加拿大滑铁卢大学Igor Grossmann士的研究显示情况的确如此。In as much as it is possible to quantify wisdom, Dr Grossmann found that elderly Americans had more of it than youngsters.由于智慧可以标准量化,他发现年长的美国人的确比年轻人要聪明。He has, however, now extended his investigation to Asia—the land of the wizened Zen-master—and, in particular, to Japan.但是,如今他将调查扩展至整个亚洲—这个拥有禅宗大师的神奇土地—特别是日本。There, he found, in contrast to the West, that the grasshoppers are their masters equals almost from the beginning.在那里他发现,与西方相比,几乎从一开始,这些弟子与大师在智力方面难分伯仲 。Dr Grossmanns study, just published in Psychological Science, recruited 186 Japanese from various walks of life and compared them with 225 Americans.Grossmann士研究结果刚发表在《心理科学》。他招募了186个来自各行各业的日本人并且与225个美国人做对比研究。Participants were asked to a series of pretend newspaper articles.他要求参与者阅读一些假装在报纸上发表的文章。Half described conflict between groups, such as a debate between residents of an impoverished Pacific island over whether to allow foreign oil companies to operate there following the discovery of petroleum.其中一半描述了一些团体斗争,比如太平洋小岛上当地居民关于是否允许外国石油公司开发刚发现的石油资源。The other half took the form of advice columns that dealt with conflicts between individuals: siblings, friends and spouses.另一半文章以专栏的方式提供兄弟、朋友、配偶之间的个人斗争解决建议。After ing each article, participants were asked What do you think will happen after that? and Why do you think it will happen this way? Their responses were recorded and transcribed.在阅读完文章之后,研究人员会问参与者两个问题,分别是此事发生后,你认为事态将会如何发展??和为什么你认为事态会这样发展?然后研究人员会记录他们的。Dr Grossmann and his colleagues removed age-related information from the transcripts, and also any clues to participants nationalities, and then passed the edited versions to a group of assessors.Grossmann士和同事们会在记录中剔除与他们年龄和国籍相关的信息,然后将处理过的记录版本交给经过培训的一组评委,他们都对的有一致的评分标准。These assessors were trained to rate transcribed responses consistently, and had been tested to show that their ratings were statistically comparable with one another.这些评估成员经过训练,能够始终以相同标准对纸上进行评分;并且已通过测试表明其评出的分数在统计方面相互具有可比性。The assessors scored participants responses on a scale of one to three. This attempted to capture the degree to which they discussed what psychologists consider five crucial aspects of wise reasoning: willingness to seek opportunities to resolve conflict; willingness to search for compromise; recognition of the limits of personal knowledge; awareness that more than one perspective on a problem can exist; and appreciation of the fact that things may get worse before they get better.评委将参与者的按1至3分进行评分。他们想通过这种方法把握心理学家认为的五个有关于智慧方面的重要程度,分别是:寻求解决争端机会的意愿;寻求折中方法的意愿;对个人知识有限的认识度;对问题存在多个方面的意识程度;和对事情在往好的方向发展前的趋坏倾向的估计程度。A score of one on any aspect indicated a participant gave no consideration to it.1分代表参与者根本就没有考虑过,A score of two indicated some consideration.2分代表参与者有了些思考但并不深入,A score of three indicated a great deal of consideration.3分代表参与者对这些问题有深入的思考。Each participants scores were then added up and mathematically transformed to create an overall value within a range of zero to 100 for both interpersonal and intergroup wisdom.将参与者的每个问题的得分相加,再把总分从人际关系及团体关系两方面分别转换为百分制。The upshot was that, as Dr Grossmann had found before, Americans do get wiser with age.与Grossmann士以前的结果一样,美国人随着年龄的增长智慧增加。Their intergroup wisdom score averaged 45 at the age of 25 and 55 at 75.25岁的美国人社会群体的判断力平均数是45而75岁的美国人平均数是55。Their interpersonal score similarly climbed from 46 to 50.他们人际关系的判断力平均数同样随年龄由46攀升至50。Japanese scores, by contrast, hardly varied with age.但是与美国人的结果相反,日本人的分数与年龄并无太大关系。Both 25-year-olds and 75-year-olds had an average intergroup wisdom of 51.25岁和75岁的人的社会群体的判断力平均数都是51;For interpersonal wisdom, it was 53 and 52.对于人际关系判断力反而是25岁的是53,75岁的人是52.Taken at face value, these results suggest Japanese learn wisdom faster than Americans.这些结果显示日本人比美国人更早变聪明一些。One up, then, to the wizened Zen-masters. But they also suggest a paradox.年轻人以一分的优势险胜那些削瘦的禅宗大师们。但是却有一个悖论:Generally, America is seen as an individualistic society, whereas Japan is quite collectivist.通常说来美国被视为是一个充满了个人主义的社会,然而日本则更推崇集体主义。Yet Japanese have higher scores than Americans for the sort of interpersonal wisdom you might think would be useful in an individualistic society.但是日本人在人际关系能力这一项上的得分却比美国人要高,而人际关系判断力是大多数人认为在个人主义社会中十分受用的能力。Americans, by contrast—at least in the maturity of old age—have more intergroup wisdom than the purportedly collectivist Japanese.相反,美国人—至少在年龄比较高的那一组中—在群体判断力的得分上比据称崇尚集体主义的日本人要高。Perhaps, then, you need individual skills when society is collective, and social ones when it is individualistic.也许,当社会推崇集体主义的时候你也需要人际关系技巧,在推崇个人主义的社会里你同样需要社交技巧。All of which goes to show that the real root of wisdom is this: do not assume, little grasshopper, that your prejudices are correct.所有的这一切都表明,智慧的真正根源是:别事先假定你的成见是正确的,也别轻看了那些小不点。 /201402/277825济南第四医院专家咨询 齐河县中心医院妇科好不好

德州看妇科多少钱德州市治疗子宫内膜炎多少钱 Books and Arts; Book Review;Diana Athills letters;Dear Edward;文艺;书评;戴安娜·阿西尔的信;致亲爱的爱德华;Instead of a Book: Letters to a Friend. By Diana Athill.并不是一本书,只是些给朋友的信。戴安娜·阿西尔著。Diana Athill was well past normal retirement age when she wrote a series of memoirs that made her a cult figure. As a young woman she had written a novel, a collection of short stories and a cathartic memoir about being jilted by her lover. But her literary skills went mainly into editing the books of others at André Deutsch, a London publisher, where she worked for decades until she was 75. Near the end of this career she started writing again, and over the next 22 years she produced five more memoirs, including “Stet”, an acclaimed account of her editing life, working with authors such as Philip Roth and John Updike, published when she was 83. She finished with “Somewhere Towards the End”, about getting old, for which she earned the Costa Biography prize as well as an OBE in .当戴安娜·阿西尔完成自己的系列回忆录,备受追捧的时候,她早已经过了正常退休年龄。年轻的时候,她也写过一部小说,一本短篇故事集,还有一本宣泄感情的回忆录,记述的是她被爱人抛弃的故事。但是她在伦敦André Deutsch出版社工作期间,其文学上的天赋主要投入了编辑出版别人的书,而这一做就是几十年,直到她七十五岁才退休。在她职业生涯结束之际,她重新执笔开始创作,在接下来的22年间先后又出版了五部回忆录。其中包括她83岁那年出版的回忆录《留存》。这本书记录了她当年和像菲利普.罗斯、约翰·厄普代克这样的作家一起共事的记忆,称颂了自己的编辑生活。此后,她凭借《终点前某处》(有关老年生活)的创作,于年获得科斯塔文学奖同时被授予大英帝国勋章。Now 93, Miss Athill still takes speaking engagements, but her writing seems to be behind her. So it is good to have this new collection of her letters to Edward Field, a close friend, spanning a period of 26 years. This is not just squeezing the lemon for a bit more juice. By their nature these letters are quite different from the polished prose of the memoirs. They are spontaneous and unstructured, full of daily minutiae (visits to the dentist, car trouble, useless builders) and delightful snippets from her colourful personal life. She gossips about mutual friends and tells stories about the literary world she is immersed in (“I am going to have an interesting lunch tomorrow with the mistress dumped by Vida Naipaul when he married his Indian wife”). Mr Field, a poet six years her junior, is gay, so he was never one of her many lovers, but the relationship is clearly very close, both personally and professionally.现龄93岁的阿西尔女士仍然会去做演讲,不过她在写作方面似乎没有跟上。所以说这本新鲜出炉的书信集是一次很好的尝试。其收信人是阿西尔女士一位的密友爱德华·菲尔德,信件的时间跨度则有26年之长。这可不只是为了多榨点汁而去挤柠檬。从其本质来说,这些书信与回忆录里那些优美的散文可谓是大相径庭。这都是发自肺腑之言,随性而为的叙述,满是日常生活的细枝末节(像看牙医,交通纠纷,失效的洗选强化剂),还有她丰富多的私生活里那些幸福的片段。她闲话自己的好朋友,也会说些关于那个她所沉浸其中的文学世界的故事(“我明天要和被韦达·奈保尔抛弃的那个女人一起吃午饭,这一定很有趣,要知道韦达要娶个印度女人”)。菲尔德比阿西尔小六岁,是一位诗人,不过是同性恋,因此他也绝不会成为阿西尔的众多情人之一,但是很显然他们之间的关系不论是私交还是在专业领域都非常亲密。For all Miss Athills pleas of relative poverty, hers has been a privileged life. Raised in a grand country house, she lived for decades in Primrose Hill, a salubrious bit of London, in a house belonging to a cousin (a journalist at The Economist, it so happens), with weekends in the cousins Norfolk cottage and lots of trips to places like Venice and the Caribbean. When money seemed tight, cash always turned up from somewhere. Her voice on the page is that of an upper-middle-class Englishwoman—good things are “dear” or “darling”, bad things are “tiresome”, “horrid” or “vile”. But she also swears like a trooper and does not care what people think.尽管阿西尔一直声辩自己比较穷困,她的生活其实非常优越。在豪华的郊区住宅长大的她,之后在伦敦环境宜人的樱草花山也住了有几十年。房子是她一个表兄的(经济学人的记者,很巧),周末则到她表兄的诺福克别墅去小住,没事就去像、加勒比海这样的地方旅行。手头紧的时候,钞票总是又会在哪冒出来。字里行间透露的是那种中上层阶级英国女性的调调:好的事情则叫“宝贝”呀,“亲爱的”呀,糟糕的事情则说“讨人嫌”呀,“讨厌”呀,或者是“糟透了”。但是她也会像巡警一样破口大骂,完全不在乎别人怎么想。Miss Athill did not keep the letters she received from Mr Field. When he suggested that hers be made into a book, she had reservations about “publishing ones private conversation”, particularly if it meant printing only “half the conversation”. Luckily he persuaded her, and the result makes for addictive eavesdropping. Miss Athill writes beautifully, even about mundane subjects, and it is fascinating to follow the change in her preoccupations with advancing years. The letters are frank about the indignities of getting old, from hearing aids to cataract operations, and about the burdens of looking after Barry, her increasingly ailing Jamaican partner.阿西尔女士并没有保留菲尔德给她写的信。最初还是菲尔德建议她把自己那部分的信件整理出来出本书,但阿西尔对于“公开私人谈话”的做法还是有所保留,尤其如果是要仅仅发表“一半的谈话内容”。幸亏菲尔德说了她,结果这本书出来让人们迷上了“窃听”。阿西尔的文字非常漂亮,即使是写微不足道的小事也毫不逊色。读者会情不自禁地跟随她,关注她一直所关心的事情随着年华逝去将会如何变化。阿西尔在信中坦率地表达了老年生活的窘困,从助听器到白内障手术,还有照顾她那位病情日甚一日的牙买加伴侣——巴里。But Miss Athill is too clear-eyed to become a bore about such things. Her correspondence with Mr Field continues, now by e-mail, but the letters in the book end in 2007. She explains in a postscript that this is “because we have become old and…too often the experience old people have to share is wobbly health.” Enough said.但是阿西尔的头脑可是相当精明,她才不会对这种事情一钻到底。她与菲尔德的通信一直在继续,只是现在改成发电子邮件,但是书中的信件则截止到2007年。她在附言中解释到,这是因为“我们都年事已高,而且……老年人之间能够分享的无非就是不稳定的健康问题”。说得应该够多了吧。 /201305/241771山东省千佛山医院有无痛人流术吗

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