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2018年12月20日 00:26:02|来源:国际在线|编辑:飞管家在线咨询
Science and technology科学技术Marine biology海洋生物Flea market跳蚤市场A newly discovered virus may be the most abundant organism on the planet一种新发现的病毒可能是地球上最丰富的物种。WHAT is the commonest living thing on Earth?地球上最常见的生物是什么?Until now, those in the know would probably have answered Pelagibacter ubique, the most successful member of a group of bacteria, called SAR11, that jointly constitute about a third of the single-celled organisms in the ocean.直到现在,那些很专业的人可能会说是遍在远洋杆菌—细菌群中最成功的细菌,称为大洋微小细菌,占了海洋单细胞有机体的三分之一。But this is not P. ubiques only claim to fame, for unlike almost every other known cellular creature, it and its relatives have seemed to be untroubled by viruses.但是,这不是它成名的原因,因为它和它的亲戚不像其它大部分已知的细胞生物,它们似乎是些不会给你造成麻烦的一族。As Jonathan Swift put it in a much-mised poem, So, naturalists observe, a flea/Hath smaller fleas that on him prey.就像乔纳森-斯威福特的一首诗表达的一样—虽然这里引用很不贴切,所以,物学家们观察,正在捕食的跳蚤/小跳蚤们。Parasites, in other words, are everywhere.换句话说,寄生虫无所不在。They are also, usually, more abundant than their hosts.通常,它们的数量也远远多于它们的寄主。An astute observer might therefore have suspected that the actual most-common species on Earth would be a flea that parasitised P. ubique, rather than the bacterium itself.精明的观察者可能因此会猜测,地球上真正最常见的特种是一种跳蚤—寄生的遍生远洋杆菌,而不是细菌本身。The absence of such fleas has puzzled virologists since 1990, when the SAR11 group was identified.自从1990年研究SAR11组群以来,病毒学家对没有发现这种跳蚤—即以所谓攻击细菌的噬菌体的形式存在—而感到很困惑。Some thought the advantage this absence conferred explained the groups abundance. But no.一些人认为没有发现这种组群的好处解释了它们之所以大量存在的原因。但是,事实不是这样的。As they report in this weeks Nature, Stephen Giovannoni of Oregon State University and his colleagues have discovered the elusive phages.正如本周自然杂志上刊登的一样,俄勒冈州立大学的斯蒂芬尼-乔凡诺尼和他的同事们发现了这种难以发现的噬菌体。Swifts wisdom, it seems, still holds good.看起来,斯威福特的智慧仍旧闪闪发光。Tracking down a particular virus in the ocean makes finding a needle in a haystack look a trivial task.与在海洋中跟踪一种特定的细菌相比,大海捞针简直是小菜一碟了。A litre of seawater has billions of viruses in it.一公升的海水中有数十亿的细菌。Modern genetic techniques can obtain DNA sequences from these viruses, but that cannot tie a particular virus to a particular host.现代基因技术可以猎取这些细菌的DAN序列,但是却不能把一种特定的细菌固定在一个特定的寄主身上。To do so, Dr Giovannoni borrowed a technique from homeopathy: he diluted some seawater to such an extent that, statistically speaking, he expected a 100-microlitre-sized ali to contain only one or two viruses.为了实现这个目标,乔凡诺尼士借用了顺势医疗论的一项技术:他把一些海水的浓度稀释到,从统计学角度上讲,即稀释后的100微升海水中只含有一种或两种病毒。The difference between his approach and a homeopaths was that what homeopathy dilutes almost to nothing are chemicals, and thus cannot breed. A virus can, given a suitable host.他的方法和顺势疗法的区别是,后者将药液稀释后几乎没有什么合成物了,因此也无法培育繁殖。而提供一个合适的寄主的话,病菌就可以继续繁殖。So he mixed each of several hundred alis into tubes of water containing P. ubique.因此,他把稀释后的海水分成几百份,再把每一份混合到含有遍在海洋杆菌的水里。Then he waited.然后他就等待着。After 60 hours, he looked to see what had happened.六十小时后,他看到了结果。In most cases the bacteria had thrived.在大部分试验品中,病菌都繁殖得很好。In a few, though, they had been killed by what looked like viral infection.但是,在少数的试验品中,病菌似乎由于某种病毒感染而消失了。It was these samples that he ran through the DNA-sequencing machine, in the knowledge that the only viral DNA present would be from whatever it was had killed the bacteria.这些少数试验品就是他用DNA测序仪检测,想知道仅有的病毒DNA,无论是不是它杀了病菌,为什么会出现的原因。His reward was to find not one, but four viruses that parasitise P. ubique.他最终发现了不只一种病菌,而是四种寄生的遍海洋杆菌。He then compared their DNA with databases of DNA found in seawater from around the world, to find out how abundant each is.后来,他把发现病菌的DNA与世界海洋的DNA数据库相对比,发现:The upshot was that a virus dubbed HTVC010P was the commonest.四种中的每一个的存在数量都非常多。It thus displaces its host as the likely winner of the most-common-living-thing prize.结果是,一种称为HTVC010P人病菌是最常见的。因此,它便取代了它的寄主,成为可能最常见的生物。That does depend, of course, on your definition of living thing.当然,这不是你们所定义的那种生物。Some biologists count viruses as organisms.一些生物学家认为病菌是微生物。Some do not.一些则不这么认为。The reason is that a virus relies for its growth and reproduction on the metabolic processes of the cell it infects.原因是,病菌依靠它所感染细胞的新陈代谢来生长和繁殖。This means viruses themselves are hard to parasitise, since they do no work on which another organism can free-ride.这就意味着病毒本身很难寄生,因为在其它可以免费寄生的微生物上它们无法正常生存。Which is why the next two lines of Swifts poem, And these have smaller fleas to bite em/And so proceed ad infinitum, are wrong—and why, because HTVC010P itself can have no parasites, it probably really is the commonest organism on the planet.这也解释了为什么斯威失特接下来的两句这些更小的跳蚤在咬它们,因此这些进程循环往复着是错误的,也是HTVC010P为什么是地球上最常见的微生物,因为它本身没有寄生虫。 /201312/269447

Veins are pretty important.血管相当的重要。After all, they carry blood fromvarious parts of the body to the heart.毕竟,它们从身体的各个部分向心脏运输血液。But for all their significance, veins are modest, too.虽然很重要,但血管也很谦逊。Yoursare probably content to work behind the scenes, tucked away beneath the skin.血管甘愿在幕后工作,在皮肤下默默运输血液。Sometimes, however, veins take center-stage and become visible as blue lines on the skin, oftenresembling an unmarked roadmap.然而,有时候血管成为主角,在皮肤上可以看到蓝色的线,很像未被标记的地图。If you havent guessed by now, were talking about varicoseveins.如果你还没有猜到,我们讨论的正是静脉曲张的血管。Have you ever wondered what are they are and how they form?你是否想知道它们是什么并怎样形成的?Basically, a varicose vein is one that is twisted and filled with backed-up blood.通常,静脉曲张的血管充满回流的血液并因此扭曲。Although they mostcommonly occur in the legs, varicose veins can also happen in the esophagus, testes and theurinary bladder.它们不仅多见于腿部,也会表现在食管、睾丸、膀胱上。Varicose veins in the legs occur when the valves in a vein near the surface of the skin malfunction.当皮肤表面下的血管的阀门不起作用时,腿上的静脉曲张开始显现。Valves usually keep blood from flowing backwards in the vein once its been pumped towards theheart.阀门的作用是防止有心脏送出的血液回流。When the valves dont work properly, blood gets stuck, causing the vein to swell and kink.当阀门不正常工作时,血液不能流动,导致血管膨胀和扭结。Although varicose veins are usually associated with senior citizens, not every older person hasthem.虽然静脉曲张多发生在老年人身上,但是不是每个老年人都患有这种病。Weak valves are often inherited, and can also be caused by wearing clothing that squeezesthe legs and veins too tightly.脆弱的阀门通常是遗传的,或者身上的衣把腿和血管勒的太紧导致的。Varicose veins may seem unsightly, but theyre not usually a cause for major concern.静脉曲张是很难看的,但是它们通常不会引起强烈的关注。Still, if youhave them and want to do something about it, talk to your doctor.然而,如果你有这种病并想要治疗,和你的医生聊聊。Treatments range fromwearing strong support stockings to surgery.治疗方法包括从穿修复性的长筒袜到做外科手术。 201403/279990

Carl Icahn’s latest investment卡尔·伊坎的最新投资Nice juicy Apple新鲜多汁的“苹果”Activist investors are training their sights on tech firms积极投资者正在瞄准科技公司Aug 17th 2013 | SAN FRANCISCO |From the print editionALTHOUGH he is still stirring things up at Dell, an ailing computer-maker, Carl Icahn has found time to tilt at another tech titan. On August 13th the veteran shareholder activist revealed that he had built up a stake in Apple, though he stayed mum about exactly how many shares he had bought. Mr Icahn’s intentions, however, are crystal clear: he wants the consumer-electronics behemoth to expand plans to return some of its whopping 7 billion of cash and marketable securities to shareholders.尽管卡尔·伊坎仍在陷入困境的电脑生产商戴尔公司搅和,他已经抽出了时间力争另一家科技巨头。8月13日,这位积极的投资老手透露他已经持有苹果的股份,但是具体持有多少则避而不谈。然而,伊坎先生的意图很明确:他想要这家消费电子产品巨头扩张计划,将1470亿美元市值里的部分资金以现金和有价券的形式返还给股东。Mr Icahn is also after more money at Dell, where he has been lobbying with allies against a proposed buy-out plan put forward by Michael Dell, the firm’s founder, and Silver Lake, a private-equity firm. His pressing has aly forced the buy-out group to raise its initial offer by over 0m, to .8 billion and he has taken his battle to the courts in a bid to extract an even higher price.伊坎先生也仍在从戴尔公司争取更多的钱,他正在游说股东反对一起收购。这项收购计划是由戴尔的创始人迈克尔·戴尔和一家私募股权公司银湖发起的。来自伊坎先生的压力已经使收购方提高了3.5亿美元的价格,使得收购价达到了248亿美元。他已经将斗争带到了法庭,通过投标争取得到更多的钱。Other tech firms have been attracting the attention of activist investors too. Earlier this year ValueAct Capital, an investment fund, said it had built up a billion stake in Microsoft. Jaguar Financial, a Canadian bank, has been encouraging fresh thinking at troubled BlackBerry, which announced on August 12th that it is exploring various strategic options, including alliances and a possible sale. And Elliott Management, a hedge fund, has been lobbying for change at NetApp, a data-storage firm that it thinks could do more to improve returns to shareholders.其他的科技公司也吸引了不少积极投资者的注意。今年早些时候,一个投资基金ValueAct Capital表示其持有了微软公司20亿美元的股份。加拿大捷豹金融也鼓励陷入危机的黑莓创新思维。今年8月12日,黑莓公司表示其正在探索战略选择,包括结盟和出售公司。一家对冲基金艾略特管理公司游说数据存储公司NetApp做出改变,该公司认为NetApp能做出更多来提高股东的收益。One reason tech firms have found themselves in activists’ crosshairs is that, like Apple, some built up big cash piles during the economic downturn and have been slow to use the money. Financiers hope to get them to loosen their purse-strings faster and to pocket some of the cash. Mr Icahn wants Apple to increase and accelerate a share buy-back programme that is currently set to return billion to shareholders by the end of 2015.积极投资人瞄准科技公司的一个原因是,很多科技公司跟苹果一样在经济衰退时拥有很大的现金流,但是资金利用不足。金融家希望他们放松自己的财政,放出更多的现金。伊坎先生想要苹果增加并加速其股份回购计划。现在该计划是截止到2015年末,苹果公司返还600亿美元给股东。Another reason that tech firms make tempting targets for shareholder activists is that swift changes in technologies can trip up even the mightiest. Witness the case of Microsoft, which ruled the roost during the personal-computer era but has struggled to adapt to a world in which tablets and smartphones are all the rage. Investors hope to mint money by pushing companies to change more rapidly in response to such upheavals in their markets.积极投资者瞄准科技公司的另一个原因就是科技的日新月异甚至会搞垮行业巨头。看一看微软的例子,在个人电脑时期成垄断之势,而在平板电脑智能手机时代则处于苦苦挣扎的境地。投资者希望通过推动公司做出更快改变适应市场变化来挣得更多利润。The rewards can be substantial. Egged on by Third Point, an activist hedge fund, Yahoo appointed Marissa Mayer as its new chief executive in July 2012. By the time she celebrated a year in the job last month, the troubled web giant’s share price had risen by over 70%. In July the hedge fund sold a big chunk of shares back to Yahoo. Mr Icahn thinks Apple’s share price, which closed at 9 on August 14th, could soar too if the firm follows his advice on buy-backs. He tweeted this week that he had had a “nice conversation” with Tim Cook, Apple’s boss, about his idea, though he did not say what Mr Cook thought of it. If Apple drags its feet, expect things to turn nasty.报酬是实质性的。在活跃对冲基金第三点公司的怂恿之下,雅虎在2012年7月任命梅丽莎梅耶为新CEO。上个月她任职一年,这家陷入危机的互联网巨头股价上升了70%。7月,这家对冲基金回卖了一大笔股票给雅虎。伊坎先生认为苹果如果听从他关于回购的意见的话,其股价也能大涨。8月14日苹果的股价为每股499美元。这周他发推表示他跟苹果老板蒂姆库克有一个很愉快的对话,尽管他没有说库克对其建议的看法。如果苹果一拖再拖的话,等着丑事儿发生吧。 /201308/253375

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